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Vertical Arch: Early Norman (Temple Church)
Vertical Arch: Early Norman (Temple Church)



IN the following part of our book we supply, in a series of figures, the succession of changes to which the most ancient head-covering--in itself a significant hieroglyph--the Phrygian cap, the classic Mithraic cap, the sacrificial cap, or bonnet conique, all deducing from a common symbolical ancestor, became subject, The Mithraic or Phrygian cap is the origin of the priestly mitre in all faiths. It was worn by the priest in sacrifice. When worn by a male, it had its crest, comb, or point, set jutting forward; when worn by a female, it bore the same prominent part of the cap in reverse, or on the nape of the neck, as in the instance of the Amazon's helmet, displayed in all old sculptures, or that of Pallas-Athene, as exhibited in the figures of Minerva. The peak, pic, or point, of caps or hats (the term 'cocked hat' is a case .in point) all refer to the same idea. This point had a sanctifying meaning afterwards attributed to it, when it was called the christa, crista, or crest, which signifies a triumphal top, or tuft. The 'Grenadier Cap', and the loose black Hussar Cap, derive remotely from the same sacred, Mithraic, or emblematical bonnet, or high pyramidal-cap. It, in this instance, changes to black, because it is

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devoted to the illustration of the 'fire-workers' (grenadiers), who, among modern military, succeed the Vulcanists, Cyclopes, classic 'smiths', or servants of Vulcan, or Mulciber, the artful worker among the metals in the fire, or amidst the forces of nature. This idea will be found by a reference to the high cap among the Persians, or Fire-Worshippers; and to the black cap among the Bohemians and in the East. All travellers in Eastern lands will remember that the tops of the minarets reminded them of the high-pointed black caps of the Persians.

The Phrygian Cap is a most recondite antiquarian form; the symbol comes from the highest antiquity. It is displayed on the head of the figure sacrificing in the celebrated sculpture, called the 'Mithraic Sacrifice' (or the Mythical Sacrifice), in the British Museum. This loose cap, with the point protruded, gives the original form from which all helmets or defensive headpieces, whether Greek or Barbarian, deduce. As a Phrygian Cap, or Symbolizing Cap, it is always sanguine in its colour. It then stands as the 'Cap of Liberty', a revolutionary form; also, in another way, it is even a civic or incorporated badge. It is always masculine in its meaning. It marks the 'needle' of the obelisk, the crown or tip of the phallus, whether 'human' or representative. It has its origin in the rite of circumcision--unaccountable as are both the symbol and the rite.

The real meaning of the bonnet rouge, or 'cap of liberty', has been involved from time immemorial in deep obscurity, notwithstanding that it has always been regarded as a most important hieroglyph or figure. It signifies the supernatural simultaneous 'sacrifice' and 'triumph'. It has descended from the time of Abraham, and it is supposed to emblem the strange mythic rite of the 'circumcisio preputii'. The loose

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[paragraph continues] Phrygian bonnet, bonnet conique, or 'cap of liberty' may be accepted as figuring, or standing for, that detached integument or husk, separated from a certain point or knob, which has various names in different languages, and which supplies the central idea of this 'sacrificial rite--the spoil or refuse of which (absurd and unpleasant as it may seem) is borne aloft at once as a 'trophy' and as the 'cap of liberty'. It is now a magic sign, and becomes a talisman of supposedly inexpressible power--from what particular dark reason it would be difficult to say. The whole is a sign of 'initiation', and of baptism of a peculiar kind. The Phrygian cap, ever after this first inauguration, has stood as the sign of the 'Enlightened'. The heroic figures in most Gnostic Gems, which we give in our illustrations, have caps of this kind. The sacrificer in the sculptured group of the 'Mithraic Sacrifice', among the marbles in the British Museum, has a Phrygian cap on his head, whilst in the act of striking the Bull with the poniard--meaning the office of the immolating priest. The bonnet conique is the mitre of the Doge of Venice.

Besides the bonnet rouge, the Pope's mitre--nay, all mitres or conical head-coverings--have their name from the terms 'Mithradic', or 'Mithraic'. The origin of this whole class of names is Mittra, or Mithra. The cap of the grenadier, the shape of which is alike all over Europe, is related to the Tartar lambskin caps, which are dyed black; and it is black also from its association with Vulcan and the 'Fire-Worshippers' (Smiths). The Scotch Glengarry cap will prove on examination to be only a 'cocked' Phrygian. All the black conical caps, and the meaning of this strange symbol, came from the East. The loose black fur caps derive from the Tartars.

The 'Cap of Liberty' (Bonnet Rouge), the Crista or

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Figs. 203-210
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Figs. 203-210

Fig. 203: Phrygian Cap (Male); Fig. 204: Phrygian Cap; Fig. 205: Peak, pic, or cock ('cocked'); Fig. 206: Phrygian Cap (Classic Shepherds); Fig. 207: Pallas-Athene; Fig. 208: Athene (Minerva); Fig. 209: Jitra, Persia; Fig. 210: Persia

[paragraph continues] Crest (Male), and the Female (Amazon) helmet, all mean the same idea; in the 'instance of the female crest, the knob is, however, depressed--as shown in the figures next.

The forms of Grenadier caps, and of those worn by Pioneers also, are those of the head-covers of the Fire-workers or Fire-raisers (Vulcanists) of an army. All the black fur caps--militarily called busbies are Bohemian, Ishmaelitish, heathen, irregular; their origin lies in the magic East.

Few would suspect the uniform of the Hussars to have had a religious origin; both the flaps which depend from their bushy fur caps, and the loose jacket or dolman which hangs from their left shoulder, are mythic. 'The long triangular flaps, which hang down like a jelly-bag, consist in a double slip of cloth, which,

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Figs. 211-219
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Figs. 211-219

Fig. 211: Motley or Scaramouch: 'Bonnet Conique,' cloven and set about with bells
Fig. 212: Knight's head-gear, with 'torse'
Fig. 213: Cap of Maintenance
Fig. 214: Tartar or Cossack Fur Cap, with double pendants
Fig. 215: Mediæval Cap of Estate
Fig: 216: Double Mitre--Horns of the Jester or Buffoon, set about with bells or jingles
Fig. 217: Fool's Cap. This shape has Egyptian indications
Fig. 218: Bulgarian; also worn by the Pandours
Fig. 219: Hussar and Cossack

when necessary, folds round the soldier's face on each side, and forms a comfortable night-cap. In our service, one single slip is left to fly.'--Sir Walter Scott. to T. Crofton Croker, 7th July 1827. (Qy. whether the above-named double fly of the Hussar Cap be not the dependent ears or horns of the original Motley?) The Hussars wear the original fur cap of Tubal-Cain, or the Smiths, or 'Artful Workers in Nature'. The name Hussar is borrowed from the Oriental exclamation to (or invocation of) 'Al huza', 'Al-husa', or Venus, or Aphrodite--the original patroness of these Ishmaelitish irregular light troops. The dolman or pelisse, properly worn on the left shoulder of the Hussar, has its signification and origin in the following act related in Scripture, which refers to a certain Rosicrucian myth: 'Shem and Japheth took a garment'

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Figs. 220-225
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Figs. 220-225

Fig. 220: Hussar Conical Cap
Fig. 221: Artillery
Fig. 222: Sapeur, Pioneer
Fig. 223: Fur Cap of the Sword-bearer (mythic gladius) of the City of London
Fig. 224: Turkish
Fig. 225: Judge, in imitation of the Egyptian Klaft: the black Coif, placed on the sensorium, is the mark or 'brand' of Isis (Saturn)

[paragraph continues] (a cover or extra piece of clothing), 'and laid it upon both their shoulders' (on the left shoulder of each), 'and went backward, and covered their father Noah.' It is astonishing how successfully this mythic act, with its original strange Rosicrucian meaning, should have been hidden away in this apparently little corresponding, trivial fact, of the wearing of the Hussar loose cloak or pelisse (pallium or pall) on the left or sinister shoulder; which is the shoulder nearest to the woman: because the Talmudists say that Man was Made from the left hand.

Regarding the Templar insignia, we may make the following remarks. The famous flag, or 'Beauséant', was their distinguishing symbol. Beauséant--that is to say, in the Gallic tongue, Bien-séant; because they are fair and honourable to the friends of Christ, but black and terrible to His enemies: 'Vexillum bipartitum, ex Albo et Nigro, quod nominant "Beau-séant", id est; Gallica lingua, "Bien-séant", eo quod Christi amices candidi sunt et benigni, inimices vero terribiles atque nigri' (Jac. de Vitr. Hist. Hierosol. apud Gesta Dei, cap. lxv).

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The Cardinal de Vitry is totally uninformed as to the meaning and purpose indicated in this mysterious banner. Its black and white was originally derived from the Egyptian sacred 'black and white', and it conveys the same significant meanings.

Now, in the heraldic sense--as we shall soon see--there is no colour white. Argent is the silver of the moon's light, the light of the 'woman'; or it is light generally, in opposition to darkness, which is the absence of all colour. White is the synthesis and identity of all the colours--in other words, it is light. Thus white is blazoned, in the correct heraldic sense, as also in reference to its humid, feminine origin (for, as the old heralds say, 'light was begotten of darkness', and its 'type, product, and representative, woman, also'), as the melancholy or silver light of the moon, 'Argent'; also, in the higher heraldic grade, 'Pearl', as signifying tears; lastly, 'Luna', whose figure or mark is the crescent , or ; which is either the new moon (or the moon of hope), or the moon of the Moslem (or 'horned moon resting on her back'). Black (or sable, sab., sabbat, Sat., Saturn) is the absence of light, and is blazoned 'sable', diamond (carbon, or the densest of matter), 'without form and void', but cradle of possibilities, 'end' being taken as synonymous with 'beginning'. It is sab., or Saturn, whose mark is ♄, and who is both masculine and feminine--sex being indifferent to this 'Divine Abstraction, whose face is masked in Darkness.'

Lykos--'wolf', lykê--'light'; whence comes Lux (Volney, 1st English edition, 1792, p. 378). 'Je' and 'V' are of Tartar origin. It is probable that St. John's College at Cambridge is the Domus Templi of the Round Church of the Templars there. The present St. John's is only of modern foundation. There is annexed to, or connected with, this church

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an almshouse called 'Bede's House', the name of which has puzzled all the antiquaries. There is little doubt that this was the original Domus Templi, the house of Buddha, corrupted into Bede, and meaning 'wisdom'.

A Discourse concerning the Tartars, proving (in all probability) that they are the Israelites, or Ten Tribes which, being taken captive by Salmaneser, were transplanted into Media. By Giles Fletcher, Doctor of Both Laws, and sometime Ambassador from Elizabeth, Queen of England, to the Emperor of Russia. This was found in Sir Francis Nethersole's study after his death (Memoirs of the Life of William Whiston, 1749)

Mr. Cavendish, an eminent chemist, 'had reason to be persuaded that the very water itself consisted solely of inflammable air united to dephlogisticated air.' This last conclusion has since been strengthened very much by some subsequent experiments of Dr. Priestley’s (see p. 299 of Morsels of Criticism, tending to illustrate some few passages in the Holy Scriptures upon Philosophical Principles. 2d. edition, 2 vols. 8vo. London: J Davis, Chancery Lane, 1800).

The jewel of the Rossi-crucians (Rosicrucians) is formed of a transparent red stone, with a red cross on one side, and a red rose on the other--thus, it is a crucified rose. The Rossi--or Rosy--crucians' ideas concerning this emblematical red cross and red rose probably came from the fable of Adonis--who was the sun whom we have seen so often crucified--being changed into a red rose by Venus (see Drummond's Origines, vol. iii. p. 121). Rus (which is Ras in Chaldee) in Irish signifies 'tree', 'knowledge', 'science', magic', 'power'. This is the Hebrew R--as. Hence the Persian Rustan (Val. Col. Hib. vol. iv: pt. i. p. 84). 'The ancient Sardica, in lat. 40° 50´, is now called "Sophia"'; the ancient Aquineum,

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Buda, or Buddha. These were, I believe, old names restored' (vide D’Anville's Atlas). The society bearing the name of the Rosicrucians (or Rosicruxians) is closely allied with the Templars. Their emblem is a monogram or jewel; or, as malicious And bigoted adversaries would say, their 'object of adoration' is a 'red rose on a cross'. Thus:

Fig. 226
Fig. 226

When it can be done, it is surrounded with a glory, and placed on a Calvary. This is the Naurutz, Natsir, or Rose of Isuren, of Tamul, or Sharon, or the Water-Rose, the Lily Padma, Pema, Lotus 'crucified' for the salvation of man--crucified in the heavens at the Vernal Equinox. It is celebrated at that time by the Persians in what they call their Nou-Rose, i.e. Neros, or Naurutz (Malcolm's History of Persia, vol. ii. p. 406). The Tudor Rose, or Rose-en-Soleil (the Rose of the Order of the Garter), is the Rosicrucian 'Red Rose', crucified, with its rays of glory, or golden sunbeams, or mythical thorns, issuant from its white, immaculate 'centre-point', or 'lily-point'--all which have further occult meanings lying hidden in theurgic mysticism. All these are spoken in the famous 'Round Table' of the Prince (and Origin) of Christian knighthood, King Arthur. His table is now hanging on the wall, dusty and neglected, over the. 'King’s Seat or Bench' in the Court-House on the Castle Hill of our ancient Winchester. But upon this abstruse subject of

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the Round Table we have spoken more fully in another place. See Elias Ashmole.

Pope John XIV, about the year 970, issued a Bull for the baptizing of bells 'To cleanse the air of devils'; with which it was imagined to be full in the time of storms or of public commotion. To this end, the kettledrums of the Lacedæmonians were also supposed to be used on all extraordinarily harmful occasions. Pagodas are uprights and obelisks, with the same meaning as other steeples, and their angles are set about with bells, which are agitated in the wind, and are supposed to exercise the same power of driving off evil spirits. Vesper bells secure spiritual serenity. The bells of the churches are tolled in thunderstorms still, in some parishes in England, supposedly to disperse the clouds, and to open their rifts for the returning sunshine.

Edward the First of England was in every way an extraordinary man. There are certain reasons for supposing that he was really initiated in Eastern occult ideas. It is to be remembered that he made the Crusade to Palestine. He invited to England, Guido dalla Colonna, the author of the Troy-book Tale of Troy; and he also invited Raymond Lully into his kingdom. Raymond Lully is affirmed to have supplied to Edward six millions of money, to enable him to carry on war against the Turks. The origin of the rose-nobles is from the Rosicrucians.

No. 1. Catherine-wheel window--12 columns. Query, the 12 signs, with the Rose, Disc, or Lotus, in the centre? From a Saracenic fountain near the Council-House, Jerusalem. This fountain seems to be built of fragments; the proof of which is that this inscribed stone (No. 2) is placed over half the discus. The whole structure, though Oriental or Saracenic, abounds with Gothic or pointed features. Such are

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the frets, the spandrel-work, the hood-moulding, etc.

No. 3. Query, 'Aquarii'? The Aquarii always indicate the Lunar element, or the female. The Baptisteries dedicated to St. John, or to the S.S., are eight-sided. The Baptisteria in Italy follow the same emblematical rule. The sections into which the Order of the Knights of Malta were divided were eight, answering to the eight points of the cross, which was their emblem. The Order was composed of eight nations, whereof the English, which was one, disappeared at the Reformation.

The colours of the monastic knightly orders were the following: The Teutonic Knights wore white, with the eight-pointed black cross; the Knights of Malta wore black, with the eight-pointed white cross. The

Fig. 227
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Fig. 227

foregoing obtained their Black and White from the Egyptians. The Knights Templars, or Red-Cross Knights, wore white, with the eight-pointed Bhuddist red cross displayed on their mantles. The Guardian of the Temple Chapel was called 'Custos Capellæ, (Capella, a 'kid', 'star', 'she-goat', also 'chapel').

Attila, surnamed the Scourge of God', is represented as having worn a 'Teraphim', or head, on his breast--

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a snaky-haired head, which purported to be that of Nimrod, whom he claimed as his great progenitor. This same Medusa-like head was an object of adoration to the heretical followers of Marcion, and was the Palladium set up by Antiochus Epiphanes, at Antioch, though it has been called the visage of Charon. This Charon may be 'Dis'--or the 'Severe', or 'Dark', Deity.

The human head is a magnet, with a natural electric circle moving in the path of the sun. The sign of this

Fig. 228: Hindoo Pagoda at Tanjore
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Fig. 228: Hindoo Pagoda at Tanjore

ring is serpentine, and is Σ; each man being considered--as far as his head is concerned--as magnetic. The positive pole of the magnet is the os frontis, sinciput, os sublime. The negative pole is the occiput.

Tonsure of the head is considered as a sacred observance. Hair (in se) is barbarous, and is the mark and investiture of the beasts. The Cabalists abstained from wine and marriage. Tonsure means 'the sun's disc' in the East. 'Les Arabes, dit Hérodote, lib. iii. se rasent la tête en rond et autour des tempes, ainsi que se rasait, disent-ils, Bacchus' (Volney, Ruines, p. 265). 'La touffe qui conservent les musulmans est encore prise du soleil, qui, chez les Égyptiens, était peint, au solstice d’hiver, n’ayant plus qu’un cheveu sur la tête.' 'Les étoiles de la déesse de Syrie et de la Diane,

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Fig. 229, 230
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Fig. 229, 230

Fig. 229: Anagram of the 'Divine Powers and Distinctions'--exemplifying the Athanasian Creed

d’Ephèse, d’où dérivent celles des prêtres, portent les douze animaux du zodiaque.'

Fig. 230, Chapter-Houses of York Cathedral and of Salisbury Cathedral. Most of the Chapter-Houses of the Cathedrals are eight-sided. In this they imitate the eight-sided or 'Bhuddist' cross of the Templars. This is the crown, cap, capital, chapiter, tabernacle, mythic domus templi, or domus Dei. They are miniature, mystical Round Churches, or 'Tors'. The Chapter-Houses oblong in shape are imitative of the 'Ark' of the Mosaical Covenant. All the Basilicas are of this figure. The symbol is a parallelogram, or an oblong, when the shape adopted is that of the temples. It then is the navis, 'nave', or ship--which is the 'Argo'.

'Les Chinois l'adorent dans Fôt. La langue chinoise n'ayant ni le B ni le D, ce peuple a prononcé Fôt ce que les Indiens et les Perses prononcent Bôt, Bot, Bod, Bodd, ou Boùdd--par où bref Fôt, au Pegou, est devenu Fota et Fta.'' Query, Pthah (Vulcan) of the Egyptians, and the Teutonic F’s in 'Friga' (the Runic Venus), 'Ffriga'--'Friday'?

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[paragraph continues] B--F, P--F, are interchangeable letters (see Arabic and Sanscrit vocabularies).

The Æolic Digamma is the crux of philologists. The ancients pronounced every word which began with a vowel with an aspirate, which had the sound of our w,

Fig. 231
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Fig. 231

and was often expressed by β or υ, and also γ. For this the figure of a double Γ, or , was invented, whence the name Digamma; which was called Æolic, because the Æolians, of all the tribes, retained the greatest traces of the original language. Thus, the Æolians wrote or pronounced Fοίνος, Fελέα, velia. The Latin language was derived from the Æolic dialect, and naturally adopted the Digamma, which it generally

Fylfot: Digamma (Dr. Valpy’s crest)<br> A notable Rosicrucian, Cabalistic, and Masonic emblem
Fylfot: Digamma (Dr. Valpy’s crest)
A notable Rosicrucian, Cabalistic, and Masonic emblem

expressed by V. These significant, mysterious sounds and characters--V, W, B, and F--are reputed to be the key of the Lunar, or Feminine, Apotheosis. The symbol (or that meant in the symbol) is the keynote, as it were, of all Grecian architecture and art; which is

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all beauty, refinement, and elegance, with power at the highest.

This is the foundation mark of the famous symbols--

Teutonic (Fourfold Mysticism)
Teutonic (Fourfold Mysticism)

(Greek forms)
(Greek forms)

This latter double Cross (in ascension) is indicative of the Left-Hand Greek forms, or of the Eastern Church.


Next: Chapter V: Connexion Between the Templars and Gnosticism