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On the Improvement of Understanding

by Benedict de Spinoza

Translated from the Latin by R. H. M. Elwes


Contents    Start Reading

Title Page
Table Of Contents
Notice to the Reader
On the Improvement of the Understanding
Of the Ordinary Objects of Men's Desires
Of the True and Final Good
Certain Rules of Life
Of the Four Modes of Perception
Of the Best Mode of Perception
Of the Instruments of the Intellect, Or True Ideas
Answers to Objections

First Part of Method

Distinction of True Ideas From Fictitious Ideas
And From False Ideas
Of Doubt
Of Memory and Forgetfulness
Mental Hindrances From Words—And From the Popular Confusion of Ready Imagination With Distinct Understanding

Second Part of Method

Its Object, the Acquisition of Clear and Distinct Ideas
Its Means, Good Definitions—Conditions of Definition
How To Define Understanding