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The Drake Equation

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                  -=ğ P R O U D L Y  í  P R E S E N T S ğ=-
                          -=> Quoted from SETI <=-
 In 1961, radio astronomer Frank Drake presented the following equation
 to a conference of scientists gathered to discuss the search for
 intelligent life in the milky way galaxy.  That conference, and other
 discussions like it, eventually led to SETI, the search for
 extra-terrestrial intelligence.
 N = (R*) (fp) (ne) (fl) (fj) (fc) (L)
 N = Number of communicating civilizations from the void, the product of
     the following seven factors.  The Drake equation presents a range
     for N between 100 and 100,000.
 R* = Rate of starbirths.  It is conjectured that an average of ten stars
      is believed to form each year in the lifetime of the galaxy; the
      value of for R* is 10.
 f.p = Star with planets it is believed all stars develop a system of
       planets, setting the value of f.p at 1.
 n.e = Planets with life-supporting environments.  It was accepted that
       each star system has a likelihood of producing an average of one
       inhabitable planet, setting the value of n.e. at 1.
 f.l = Planets with life.  It is assumed that all planets capable of
       supporting life with eventually possess it.  Making the value of
       f.l at 1.
 f.i = Intelligent life.  Estimates suggest that life will evolve to
       setience on 10% of the planets with life, thus setting f.i at 1.
 f.c = Communicating societies.  Variable possibilities for the proper
       technologies and a willingness to send messages are estimated at
       roughly 10%; the value for f.c was set at 1.
 L = Civilization life span.  The length of time during which an
     advanced, intelligent civilization may broadcast is limited by the
     amount of time, in years, it exists; the value for L ranges from
     1,000 to 1,000,000,000.
 In the silence of dead monitors, the hardcopy hums into trays, signal
 after signal from the chaos, the various voices are collected, and after
 the final signal, one can listen and wait for the encoded call of the

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