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Priest of the Parish of Our Lady of Healing of the Hospital for
Natives in the City of Cuzco

Addressed to the Most Reverend LORD BISHOP DON SEBASTIAN DE
ARTAUN,2 of the Council of His Majesty.

AS in the account which I submitted to your most illustrious Lordship of the origin, lives, and customs of the Yncas, Lords of this land, of the names and number of their wives, of the laws they gave and the wars they waged, and of the tribes and nations they conquered; I also treated, in some places, of the ceremonies and worship they established, though not very fully; I now propose, chiefly by reason of the wish expressed by your reverend Lordship, to take similar pains to describe the ceremonies, worship, and idolatries of these Indians. For this purpose I assembled a number of aged persons who had seen and participated in them in the days of Huayna Ccapac, of Huascar Ynca, and of Manco Ynca, as well as some leaders and priests of those days.

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 And first with regard to the origin of their idolatries, it is so that these people had no knowledge of writing. But, in a house of the Sun called Poquen Cancha, which is near Cuzco, they had the life of each one of the Yncas, with the lands they conquered, painted with figures on certain boards, and also their origin. Among these paintings the following fable was represented.

 In the life of Manco Ccapac, who was the first Ynca, and from whom they began to be called children of the Sun, and to worship the Sun, they had a full account of the deluge. They say that all people and all created things perished in it, insomuch that the water rose above all the highest mountains in the world. No living things survived except a man and a woman who remained in a box, and when the waters subsided, the wind carried them to Huanaco,3 which will be over seventy leagues from Cuzco, a little more or less. The Creator of all things commanded them to remain there as mitimas;4 and there, in Tiahuanaco, the Creator began to raise up the people and nations that are in that region, making one of each nation of clay, and painting the dresses that each one was to wear. Those that were to wear their hair, with hair; and those that were to be shorn, with hair cut; and to each nation was given the language that was to be spoken, and the songs to be sung, and the seeds and food that they were to sow. When the Creator had finished painting and making the said nations and figures of clay, he gave life and soul to each one, as well men as women, and ordered that they should pass under the earth. Thence each nation came up in the places to which he ordered them to go. Thus they say that some came out of caves, others issued from hills, others from fountains, others from the trunks of trees. From this cause, and owing to having come forth and commenced to multiply, p. 5 from those places, and to having had the beginning of their lineage in them, they made huacas and places of worship of them in memory of the origin of their lineage which proceeded from them. Thus each nation uses the dress with which they invest their huaca; and they say that the first that was born from that place was there turned into stones, others say the first of their lineages were turned into falcons, condors, and other animals and birds. Hence the huacas they use and worship are in different shapes.

 There are other nations which say that when the deluge came, all people were destroyed except a few who escaped on hills, in caves, or trees, and that these were very few, but that they began to multiply, and that, in memory of the first of their race who escaped in such places, they made idols of stone, giving the name of him who had thus escaped to each huaca. Thus each nation worshipped and offered sacrifices of such things as they used. There were, however, some nations who had a tradition of a Creator of all things. They made some sacrifices to him, but not in such quantity, or with so much veneration as to their idols or huacas. But to return to the fable. They say that the Creator was in Tiahuanaco, and that there was his chief abode, hence the superb edifices, worthy of admiration, in that place. On these edifices were painted many dresses of Indians, and there were many stones in the shape of men and women, who had been changed into stone for not obeying the commands of the Creator. They say that it was dark, and that there he made the sun, moon, and stars, and that he ordered the sun, moon, and stars to go to the island of Titicaca, which is near at hand, and thence to rise to heaven. They also declare that when the sun, in the form of a man, was ascending into heaven, very brilliant, it called to the Yncas and to Manco Ccapac, as their chief, and said:—"Thou and thy descendants are to be Lords, and are to subjugate many nations. Look upon me as thy father, and thou shalt be my p. 6 children, and thou shalt worship me as thy father." And with these words it gave to Manco Ccapac, for his insignia and arms, the suntur-paucar5 and the champi,6 and the other ensigns that are used by the Yncas, like sceptres. And at that point the sun, moon, and stars were commanded to ascend to heaven, and to fix themselves in their places, and they did so. At the same instant Manco Ccapac and his brothers and sisters, by command of the Creator, descended under the earth and came out again in the cave of Paccari-tambo,7 though they say that other nations also came out of the same cave, at the point where the Sun rose on the first day after the Creator had divided the night from the day. Thus it was that they were called children of the Sun, and that the Sun was worshipped and revered as a father.

 They also have another fable, in which they say that the Creator had two sons, the one called Ymaymana Viracocha, and the other Tocapo Viracocha. Having completed the tribes and nations, and assigned dresses and languages to them, the Creator sent the sun up to heaven, with the moon and stars, each one in its place. The Creator, who in the language of the Indians is called Pachayachachi8 and Tecsiviracocha, which means the incomprehensible God, then went by the road of the mountains, from Tiahuanaco, visiting and beholding all the nations, and examining how they had begun to multiply, and how to comply with his commands. He found that some nations had rebelled and had not obeyed his commands; so he turned a large number of them into stones of the shape of men and women, with the same dress that they had worn. These conversions into stone were made at the following places: in Tiahuanaco, and in Pucara, and Xauxa, where they say that he turned p. 7 the huaca called Huarivilca into stone, and in Pachacamac and Cajarmarca, and in other parts. In truth there are great blocks of stone in those places, some of which are nearly the size of giants. They must have been made by human hands in very ancient times; and, by reason of the loss of memory, and the absence of writing, they invented this fable, saying that people had been turned into stones for their disobedience, by command of the Creator. They also relate that in Pucara, which is forty leagues from the city of Cuzco on the Collao road, fire came down from heaven and destroyed a great part of the people, while those who were taking to flight were turned into stones.

 The Creator, who is said to be the father of Ymaymana Viracocha, and of Tocapo9 Viracocha, commanded that the elder, named Ymaymana Viracocha, in whose power all things were placed, should set out from this point, and go by the way of the mountains and forests through all the land, giving names to the large and small trees, and to the flowers and fruits that they bear, and teaching the people which were good for food or for medicine, and which should be avoided. He also gave names to all the herbs, and explained which had healing virtues and which were poisonous. The other son, named Tocapo Viracocha, which means in their language "the maker," was ordered to go by the way of the plains, visiting the people, and giving names to the rivers and trees, and instruction respecting the fruits and flowers. Thus they went until they reached the sea, whence they ascended to heaven, after having accomplished all they had to do in this world.

 They also relate, in this same fable, that at Tiahuanaco, where all mankind was created, all the different kinds of birds were made, male and female, and that each was given the songs they were to sing; those that were to live in the p. 8 forest being sent there, and each kind to its respective place. In like manner all the different beasts were created, male and female, and all the serpents and lizards that are met with in the land; and the people were taught the names and qualities of each of these birds, beasts, and reptiles.

 These Indians believed for a certainty that neither the Creator nor his sons were born of woman, that they were unchangeable and eternal. The tribes have many other fables teaching their origin, insomuch that if all were to be told, there would be no end. I will, therefore, only insert some of these fables.

 In the kingdom of Quito, there is a province called Cañaribamba, and the Cañaris Indians are so named from their province.1 These Cañaris say that, at the time of the deluge, two brothers escaped to a very high mountain called Huaca-yñan. As the waters rose the hill also increased in height, so that the waters never reached them. After the flood had subsided, their store of provisions being ended, they came forth and sought for food in the hills and valleys. They built a very small house in which they dwelt, living on herbs and roots, and suffering much from hunger and fatigue. One day, after going out in search of food, they returned to their little house, and found food to eat and chicha to drink, without knowing who could have prepared or brought it. This happened for ten days, at the end of which time they consulted how they should see and know the being who did them so much good in their great need. So the elder of the two agreed to remain concealed. Presently he saw two birds, of the kind called agua, and by another name torito. In our language they are called guacamayos.2 They came dressed as Cañaris, with hair on their heads fastened in front as they now wear it. The concealed p. 9 Indian saw them begin to prepare the food they brought with them, as soon as they came to the house, the larger one taking off the lliclla or mantle worn by the Indians. When the concealed man saw that they were beautiful, and that they had the faces of women, he came forth; but as soon as they saw him, they were enraged and flew away without leaving anything to eat on that day. When the younger brother came home from searching for food, and found nothing cooked and ready as on former days, he asked his brother the reason, who told him, and they were very angry. On the next day the younger brother resolved to remain in concealment, and to watch whether the birds returned. At the end of three days the two guacamayos came back, and began to prepare the food. The men watched for an opportune time when they had finished cooking, and shutting the door, enclosed them inside. The birds showed great anger; but while they were holding the smaller one, the larger went away. Then they had carnal knowledge of the smaller one, and had by it six sons and daughters. It lived with them for a long time on that hill, and they subsisted on the seeds they sowed, which were brought by the guacamayo. And they say that from these brothers and sisters, children of the guacamayo, an the Cañaris proceed. Hence they look upon the hill Huaca yñan as a huaca, and they hold the guacamayos in great veneration, and value their feathers very highly, for use at their festivals.

 In the province of Ancasmarca, which is five leagues from Cuzco, in the Anti-suyu division, the Indians have the following fable.

 They say that a month before the flood came, their sheep displayed much sadness, eating no food in the day-time, and watching the stars at night. At last the shepherd, who had charge of them, asked what ailed them, and they said that the conjunction of stars showed that the world would be p. 10 destroyed by water. When he heard this, the shepherd consulted with his six children, and they agreed to collect all the food and sheep they could, and to go to the top of a very high mountain, called Ancasmarca. They say that as the waters rose, the hill grew higher, so that it was never covered by the flood; and when the waters subsided, the hill also grew smaller. Thus, the six children of that shepherd returned to people the province. These and other tales are told, which I do not insert, to avoid prolixity. The chief cause of the invention of these fables, was the ignorance of God, and the abandonment of these people to idolatries and vices. If they had known the use of writing they would not have been so dull and blind. Nevertheless, they had a very cunning method of counting by strings of wool and knots, the wool being of different colours. They call them quipus, and they are able to understand so much by their means, that they can give an account of all the events that have happened in their land for more than five hundred years. They had expert Indians who were masters in the art of reading the quipus, and the knowledge was handed down from generation to generation, so that the smallest thing was not forgotten. By the quipus, which are like these strings that old women use for praying in Spain, only with ends hanging from them, they keep such an account of the years and months, that no error is committed in the record. The system became more complete under the Ynca Yupanqui, who first began to conquer this land, for before his time the Yncas had not advanced beyond the vicinity of Cuzco, as appears from the account now in the hands of your Reverence. This Ynca appears to have been the first to order and settle ceremonies and religions. He it was who established the twelve months of the year, giving a name to each, and ordaining the ceremomes that were to be observed in each. For although his ancestors used months and years counted by the quipus, yet they were never previously p. 11 regulated in such order until the time of this Lord. He was of such clear understanding, that he reflected upon the respect and reverence shown by his ancestors to the Sun, who worshipped it as God. He observed that it never had any rest, and that it daily journeyed round the earth; and he said to those of his council that it was not possible that the Sun could be the God who created all things, for if he was he would not permit a small cloud to obscure his splendour; and that if he was creator of all things he would sometimes rest, and light up the whole world from one spot. Thus, it cannot be otherwise but that there is someone who directs him, and this is the Pacha-Yachachi or creator. Influenced by this reasoning and knowledge, he ordered the houses and temple of Quisuar-cancha3 to be made, which are above the houses of Diego Ortiz de Guzman,4 coming towards the great square of Cuzco, where Hernan Lopez de Segovia now lives. Here he raised a statue of gold to the creator, of the size of a boy of ten years of age. It was in the shape of a man standing up, the right arm raised and the hand almost closed, the fingers and thumb raised as one who was giving an order. Although the Yncas had a knowledge of a creator of all things from the first, whom they reverenced and to whom they offered sacrifices; yet he never was held in such great veneration as from the time of this Ynca, who gave orders to the heads of provinces throughout his dominions that temples should be erected to him, and that he should have flocks, servants, farms, and estates, out of which the sacrifices should be provided. This also was the Ynca who so sumptuously erected the house of the Sun at Cuzco: for p. 12 before his time it was very small and poor. The cause of this is related in the following fable.

 They say that, before he succeeded, he went one day to visit his father Viracocha Ynca, who was in Sacsahuana, five leagues from Cuzco. As he came up to a fountain called Susur-puquio,5 he saw a piece of crystal fall into it, within which he beheld the figure of an Indian in the following shape. Out of the back of his head there issued three very brilliant rays like those of the Sun. Serpents were twined round his arms, and on his head there was a llautu6 like that of the Yuca. His ears were bored, and ear-pieces, like those used by the Yncas, were inserted. He was also dressed like the Ynca. The head of a lion came out from between his legs, and on his shoulders there was another lion whose legs appeared to join over the shoulders of the man; while a sort of serpent also twined over the shoulders. On seeing this figure the Ynca Yupanqui fled, but the figure of the apparition called him by his name from within the fountain, saying:—"Come hither, my son, and fear not, for I am the Sun thy father. Thou shalt conquer many nations: therefore be careful to pay great reverence to me, and remember me in thy sacrifices." The apparition then vanished, while the piece of crystal remained. The Ynca took care of it, and they say that he afterwards saw everything he wanted in it. As soon as he was Lord, he ordered a statue of the Sun to be made, as nearly as possible resembling the figure he had seen in the crystal. He gave orders to the heads of the provinces in all the lands he had conquered, that they should make grand temples richly endowed, and he commanded all his subjects to adore and reverence the new Deity, as they had heretofore worshipped the Creator. In the narrative of his life, which your Lordship has, it is related that all his conquests p. 13 were made in the name of the Sun his Father, and of the Creator. It was this Ynca, also, who commanded all the nations he conquered to hold their huacas in great veneration, and to propitiate them by sacrifices, saying that thus they would not be enraged at not receiving their due quantity of reverence and worship. He also caused worship to be offered to the thunder, and he had a statue of a man erected in gold, in a temple in the city of Cuzco. This huaca also had a temple, near that of the Sun, in all the provinces, with estates, flocks, and servants for the celebration of sacrifices. But as my intention is to touch upon worship and ceremonies, and not to treat of laws and customs, I will pass on to the other points of my present treatise.

 They also had, in some nations, many huacas and temples where the devil gave answers; and in the city of Cuzco there was the huaca of Huanacauri.7 There were many kinds of wizards in the provinces, with names and attributes differing one from the other. The names and offices were as follows:—

Calparicu, which means those who bring luck and success, and were expected to obtain the things that were desired. With this object they killed birds, lambs, and sheep, and, inflating the lungs, through a certain vein, they discerned certain signs, by which they declared what was about to happen.

 There were others called Virapiricuc, who burnt the breasts of sheep and coca in the fire, and foretold what would occur from certain signs at the time the things were burning. Those who consulted them said that they were the least to be relied on, because they always lied.

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 Others were called Achicoc, who were the sorcerers that told fortunes by maize and the dung of sheep. They gave their replies to those who consulted them, according as the things came out in odd or even numbers.

 Others were called Camascas, who declared that their grace and virtue was derived from the thunder; saying that, when a thunder-bolt fell, and one of them was struck with terror, after he came to himself he proclaimed how the thunder had revealed to him the art of curing by herbs, and how to give replies to those who consulted them. In like manner, when one escaped from some great danger, they said that the devil had appeared; and those who wished to be cured by herbs were also said to be instructed. Hence many Indians are great herbalists. Others were shown the poisonous herbs, and these were called Camascas.

 Others were called Yacarcaes, and these were natives of Huaro. They had mighty pacts with the devil, as appears from the ceremony they performed, which was as follows:—They took certain tubes of copper mixed with silver, about the length of an ordinary arquebus; and some brass vessels in which they light fires with charcoal, which they blew and made to blaze up by means of the tubes. It was in these fires that the devils delivered their replies, and the sorcerers said that it was concerning the soul of such a man or woman that they were making inquiry, who might be in Quito or in any other part of the empire which the Yncas had conquered. The principal questions they asked were whether such an one was against the Sun his father, or whether such others were thieves, murderers, or adulterers. By means of this invocation the Ynca knew all that passed in his dominions, with the help of the devil. These Yacarcaes were much feared, as well by the Ynca as by the people, and he took them with him wherever he went.

 There were other sorcerers who had charge of the huacas, among whom there were some who conferred with the devil, p. 15 and received his replies, telling the people what they wished to know, but they very seldom gave correct answers. According to the accounts they give, all the people of the land confessed to the sorcerers who had charge of the huacas; and these confessions were made publicly. In order to test the truth of the confessions, the sorcerers tried them by consulting signs, and in this way, with the aid of the devil, they discovered who had confessed falsely, and upon these they inflicted severe punishments. Those who had grave crimes to confess, which merited death, confessed them in secret to the sorcerer.

 The Yncas, and the people of Cuzco, always made their confessions in secret, and generally they confessed to those Indian sorcerers of Huaro who were employed for this office. In their confessions they accused themselves of not having reverenced the sun, the moon, and the huacas, with not having celebrated the feasts of the Raymis, which are those in each month of the year, with all their hearts; with having committed fornication against the law of the Ynca not to touch a strange woman or to seduce a virgin unless given by the Ynca, and not because fornication was a sin. For they did not understand this. They also accused themselves of any murder or theft, which we hold to be grave sins, as also were murmurs, especially if they had been against the Ynca or against the Sun.

 They also confess, O most reverend Sir, that the people before the flood were made, with all other things, by the Creator; but they are ignorant of the order in which they were made, nor how, beyond what has already been said concerning Tiahuanaco. This is what I have been able to learn, touching their fables and their origin, from an the old men with whom I have conversed on this subject. The form of the worship and sacrifices that they established for each month, was as follows:—

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 They commenced to count the year in the middle of May, a few days more or less, on the first day of the moon; which month, being the first of their year, was called Hauca and Llusque, and in it they performed the following ceremonies, called Yutip-Raymi, or the festivals of the Sun. In this month they sacrificed to the Sun a great quantity of sheep of all colours. Those called huacar-paña were white and woolly. Others were called huanacos; and others, also white and woolly, were called pacos-cuyllos. Others, which were females with a reddish woolly fleece, were called paucar-paco. Other pacos were called uqui-paco. Other large sheep were called chumpi, which was their colour, being almost that of a lion's coat. Other sheep were called llanca-llama, which were black and woolly. At this season they also sacrificed lambs of the same colours. The sacrifices were performed in the following order:—

 They went to Curicancha8 in the morning, at noon, and at night, bringing the sheep that were to be sacrificed on that day, which they carried round the idols and huacas called Punchao Ynca,9 which means the Sun; and Pachayachachi,1 another idol in the shape of a man. The word means a Creator; and Chuqui yllayllapa,2 which was the huaca of lightning and thunder, and thunderbolt. It also was in the form of a person, though the face could not be seen, and it had a llautu of gold, and ear-rings of gold, and medals of gold called canipo. These huacas were placed on a bench, and the live sheep were taken round them, while the Priests said:—

 "O Creator, and Sun, and Thunder, be for ever young! do not grow old. Let all things be at peace! let the people p. 17 multiply, and their food, and let all other things continue to increase."

 These sayings were addressed to the Creator, and to the Sun they prayed that he might always be young and continue to give light and splendour. They did not know the Sun as their Creator, but as created by the Creator. To the thunder and lightning they prayed that it might rain, in order that they might have food. They also knew that the rain came with thunder and lightning, by command of the Creator.

 Then, in the morning, they sent a sheep to Huanacauri, which is their principal huaca, where it was killed and burnt by the tarpuntaes,3 who were those that had the duty of supplying food to the huacas. While the sacrifice was burning, at the rising of the Sun, many Yncas and Caciques came, and, pulling the wool off the sacrifice before it was consumed, walked round it with the wool in their hands, crying out and saying:—

 "O Creator, O Sun, and O Thunder, be for ever young, multiply the people, and let them always be at peace."

 At noon, in the same order, they burnt another in the court of the Coricancha or house of the Sun, which is now the cloister of the Friars of the Lord St. Domingo: and in the evening they took another to the hill called Achpiran, because there the Sun sets, which they sacrificed with the same ceremonies. They also offered up to the same huacas, certain cestos4 of coca, called paucar-runcu, and others called paucar-quintu like coca, and some toasted maize, and red and yellow sea shells called mullu, in the shape of maize. In addition to these ceremonies, on every other day of this month, they went to burn sheep and the other offerings at the following places: on a hill called Succanca, on another called Omoto-yanacauri, on another called Ccapac-uilca, which p. 18 is three leagues from Huanacauri, and on others called Queros-huanacauri, Rontoca which is in the Quehuares,5 Collapata in Pumacancha, fourteen leagues from the city, on a plain called Yana-yana, on another hill called Cuti in the puna of Pumacancha, and continuing along the same road they came on the next day to Vilcañota, which is twenty-six leagues from Cuzco. The reason for taking this direction in this month is because they say that the Sun was born in that part,6 and thus they went on that road, performing the sacrifices. On a plain near Rurucache they made the same offering, as well as on another hill called Suntu, near to Sihuana in Cacha, in another hill called Cacha-Uiracocha, in another called Yacalla-huaca, and in another called Rurama, on the plain of Quiquijana.7 The same was done in Mullipampa, in Urcos, on a hill called Urcos Uiracocha, on a plain called Anta-huaylla,8 on another plain near Anta-huayla, called Pati, on another called Acahuara, on a hill in Quispicancha, and on another called Sulcanca. The Tarpuntaes went by one road and came back by another. The Ynca, with all his lords, went to Mantucalla, and there remained to drink and enjoy himself in revelry and taquis.9 They called this taqui Huallina,1 and it was a dance with singing, which was performed four times in the day. The Yncas alone celebrated this feast; and the mama-cunas, women of the Sun, gave drink to those who performed it; their own wives did not enter the place where the Yncas were, but remained outside in a court. All the vases and utensils from which they ate and drank, and with which they cooked the food were of gold. Thus they performed the p. 19 taqui called Huayllina, and in it they worshipped the Creator. At this festival they brought out the two female figures called Pallasillu and Ynca uillu, covered with very rich clothes and small plates of gold, called llancapata, colcapata and paucaruncu. In front they bore the suntur-paucar and certain great figures of the size of sheep, two of gold and two of silver, with cloths placed over the loins in the fashion of horse cloths. They were carried on litters, and this was done in memory of the sheep which, they say, came forth from the tambo with them. The Indians who carried them were principal lords, dressed in very rich clothes, and they call the figures of gold and silver sheep corinapa collquenapa.2 The Ynca remained at Mantucalla until the end of the month, and when that time arrived he went to the square in front of the church of Cuzco, called uacay-pata, the path by which he came being strewn with plumes of bird's feathers of all colours. There he drank during the remainder of the day, and at night he went to his house. Thus this month was ended.



 The month of June was called Canay, and by another name Chahuarhuay. The people were entirely occupied in irrigating their fields, and in arranging the distribution of water from the channels.



 They called the month of July Moronpassa tarpuiquilla,3 and in it they celebrated the festivals called yahuayra, when they besought the Creator to grant them a full harvest in that year, for this was the month for sowing the seeds. The following ceremonies were then performed.

 The Tarpuntaes, who are a sort of priests, were careful p. 20 to fast from the time the maize was sown until it was a finger's length out of the ground. Their wives and children also fasted, eating nothing during that time but boiled maize and herbs. They drank no chicha, but only muddy stuff called concho, and they chewed no coca. In this season they carried a little row of maize in their chuspas, which they put in their mouths. All the common people celebrated a feast called yahuayra, from the name of the song they chaunted in which they besought the Creator to grant them a prosperous year. They sang it dressed in red shirts reaching to the feet, and no mantles. Then they came out to sing and dance in the place now called by the Spaniards Limapampa,4 which is beyond the square of San Domingo. Here the Priests of the Creator sacrificed a white sheep, maize, coca, plumes of coloured feathers, and sea shells called mullu, in the morning; beseeching the Creator to grant a prosperous year, and that, as He had made all things out of nothing and given them being, so he would be pleased to comply with their prayer. The Priests of the Sun, called Tarpuntaes, and the Priests of the Thunder also offered up sacrifices, praying the Sun to give warmth that so their food might be produced, and the Thunder, called Chuqui Yllapa, to send its waters to assist in the production, and not to bring down hail. As soon as the sacrifices were completed, the labourers went to their work, and the nobles to the house of the lord Ynca, until the month, which in their language was called quispe,5 was ended.



 The month of August was called Coya-raymi; and in it they celebrated the Situa. In order to perform the ceremonies of this festival, they brought the figures of their huacas from all parts of the land, from Quito to Chile, and placed them in the houses they had in Cuzco, for the purpose p. 21 which we shall presently explain. The reason for celebrating the feast called Situa, in this month, was, because the rains commenced, and with the first rains there was generally much sickness. They besought the Creator that, during the year, he would be pleased to shield them from sickness, as well in Cuzco, as throughout the territory conquered by the Yncas. On the day of the conjunction of the moon, at noon the Ynca, with all the chiefs of his council, and the other principal lords who were in Cuzco, went to the Ccuricancha, which is the house and temple of the Sun, where they agreed together on the way in which the festival should be celebrated; for in one year they added, and in another they reduced the number of ceremonies, according to circumstances.

 All things having been arranged, the High Priest addressed the assembly, and said that the ceremonies of the Situa should be performed, that the Creator might drive all the diseases and evils from the land. A great number of armed men, accoutred for war, with their lances, then came to the square in front of the temple. The figures called Chuquilla6 and Uiracocha7 were brought to the temple of the Sun from their own special temples in Puca-marca and Quihuar-cancha, which are now the houses of Doña Ysabel de Bobadilla. The priests of these huacas joined the assembly, and, with the concurrence of all present, the priest of the Sun proclaimed the feast. First, all strangers, all whose ears were broken, and all deformed persons were sent out of the city, it being said that they should take no part in the ceremony, because they were in that state as a punishment for some fault. Unfortunate people ought not to be present, it was believed, because their ill-luck might drive away some piece of good fortune. They also drove out the dogs, that they might not howl. Then the people, who were armed as if for war, went to the square of Cuzco, p. 22 crying out: "O sicknesses, disasters, misfortunes, and dangers, go forth from the land." In the middle of the square, where stood the urn of gold which was like a fountain, that was used at the sacrifice of chicha, four hundred men of war assembled. One hundred faced towards Colla-suyu, which is the direction of the Sun-rising. One hundred faced to the westward, which is the direction of Chinchasuyu. Another hundred looked towards Antisuyu, which is the north, and the last hundred turned towards the south. They had with them all the arms that are used in their wars. As soon as those who came from the temple of the Sun arrived in the square, they cried out and said: "Go forth all evils." Then all the four parties went forth to their appointed places. Those for Collasuyu set out with great speed, and ran to Augostura de Acoya-puncu, which is two short leagues from Cuzco, crying out as they ran "Go forth all evils." The people of Huvin-Cuzco carried these cries, and there they delivered them over to the mitimaes of Huayparya, who in their turn passed them to the mitimaes of Antahuaylla, and thus they were passed to the mitimaes of Huaray-pacha, who continued them as far as the river at Quiquisana, where they bathed themselves and their arms. Thus was the shouting ended in that direction. The Indians who passed the shouting along the Colla-suyu road from Cuzco, were of the lineage of Usca Mayta Ayllu,8 Yapomayu Ayllu, Yahuaymin Ayllu Sutic, and Marasaylla Cuynissa Ayllu.

 Those who went out to the west, which is towards Chinchasuyu, shouting in the same manner, were of the lineage of Ccapac Ayllu,9 and Hatun Ayllu, Vicaquirau1 and Chamin-Cuzco Ayllu, and Yaraycu Ayllu. These went shouting as far as Satpina, which will be a little more than a league p. 23 from Cuzco. There they passed the cries on to the mitimaes of Jaquijahuana,2 and these delivered them to the mitimaes of Tilca, which is above Marca-huasi, about ten leagues from Cuzco, who carried them on to the river Apurimac, where they bathed and washed their clothes and arms.

 Those who carried the cries in the direction of Anti-suyu were of the following lineages, Usca-panaca Ayllu, Aucaylli Ayllu, Tarpuntay Ayllu, and Sañu Ayllu. They ran as far as Chita, which is a league and a half from Cuzco, and handed them to the mitimaes of Pisac, who are those of the Coya and Paullu,3 and these carried them forward to the river at Pisac, and there bathed and washed their arms.

 Those who went towards Cunti-suyu were of the following lineages. Yaura-panaca4 Ayllu, and China-panaca Ayllu, and Masca-panaca Ayllu, and Quesco Ayllu. They ran as far as Churicalla, which is two leagues from Cuzco, and there they delivered them to the mitimaes of Yaurisquis, which will be about three leagues from Cuzco. These passed them on to those of Tautar, which is four leagues from Cuzco, who carried them on to the river of Cusipampa, where the Friars of La Merced have a vineyard. This is seven leagues from Cuzco, and there they bathed and washed their arms.5

 Such was the ceremony for driving the sicknesses out of Cuzco. Their reason for bathing in these rivers was because they were rivers of great volume, and were supposed to empty themselves into the sea, and to carry the evils with them. When the ceremony commenced in Cuzco, all the people, great and small, came to their doors, crying out, p. 24 shaking their mantles and llicllas, and shouting, "Let the evils be gone. How greatly desired has this festival been by us. O Creator of all things, permit us to reach another year, that we may see another feast like this." They all danced, including the Ynca, and in the morning twilight they went to the rivers and fountains to bathe, saying that their maladies would come out of them. Having finished bathing, they took great torches of straw, bound round with cords, which they lighted and continued to play with them, passing them from one to the other. They called these torches of straw pancurcu. At the end of their feast they returned to their houses, and by that time a pudding of coarsely ground maize had been prepared, called sancu and elba. This they applied to their faces, to the lintels of their doors, and to the places where they kept their food and clothes. Then they took the sancu to the fountains, and threw it in, saying, "May we be free from sickness, and may no maladies enter this house." They also sent this sancu to their relations and friends for the same purpose, and they put it on the bodies of their dead that they also might enjoy the benefits of the feast. Afterwards the women ate and drank their food with much enjoyment; and on this day each person, how poor soever he might be, was to eat and drink, for they said that on this day they should enjoy themselves, if they had to pass all the rest of the year in labour and sorrow. On this day no man scolded his neighbour, nor did any word pass in anger, nor did anyone claim what was owing to him from another. They said that there would be trouble and strife throughout the year, if any was commenced on the day of the festival.

 In the night, the statues of the Sun, of the Creator, and of the Thunder, were brought out, and the priests of each of these statues warmed it with the before mentioned sancu. In the morning they brought the best food they could prepare to present at the temples of the Creator, of the Sun, p. 25 and of the Thunder; which the priests of those huacas received and consumed. They also brought out the bodies of the dead lords and ladies which were embalmed, each one being brought out by the person of the same lineage who had charge of it. During the night these bodies were washed in the baths which belonged to them when they were alive. They were then brought back to their houses, and warmed with the same coarse pudding called çancu; and the food they had been most fond of when they were alive was placed before them, and afterwards the persons who were in charge of the bodies consumed the food.

 The persons who had charge of the huaca called Guana-caucique,6 which is a great figure of a man, washed it and warmed it with the sancu; and the principal Ynca lord and his wife, after they had finished their bath, put the same sancu in their house, and on their hands. Afterwards, they placed certain plumes on their heads, of a bird called pialco, which are of a changing colour. The same was done with the figure of the Creator, and those who had charge of it called this ceremony Pilcoyacu. At about eight or nine in the morning the principal lord Ynca, with his wife, and the lords of the council who were in his house, came forth into the great square of Cuzco, richly dressed. They also brought out the image of the Sun called Apupunchau,7 which was the principal image among those in the temple. They were accompanied by all the priests of the Sun, who brought the two figures of gold, and their women called Ynca-Ocllo and Palla-Ocllo. There also came forth the woman called Coya-facssa, who was dedicated to the Sun. She was either the sister or the daughter of the ruler. The priests carried the image of the Sun, and placed it on a bench prepared for it in the square. The priests of the Creator likewise brought forth his image, and deposited it in its place. So also did the priests of the Thunder, called p. 26 Chuqui-ylla, bring forth his image. Each had its bench of gold, and before them were borne yauris, which were made like sceptres of gold. The priests of these huacas came in very rich dresses, to celebrate this feast. Those who had charge of the huaca called Huanacauri, also brought its figure into the square. They say that a woman was never assigned to the huaca of the Creator. It was believed that the Creator did not need women, because, as he created them, they all belonged to him. In all their sacrifices, the first was offered to the Creator. At this feast they brought out all the embalmed bodies of their lords and ladies, very richly adorned. The bodies were carried by the descendants of the respective lineages, and were deposited in the square on seats of gold, according to the order in which they lived.

 All the people of Cuzco came out, according to their tribes and lineages, as richly dressed as their means would allow; and, having made reverences to the Creator, the Sun, and the lord Ynca, they sat down on their benches, each man according to the rank he held, the Hanan-Cuzcos being on one side, and the Hurin-Cuzcos8 on the other. They passed the day in eating and drinking, and enjoying themselves; and they performed the tauqi called alançitua saqui, in red shirts down to their feet, and garlands called pilco-casa on their heads; accompanied with large or small tubes of canes, which made a kind of music called tica-tica. They gave thanks to the Creator for having spared them to see that day, and prayed that they might pass another year without sickness; and they did the same to the Sun and to the Thunder. The Ynca came with them, having the Sun before him. He had a great vase of gold containing chicha. It was received by the priest, who emptied it into the urn, which, as has been said, is like a stone fountain plated with gold. This urn had a hole made in such a way, that the chicha could enter a pipe or sewer passing under the ground p. 27 to the houses of the Sun,9 the Thunder, and the Creator. The priests came in procession, and the families of Hurin and Hanan Cuzco, each with the embalmed bodies of their ancestors. They passed that day in the manner already described, and in the evening they took back the Sun and the other huacas to their temples, and the embalmed bodies to their houses. The Yncas, and the rest of the people also returned to their homes.

 The next day they all came to the great square in the same order, placing the huacas on their benches as before. The Ynca and the people brought with them a very great quantity of flocks from all the four quarters of Colla-suyu, Chinchay-suyu, Antis-suyu, and Cunti-suyu. The number of animals was so great, according to those who made this declaration, that they amounted to more than one hundred thousand, and it was necessary that all should be without spot or blemish, and with fleeces that had never been shorn. Presently the priest of the Sun selected four of the most perfect, and sacrificed them in the following order: one was offered to the Creator, another to the Thunder, another to the Sun, and another to Huanacauri. When this sacrifice was offered up, the priest had the sancu on great plates of gold, and he sprinkled it with the blood of the sheep. The white fleece-bearing sheep were called cuyllu; and the plates containing sanco were in front of the bench of the Sun. The high priest then said in a loud voice so that all might hear: "Take heed how you eat this sancu; for he who eats it in sin, and with a double will and heart, is seen by our father, the Sun, who will punish him with grievous troubles. But he who with a single heart partakes of it, to him the Sun and the Thunder will show favour, and will grant children and happy years, and abundance, and all that he requires." Then they all rose up to partake, first making a solemn vow before eating the yahuar-sancu,1 in which they promised never to p. 28 murmur against the Creator, the Sun, or the Thunder; never to be traitors to their lord the Ynca, on pain of receiving condemnation and trouble. The priest of the Sun then took what he could hold on three fingers, put it into his mouth, and returned to his seat. In this order, and in this manner of taking the oath, all the tribes rose up, and thus all partook down to the little children. They all kept some of the yahuar-sancu for those who were absent, and sent some to those who were confined to their beds by sickness; for they believed it to be very unlucky for any one not to partake of the yahuar-sancu on that day. They took it with such care that no particle was allowed to fall to the ground, this being looked upon as a great sin. When they killed the sacrificial sheep, they took out the lungs and inflated them, and the priests judged, from certain signs on them, whether all things would turn out prosperously in the coming year or not. Afterwards, they burnt them before the Creator, the Sun, and the Thunder. The bodies of the sheep were divided and distributed, as very sacred things, a very small piece to each person. The rest was given to the people of Cuzco to eat, and each man, as he entered the square, pulled off a piece of the wool, with which he sacrificed to the Sun. When they distributed the sheep, the priests offered up the following prayers.


Prayer to the Creator.

 Aticsi-Uiracochan[caylla] caylla-Uiracochan tocapo ac nupo viracochan camachurac caricachun huarmicachun ñis pallurac rurac camas cayqui churascaiqui casilla quespilla canca musac maipimcanqui ahuapichu ucupichu pusupichu llantupichu huyarihuay hayniquay yuihuay ymaypachacama haycaypachacama  O Creator! [O conquering Uirachocha! Everpresent Uiracocha!] Thou who art without equal unto the ends of the earth! Thou who givest life and strength to mankind, saying, let this be a man and let this be a woman: And as thou sayest, so thou givest life, and vouchsafest that men shall
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canca chihuay marcarihuay hatallihuay caycustayri chasquihuay may piscapapas Uiracochaya. live in health and peace, and free from danger:—Thou who dwellest in the heights of heaven, in the thunder, and in the stormclouds, hear us! and grant us eternal life. Have us in thy keeping, and receive this our offering, as it shall please thee, O Creator!


Another Prayer for Fruitful Flocks.

 Uiracochan apacochan titu-Uiracochan hualpai huana-Uiracochan topapo acnupo Uiracochan runayachachachuchun hucerma-yachachachun mirachun llacta-pachacasilla quispillacachun camas-cayqui taquacaycha yatalliymay Pachacama haycay Pachacama.  O Creator! who doest wonders and marvels. O most merciful and almighty Creator! multiply our flocks and cause them to bring forth young, let the land continue in peace and free from danger, and these whom thou hast made, hold them in thy hand.


To the Huacas.

 Coy [caylla] Uiracochan ticçi Uiracochan hapacochan hualpai huana Uiracochan chanca-Uiracochan acsa-Uiracochan atun-Uiracochan caylla-Uiracochan tacan-cuna hunichic llaularuna y acha-cuc ccapac hahuay pihucupi Puris papas.  O Creator, thou who art coeval with the world! O Chanca-Uiracocha! O Atun-Uiracocha! grant our prayer, that thou wilt, with the Creator, give health and prosperity to the people.

 Chanca-Uiracocha was a huaca in Chuqui-chaca, where was Manco Ynca. Atun-Uiracocha is in the huaca of Urcos; where there was an eagle and a falcon carved in stone at the entrance of the huaca and an image of a man with a white robe reaching to his feet, and coming down to his waist. Apotin-Uiracocha is in Amaybamba, beyond Tampu. Urusayua-Uiracocha is in the same place. Chuqui-chanca-Uiracocha is in Huaypau.

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Another Prayer.

 O Uiracochan cusiussapochay lipo-Uiracochaya runacay amay-cay miruna yana huaccha quis-aruna yquicauras cayquichuras cayquicasiquis-pilla camachun huarmay huanchurin huanchin canta amaquaquinta huarya yaichichuruay huasa causachun mana alleas pamana pitispa mucumuchun. Upia muchun.  O most fortunate and propitious Creator, have pity and mercy upon all men whom thou hast made. Keep thy poor servants in health. Make them and their children to walk in a straight road, without thinking any evil. Grant that they may have a long life, and not die in their youth, and that they may live and feed in peace.


Another Prayer.

 O Uiracochay [atic]a ticçi-Uiracochaya hualparillac camac-churac cay hurin pacha pimicu-chun upiachun ñispachurascay quictacamascay quita micuynin yachachun papacara ymaymana micuncancachun ñis cayqui ta-camachic michachic mana mu-chuncunpac mana muchuspa-can yñincampac amacaçachun-chu amachupichupichichunchu casilla huacaychamuy.  O Creator! Lord of the ends of the earth! O most merciful! Thou who givest life to all things, and hast made men that they may live, and eat, and multiply. Multiply also the fruits of the earth, the papas and other food that thou hast made, that men may not suffer from hunger and misery. O preserve the fruits of the earth from frost, and keep us in peace and safety.


Prayer to the Sun.

 Uiracocha yapunchau cachun-to tacachun ñispac nicpacarichun yllarichun ñispac nicpunchao-churi yquicta casillacta quis-pillacta purichic runarunascay quicta cauchay uncancampac Uiracochaya casilla quispilla punchau yncarunayanani uhis-cayquita quillari canchari ama-huncochispa amananu chispa cacicta quispicha huacus-chaspa.  O Creator! Thou who gavest being to the Sun, and afterwards said let there be day and night. Raise it and cause it to shine, and preserve that which thou hast created, that it may give light to men. Grant this, O Creator!
 O Sun! Thou who art in peace and safety, shine upon us, keep us from sickness, and keep us in health and safety.

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Prayer for the Ynca.

 A-Uiracochan ticçi-Uiracochan hualpa y huana-Uiracochan atun-Uiracochan Tarapaca-Uiracochan capaccachun Ynca-cachun nispachucapac churas-pac quicta Ynca camascayquita casillacta quispullacta Huacay-chamuy runan yananya cha-chuchun accari punari usachun ymaypacha cama ama allca-chispa churinta mitanta quanpas huacay chay chaycaçillacta uiracu-chaya.  O pious Creator, who ordered and saw fit that there should be a Lord Ynca, grant to the Ynca that he may be kept in peace, with his servants and vassals, that he may obtain the victory over his enemies and always be a conqueror. Cut not short his days, nor the days of his children, and give them peace, O Creator!


Another Prayer.

 Uiracochaya qualpay huana-Uiracochaya ninacta casi quis-pillacta capac Ynca-churi yqui-guarmayqui pacamascayqui huacay chamuchun hatallimuchun pachachacara runa llama micuy paycaptin yacachun ccapac Ynca camascayquita Uiracochaya ayni huni marcari hatalli ymaypacha-cama.  O Creator! Vouchsafe that the subjects of the Ynca may have peace while thy son the Ynca lives, to whom thou hast said: Be thou Lord! Grant that they may multiply. Keep them in peace, let their days be prosperous, let their farms yield increase; and keep this Lord Ynca in thy hand for ever, O Creator!


Another Prayer.

 Pachacama casillacta quispillacta Ccapac Ynca huahuay quicta marcari atalli.  O Creator of the world, keep thy child the Ynca in peace and security upon it.


Prayer for all the Yncas.

 Apunchau Ynca Yutiryayay Cuzco tampu cachun aticoclla saccoccachun ñispa churac camac muchas-cay quicusiquispu cachun amatisca amalla sasca  O Sun! Thou who hast said, let there be Cuzcos and Tampus, grant that these thy children may conquer all other people. We beseech thee that thy children
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cachunchu aticuc paclla sacapac camascayqui churascayqui. the Yncas may be conquerors always, for this hast thou created them.


Prayer for all the Huacas.

 O pachachulla Uiracochan ucuhulla Uiracochan huaca-vilcacachun nispacamacatu napahuay pihuana tayna allastu Uiracochaya hurinpacha anacpacha cachun nispa nicocupa chapipuca umacta churachay nihuay hunihuay quispicasica musac Uiracochaya micuy niocmin cacyoc curayoc llamayoc ymayna yochaycaymayoc amacacharihuay cuchuy maymana aycay mana chiquimanta catuiman manta nacasca hustusca amusca manta.  O sacred Huacas, ancestors, grandsires, and parents! O Hatun-apu! O Hualpa-huana-tayua! O Apu Allastu! bring us near to the Creator, us thy sons, and our children, that they may be fortunate and near the Creator, as thou art.


 When they had distributed the flocks, the sheep were killed in great numbers, to be eaten on that day. Then a vast quantity of chicha was brought into the square, from the store houses where it was kept. It was made of boiled white maize, in the valley of Cuzco. The flocks that were used at this festival, were the property of the Creator, the Sun, and the Thunder, from their estates set apart in all the provinces of Peru. Having finished eating with much rejoicing, they performed their taquis, and drank in the same order as on the day before. This continued for four days. The first day of the festival was called Citua, and it was then that they ate the sancu called yahuar-sancu. The second day was dedicated to the Creator, the Sun, and the Thunder, when they performed sacrifices, and a prayer was offered up for the Ynca. The fourth day was for the Moon and the Earth, when the accustomed sacrifices and prayers were offered up. On a subsequent day people of all the p. 33 nations, that had been subdued by the Yncas, came with their huacas and in the richest costumes, peculiar to their respective countries, that they could procure. The priests, who had charge of the huacas, carried them on litters. When they entered the square, coming from the direction of the four Suyus already mentioned, they made reverences to the Creator, the Sun, and the Thunder, and to the Huanacauri, a huaca of the Yncas, and then they did the same to the Ynca, who was in the square on that occasion. Having made these obeisances, they proceeded to the places, assigned to them, and, in order to make more room, the families of Hanan-Cuzco and Hurin-Cuzco formed themselves into one, and thus left more space in the square. As soon as all the people were in their places, the High Priest of the Sun sprinkled a large quautity of sancu with blood, and the Caciques rose up in their order, and repeated the following:—


Prayer to the Creator.

 Aticçi Uiracochan caylla Uiracochan tocapu acnupu Uiracochan camac churac carica chuyu-armicachun nispallutac rurac camascay quichuras cayquica-silla quispilla causamus ay may-pincanqui ahuapichu ucupichu llantupichu uyarihua ayrihuay ynihuay ymay pachacamac cançachihuay marcallihuay attollihuay caycoscay tarichasquihuay may picaspapas Uiracochaya.  O Creator! ?[O conquering Viracocha! Ever present (caylla) Viracocha!] Thou who art in the ends of the earth without equal! Thou who gavest life and valour to men, saying, Let this be a man! and to women, saying, Let this be a woman! Thou who madest them and gave them being! Watch over them that they may live in health and peace. Thou who art in the high heavens, and among the clouds of the tempest, grant this with long life, and accept this sacrifice, O Creator!

 Then the Priest of the Sun distributed the sancu, and afterwards the people ate the flesh of the sheep which had been sacrificed to the Creator, the Sun, and the Thunder. p. 34 Each nation passed the rest of the day in performing the taqui and in singing and dancing, according to the custom of their respective countries before they were subdued by the Yncas. On this day all the deformed persons, who had previously been expelled from Cuzco, were allowed to join the feast. This part of the feast lasted for two days, and at its conclusion, in the evening, they burnt in sacrifice a sheep, and a vast quantity of clothes of many colours. Then those who had to return to their homes, sought permission from the Creator, the Sun, the Thunder, and the Ynca, which was granted, and they left at Cuzco the huacas they had brought there in that year. They returned to their homes with the huacas they had brought for the festival of the previous year, and, as a recompense for their trouble in having come from such great distances, their chiefs were given gold and silver and clothes and servants, and permission to travel in litters. Their huacas were also granted estates and attendants to wait on them, and so they returned to their homes.

 The inventor of this feast was Ynca Yupanqui, at least he established the above ceremonies, for though it was celebrated from the time that there ever were Yncas, it was not performed in the order described above. The rest of the month was passed as each man found it convenient, or as suited him best. The same feast, called Situa, was celebrated at the chief places in all the provinces, by the Ynca governors, wherever they might be: and, although the ceremonies were less grand, and the sacrifices fewer, no part of the festival was omitted.



 They call the month of September Uma-Raymi, because the Indians of Uma, which is two' leagues from Cuzco, celebrated the feast of Hurachillo.2 This was the occasion p. 35 when the youths were admitted to knighthood, and when their ears were pierced, as we shall mention in its place. The women of Cuzco, whose sons were to have their ears bored, and to perform the huarachicu, employed their time in sewing the cloths in which their sons were to be dressed on the day of the feast of the huarachicu. Several relations assembled to help them to sew, and to rejoice and drink for some days in their houses: and so the month ended.



 They called the month of October Aya Marca Raymi, because the Indians of the village of Ayamarca performed the feasts of huarachicu, and the youths of that tribe had their ears bored, and were admitted to knighthood, with the ceremonies we shall presently describe. In Cuzco, the people were employed in preparing a great quantity of chicha, for the feast called Ccapac Raymi. This way of making chicha was called cantoray. The youths who were about to receive their arms, went to the huaca called Huanacauri, to offer sacrifice, and to ask permission to receive knighthood. For this was their principal huaca, the brother, as was said, of Manco Ccapac, whence they descend. But, to avoid prolixity, I will not here give the tradition respecting this huaca, referring for an account of it, to the history of the Yncas which I have written. The youths who were to be armed as knights, passed that night on the hill of Huanacauri, where the huaca was kept, in memory of the journey which their ancestors commenced from that spot. On the next day they returned in the afternoon, bringing with them loads of straw, on which their parents and relations might sit. On this day the youths fasted; and the month was passed in preparing many kinds of chicha for the festival. At this time, and indeed throughout the year, the priests of the Creator, of the Sun, and of Thunder, and those who had charge of the huaca of p. 36 Huanacauri, made three daily sacrifices; offering up three sheep, one in the morning, one at noon, and a third at night, with other food that was dedicated to these deities. The huacas were supposed to consume it where they were; but they carried the food to the hills in the feast of Yntic-raymi. The persons also, who had charge of the embalmed bodies, never came forth to offer up the food, and pour out the chicha that was dedicated to them, such as they used when they were alive. These they consumed, because they held for very truth, the doctrine of the immortality of the soul, and they said that wherever the soul might be, it would receive the food and eat as when alive. Thus ended this month.



 The month of November was called Ccapac Raymi, which means the Feast of the Lord Ynca. It was one of the three principal feasts of the year. In this month they gave arms to the youths, pierced their ears, and gave them breeches, which in their language are called huara. For the said feast, and for the arming of the knights, during the eight first days of the month, all the parents and relations of those who were to receive knighthood were engaged in the preparation of the usutas, which were their shoes made of very fine reeds, almost of the colour of gold; and of the huaracas from the sinews of sheep; and in broidering the trimmings of the shirts in which they were to appear, when they went to the huaca called Huanacauri Chumpicasico. The shirts were made of fine yellow wool, with the borders of fine black wool like silk, a little more than a palmo and a half in width. They also wore mantles called supayacolla, which were of white wool, long and narrow, not being more thau two palmos in width, but reaching to the knees. They were fastened round the neck by a knot, whence hung a woollen cord, at the end of which there was a red tassel. The llautus, that were put on them on that day, were black.

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 On the ninth day they all proceeded to the square in the morning, as well the parents of those who were to receive knighthood, as the relations. The parents and relations were attired in certain dresses called collca-uncu. There was a special dress for each festival. On this occasion the mantles were yellow, and the plumes on their heads were black, being taken from a bird called guito. Hence the plumes were called quito-tica. Those who were to be armed as knights were shorn, and after the shearing they were clothed in the dress already described. Many maidens, who were selected to give their services at this feast, then came to the square, dressed in a costume called Cuzco asu ycochilli-quilla. Their ages were from eleven to twelve or fourteen years, and they were of the best families. They were called Ñusta-calli-sapa.3 Their duty was to carry small vases of chicha, as we shall relate further on. Being all clothed in these costumes, they proceeded to the house of the Sun and of the Thunder, and brought the images to the square. Then the Ynca came forth, and took his place near the statue of the Sun. The youths, who were to receive knighthood, rose up in their order, and made their mucha,4 which was their manner of worshipping the huacas. They also brought out the figure of a woman, which was the huaca of the moon, and was called Passa5-mama. It was in charge of women; and when it was brought from the house of the Sun, where it had a special place on the site of the mirador of Santo Domingo, they carried it on their shoulders. The reason for giving it in charge to women was that they said it was a woman, and the figure resembled one.

 After making their reverence, the youths waited until the hour of noon, when they again made reverences to the p. 38 huacas; and sought permission from the Ynca to make their sacrifices, which were offered up in the following way.

 Each of the youths who were about to be armed had a sheep prepared for sacrifice. They all went, with their relations, to the hill called Huanacauri. That night they slept at the foot of the hill, at a place called Matahua, and at sunrise of the tenth day, all fasting, for they had fasted on the previous day, they ascended the hill until they came to the huaca Huanacauri. They left the sheep for sacrifice at the foot of the hill in Matahua, the Tarpuntays pulling out a small handful of wool from each. These Tarpuntays are the priests who make the sacrifices. When they reached the top of the hill, the Tarpuntays took five lambs and sacrificed them before the huaca. They then divided the wool they held in their hands among the youths who were about to be made knights, and the chiefs who came with them. The youths and chiefs then blew the wool into the air, while the sacrifices were being consumed, with these words "O Huanacauri! our father, may the Creator, the Sun, and the Thunder ever remain young, and never become old. May thy son the Ynca always retain his youth, and grant that he may prosper in all he undertakes. And to us, thy sons and descendants who now celebrate this festival, grant that we may ever be in the hands of the Creator, of the Sun, of the Thunder, and in thy hands." After the sacrifices, at the ninth hour of the day, they put huaracas,6 and bags called chuspas into the hands of the youths, and on presenting them with the huaracas, they said: "Now that our father Huanacauri has given the huaracas as a sign of valour, live henceforth as brave men." The High Priest of the huaca used these words when the huaracas were given to the youths. They were made of aloe fibre and the sinews of sheep, the aloe fibre being like flax. It was said that their ancestors, when they came forth from Paccari-tampu, p. 39 wore them. They then walked on, until they came to a ravine called Quiras-manta, where they were met by the uncles and parents, and by the chiefs, who whipped them on the arms and legs, saying, "Be brave as I have been, and receive these gifts that you may imitate me." Then they chaunted a song called Huari, the armed knights standing up with the handfuls of straw in their hands, and all the rest of the people being seated. As soon as the taqui was ended, they rose up and went to Cuzco, whence a shepherd came, who was one of those in charge of the flock called Raymi-napa, which was dedicated for this feast. They brought a sheep called napa, which was covered with a red cloth having ear holes of gold. Those who came with it, blew upon sea shells bored through, called hayllayquipac. An Indian also brought the suntur-paucar, which is one of the insignia of the Lord. When they arrived at the plaza where the people were assembled, they performed a dance, and then led the sheep and the suntur-paucar in front of them. The people returned to Cuzco, marching according, to their families and tribes, those who had received knighthood carrying the huaracas on their heads, and the bundles of straw in their hands. When they reached the square they worshipped the huacas. The fathers, uncles, and relations then whipped them on the arms and legs, and afterwards all the people made the music (taqui) called huari, and the youths gave drinks to the fathers, uncles, and relations who had flogged them. By that time it was nearly night, and they went to their houses and ate the sacrificial sheep. The Priests took the huacas back to their temples.

 In the subsequent days the people remained in their houses, and the youths who had received knighthood rested from their labours. But on the 14th day of the month they all came forth into the square of Cuzco, called Huacay-pata. Each came with his father and relations; and it must be known that all the youths who received arms p. 40 were obliged to be descendants and relations of the Lord Yncas by direct line, for no others were admitted. In the same month the Ynca Governors of Provinces who had sons of the proper age, performed the ceremonies in the provinces, boring the ears of the boys, and arming them as knights.

 On the 14th day they brought into the square the huacas of the Creator, of the Sun, of the Moon, and of the Thunder, which were placed together near the Ynca, the Priests being stationed near their huacas. Dresses were given to the youths who had been armed as knights, called umisca-uncu, which were shirts striped red and white, and a white mantle with a blue cord and red tassel. All the people of the land had to make these dresses, as a tribute; and the relations provided the usutas, made of a straw which was highly prized among them, called ychu. The Priest of the Sun, whose duty it was to give these dresses in the name of the Sun, caused all the maidens to be brought before him, and to each he gave a dress, which was red and white, and called uncallu; the lliclla being the same; together with a cloth in the shape of a bag, with both ends open, of the same colour. Then they put staves into the hands of the youths, to the upper part of which a knife was attached, which they called yauri. Then the breeches were given, called huaraca, made of sinews and red cloth, with a little chahuar.7 After receiving the clothes they went, in their order, to worship the images of the Creator, the Sun, the Moon, and the Thunder, and they bowed reverently to the Ynca. Before this the uncles and relations had flogged them on the arms and legs, exhorting them to be valiant, and ever to pay attention to the worship of the Huacas and the Ynca. At the end of these ceremonies they went out of the square, in the order of their tribes, each one with those of his family; p. 41 and went to sleep in a desert called Rauranu, which is about a league from Cuzco.

 Each of those who had been armed as knights brought a tent in which to sleep, for himself and his relations. There went with them an the maidens who had received the dresses which the Sun had given. They were called Ñusta-callisapa. They brought with them small jars of chicha, to give drink to the relations of the knights, and to offer as sacrifice, as well as to give drink to the youths who were armed as knights. On this day they brought with them the sheep called tupa-huanacu or raymi-napa;8 with a red shirt placed over it, having golden ears, as before described. They also carried the suntur-paucar or insignia of royalty. When the people had all departed from the square, they carried each huaca back to its temple, and the Ynca returned to his palace. Next day they rose up and went to a ravine in a mountain called Quilli-yacolca; which is not more than half a league from the place where they slept. Here they had breakfast, and after their meal they fastened a little white wool to the ends of their staves, and to the handles of the said topa-yauri they secured some ychu. Then they continued to advance until they came to a hill called Ana-huarqui, which is two leagues from Cuzco, to the huaca of the same name on the top of the hill, which was the huaca of the Indians of the villages of Choco and Cachona. The reason why they went to this huaca to perform a sacrifice was that, on this day, they had to run a race, to try which was the best runner. The tradition had been handed down, from the time of the deluge, that this huaca ran like a lion. On coming before the huaca, the youths offered a little wool which they held in their hands. The priests of the Sun (not the High Priest) and those of the other huacas, called Tarpuntays, then sacrificed five lambs, burning them in the name of the Creator, the Sun, the Moon, and the Thunder. p. 42 Then the relations once more flogged the youths who were now knighted, urging them to set great store by the valour and endurance of their persons. After this the people sat down and performed the taqui called haurita9 with the huayllaquipas and shells; the knights remaining on their feet, holding in their hands the staves called yauri. Some were headed with gold, others with copper, each according to the means of the owner. At the end of the taqui all the maidens called Ñusta calli-sapa rose up, and each ran as fast as she could to the place where they had slept; and there waited for those who had been armed as knights, with the chicha to give them to drink. The girls cried out, and said:—"Come quickly, youths, for here we are waiting for you." Then the youthful knights stood in a row before the huaca of Anahuarqui, and behind them there was a second row of men, who served as arm bearers. These carried the yauris and sticks in their hands; and in their rear was yet a third row, whose duty it was to aid those who fell. In front of all these was an Indian, very gaily dressed, who gave the word. On hearing it they all began to run at full speed and with all their force. Those who fell or fainted, were assisted by the men in the rear, but some died of the falls. Those who reached the goal received drink from the maidens, and they drank as they ran. The object of this race was to prove who was the best of those who had received knighthood.

 On each occasion they armed eight hundred knights and upwards. When they were all assembled on the hill called Raurana, they again performed the taqui called huari; after which they took the huaracas and the yauris, and again began to flog the knights upon the arms and legs. By this time it was the hour of vespers, and they all rose up in their order, to return to Cuzco, bearing in front the suntur-paucar and the sheep called raymi-napa. They marched to the p. 43 square called Huacay-pata in Cuzco, where were the statues of the Creator, the Sun, the Thunder, and the Moon; and where the Ynca was seated near the statue of the Sun, with his courtiers. As they entered they performed mucha to the huacas and the Ynca. The tribes of Hanan Cuzco and Hurin Cuzco then sat down in the places assigned to them, while the youths remained standing for a short time. They again performed the taqui called huari, and once more flogged the youths. Afterwards the Ynca and his court went to his house, and the youths, with their fathers and relations, went to the hill called Raurana. They passed the night at the foot of the hill, in a place called Huaman-cancha.1 At dawn they arose and ascended the hill Raurana, which is half a league from Cuzco. The Lord Ynca came here on this day, to grant favours to those who had been armed as knights, giving them ear-pieces of gold, red mantles, with blue tassels, and other marks of distinction. The huaca of Raurana consisted of two falcons in stone, placed upon an altar on the summit of the hill. It was instituted by Pachacutec Ynca Yupanqui, as the place where they should receive the breeches which they call huara. This huaca was at first the idol of the Indians of Maras, and Huascar Ynca caused the falcons to be brought here, to beautify it. The sacrifice that was performed on this occasion was to burn five lambs, and to pour out chicha, beseeching the Creator, the Sun, the Moon, and the Thunder, that the youths who had been armed, might become valiant and enterprising warriors, that all they put their hands to might prosper, and that they might never suffer defeat. The sacrifice was performed by the Priest of the huaca Raurana; who also besought the huaca that the youths might be fortunate. As soon as the sacrifices were consumed, the Huaca-camayoc, who was the Priest, gave to each of the youths a pair of breeches called huarayarus, and p. 44 a red shirt with a blue binding, which clothes were brought by order of the Ynca, as the tribute paid throughout the land on this occasion. The youths were given ear-pieces of gold, which were then fastened in their ears, and diadems with plumes called pilcocassa, and small pieces of gold and silver to hang round their necks. After those things had been distributed, they had breakfast, and performed the taqui called huari for the space of an hour. Then the fathers and parents again flogged the youths, reminding them of the prayers just offered up, urging them to emulate the deeds of their ancestors, and to be valiant warriors, never turning their backs on the foe.

 With reference to the taqui so often repeated in the ceremony, they say that, in the time of Manco Ccapac, the first Ynca from whom they are all descended, when he came forth from the Cave of Tampu, it was given to him by the Creator with a command that it should be sung at this festival, and at no other.

 After the taqui, they drank in their order, and marched back to Cuzco, the suntur-paucar being borne before them as a banner, and the sheep dressed as on former occasions. Manco Ccapac instituted this feast, and caused these ceremonies to be observed in the case of his son Sinchi Rocca, as we have related in the history of the Yncas.2 On reaching the square of Cuzco, they performed the mucha or adoration before the Huacas which the Priests had brought out, and they also made obeisances to all the embalmed bodies of the dead Lord and Ladies which had been brought into the square by those who had charge of them; to drink with them as if they had been alive, and that the young knights might beseech them to make their descendants as fortunate and brave as they had been themselves.

 Then all the people sat down, those of Hanan and Hurin p. 45 Cuzco in their respective places. The skins of lions, with the heads, had been prepared, with gold ear-pieces in the ears, and golden teeth in place of the real teeth which had been pulled out. In the paws were certain ajorcas of gold, called chipanas. They called these lions hillacunya chuquicunya. Those who dressed in the skins, put on the head and neck of the lion so as to cover their own, and the skin of the body of the lion hung from the shoulders. Those who had to take part in the taqui wore red shirts, with red and white fringes, reaching to the feet. They called these shirts puca-caychu-uncu. The taqui was called coyo. It was first introduced by the Ynca Pachacutec Yupanqui, and was performed with drums, two from Hanan Cuzco, and two from Hurin Cuzco. They performed this taqui twice a day for six days, and during these six days each person offered sacrifices to the Creator, the Sun, the Moon, and the Thunder; for the Ynca and for those who had been armed as knights. These sacrifices consisted of a quantity of sheep, cloth, gold, silver, and other things. It was offered up that those who were armed as knights might be fortunate in war, and in everything they undertook.

 On the 21st day of this month all the youths who had been armed as knights, went to bathe in a fountain called Calli-puquio, in a ravine about a quarter of a league to the rear of the fortress of Cuzco. They then took off the clothes in which they had been armed as knights, and dressed themselves in others called nanaclla, coloured black and yellow, and in the centre a red cross. Thence they returned to the square, where they found all the huacas. They made the usual obeisances. They were placed according to the families to which they belonged; and the principal uncle presented each knight with a shield, a sling, and a club with a metal knob at the end, with which to go to the wars. The other relations and chiefs then offered up cloth, sheep, gold, silver, and other things, with a prayer that the youths might p. 46 always be rich and fortunate. Each relation that offered sacrifice, flogged a youth and delivered a discourse to him, exhorting him to be valiant and never to be a traitor to the Sun and the Ynca, but to be diligent in devotion to the huacas, and to imitate the bravery and prowess of his ancestors. When the principal Lord Ynca was armed as a knight, all the chiefs and great lords, who were present from all parts of the land, made great offerings in addition to those usually supplied. At the end of the sacrifices, the Priests of the Sun and of the Creator brought a great quantity of fuel tied together in handfuls, and dressed in the clothes of a man and a woman. The faggots, thus dressed up, were offered to the Creator, the Sun, and the Ynca, and were burnt in their clothes, together with a sheep. They also burnt certain birds called pilcopichio3 and caman-tera-pichio; and this sacrifice was performed for the youths who had been armed as knights; with a prayer that they might always be fortunate in war.

 On the 22nd of the month the knights were taken to the houses of their relations, and their ears were pierced, which was the last ceremony in arming the knights. Among these people they thought so much of this boring the ears, that, if the orifice was broken through by any accident, the man to whom it happened was looked upon as unfortunate. They stuff pieces of cotton into the orifice of the ear, and each day they put in more in order to enlarge it. On the same day the priests of the Creator and the Sun, of Thunder and the Moon, and the shepherds of the Ynca counted the flocks of the huacas and of the Ynca. Then commenced the feasts that were celebrated for the flocks of the huacas, that they might multiply; for which sacrifices were made throughout the kingdom. The shepherds whose flocks increased most rapidly were rewarded, and those whose flocks failed to multiply were punished.

p. 47

 On the 23rd day of the month they carried the statue of the Sun called Huayna punchao, to the houses of the Sun called Puquinque, which are on a high hill, a little more than three arquebus shots from Cuzco. Here they sacrificed to the Creator, the Sun, the Thunder, and the Moon, for all nations, that they might prosper and multiply. The statue of the Sun was then brought back, preceded by the suntur-paucar and two sheep, one of gold and the other of silver, called cullque-napa ccuri-napa; which were the insignia borne before the statue of the Sun, wheresoever it was taken. Thus ended this festival and month called Ccapac-raymi.



 The name they gave to the month of December was Camay-quilla. On the first day of the month, those who had been armed as knights, as well those of the lineage of Hanan Cuzco as of Hurin Cuzco, came out into the square, with slings in their hands called huaraca, and the youths of Hanan Cuzco hurled against those of Hurin Cuzco; their missiles were called coco, which are found on certain thistles. At times they came to close quarters, to prove the muscles of their arms; until the Ynca, who was present, rose up and restored order. They called this chocanaco, and it was a trial of strength, to see who were the strongest and bravest. Afterwards, they all sat down according to their lineages, the new knights being dressed in black shirts, and mantles of a lion colour. They also wore plumes of white feathers on their heads, from a bird called tocto.4 On this day the new knights began to eat salt and other luxuries, for during the ceremonies they fasted, and were not allowed to touch either salt or aji. The youths ate their first meal after the fast with great relish. For this feast they brought all the huacas into the square, as well as the bodies of the dead Yncas, to drink with them; placing those who had belonged p. 48 to the Hanan Cuzco on the side where that lineage was stationed, and the same with those of Hurin Cuzco. Then they brought food and drink to the dead bodies, as if they were alive, saying: "When you were alive you used to eat and drink of this; may your soul now receive it and feed on it, wheresoever you may be." For they believed and held it for certain that souls did not die, but that those of good men went to rest with the Creator. When they died they declared this belief, and charged their families and relations to perform all that they had left them to do, and that they would see them from heaven. They also believed that there was a place of punishment for bad men, where they were tormented by demons called Supay. They said that those who went there, suffered much hunger and thirst, and that their food was charcoal, snakes, toads, and other things of that kind. Those who went to heaven, on the other hand, eat and drank the best that the Creator had, and they also received the food and liquor which their relations offered up.

 Thus all with great joy passed this day, on which they began to dance and sing. Afterwards, they all went forth to plough their fields, which they called chacra. This lasted for twelve days. On the 15th day of the month, at the full of the moon, all returned from their estates to Cuzco; and on that night they performed the dance and taqui, called yahuayra, through all the streets and squares of the city, from nightfall until dawn. In the morning the priests brought out the huacas of the Creator, the Sun, the Moon, and the Thunder, and the dead bodies, and placed them in the square. The Ynca also came forth, and took his place near the Sun. The rest of the people had gone to a house called Moro-urco, near the houses of the Sun, to take out a very long cable which was kept there, woven in four colours, black, white, red, and yellow, at the end of which there was a stout ball of red wool. Every one took hold of it, the men on one side, and the women on the other, performing the taqui called p. 49 yaqauyra. When they came to the square, after making reverences to the huacas and the Ynca, they kept going round and round until they were the shape of a spiral shell. Then they dropped the huascar on the ground, and left it coiled up like a snake. They called this cable Moro-urco. The people returned to their places, and those who had charge of the cable took it back to its house. When they celebrated this feast, they were dressed in clothes called pucay-urco; a black shirt with a white band, and white fringes at the edges. They also wore white plumes from a bird called tocto. Presently, they brought a lamb to be sacrificed for the cable, and for rain, and the winter time, saying to the winter: "Why hast thou rained?"

 From noon to sunset was passed in rejoicings, and in drinking with the huacas and dead bodies. As, in my account of the Yntic-Raymi, which is the month of May, I described the manner of their drinking to the Sun, and to the other huacas, pouring the chicha down certain pipes, I will not repeat the description here. In all the festivals the manner of drinking to the huacas was the same. Half an hour before sunset they took the huacas back to their temples, and the Ynca returned to his house. The performing of this taqui, with the sacrifices and drinking, lasted for two days. On the 18th of the said month, they came out in the square, clothed in very gay dresses called sanca-sonco-quila pionco; and in small mantles, and with plumes called cupaticas on their heads, being the tails of macaws and pilos called gualanpapi, made of feathers. On reaching the square they made their obeisances to the huacas in the usual order, and took their places. A priest then rose up and burnt a lamb as a sacrifice, praying to the winter ever to send its waters so that, through its means, they might eat and drink.

 They preserved the cinders and ashes, not only of this sacrifice, but of all others that were made throughout the year, in order to throw them into the river.

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 On this day they performed the taqui chapay quenalo, which, with all the other ceremonies that were performed in the course of the year, was invented by Pachacutec Ynca Yupanqui; excepting those of the huarachico when they armed the knights, and those of quicochico and rutuchico yayascay, which are festivals invented by the first Ynca, as will presently be mentioned.

 On the following day, which was the 19th of the said month, they went to the square of Cuzco, called Huacay-pata, both the Ynca and all the people, and they brought out the huacas and the embalmed bodies of the dead. Having made the usual obeisances, they began to offer up the sacrifice called mojocati, in the following order.

 A small river flows through the centre of Cuzco called Capi-mayu and Huaca-puncu-mayu. It comes down from some ravines in the heights above the town. In these ravines they constructed dams to confine the water, although it was winter, in order that it might bear away the sacrifices that were about to be offered in it, with greater force. On this day they collected all kinds and sorts of food, all the different sorts of ajis, great quantities of bags of coca, all kinds of cloths of different colours and shoes, llautus and plumes worn as head dresses, sheep, flowers, gold and silver, and every other sort of thing that they used, as well as all the ashes and cinders of all the sacrifices, that had been preserved throughout the year.

 All these things were thrown into the river, the first dam was thrown down, and the water rushed out with such fury that it carried the other dams away with it, and all the sacrifices. A lamb had been sacrificed on this day, and its ashes, with the cinders, were thrown into the river with the rest.

 Many people were assembled on both sides of the river, outside the city of Cuzco, at a place called Pumap-chupa, where the sacrifices were offered up. They were made at a p. 51 little less than an hour before sunset, and the Indians who were on both sides of the river, were commanded by the Lord Ynca, who was present, to go with the sacrifices to Ollantay-tampu. By the round they had to make the distance was ten leagues from Cuzco. Indians of the villages by which they had to pass, were stationed at intervals, with torches, in order to give light during the night, and no part of the sacrifices was allowed to remain in the river. When they reached the bridge of Ollantay-tampu, which is over a great river flowing to the North Sea, they threw two bags of coca, called pilculuncu paucar unau, from the bridge, as the sacrifices flowed past, and afterwards they were allowed to pass on by themselves.

 During that day and the next, those who had passed on the sacrifices were dancing and rejoicing, and performing the taqui chupay huayllu. The reason for throwing these sacrifices into the river was as follows. They said that, as the Creator of all things had granted them a good year, it seemed well that, out of the things that he had given them, they should offer these sacrifices, that they might not appear ungrateful, beseeching him to receive them, wheresoever he might please to be. At the end of two days, those who had followed the sacrifices as far as the bridge, returned to Cuzco. Those who had gone furthest, carried in their hands lances and falcons made of salt; while those who lagged behind had toads made of salt, as a sign that they had gone slowly, which made the people laugh at them. During the rest of the month every man attended to his farm.



 They called the month of January Atun-pucuy, and they had no special festival in it, the people merely attending to their work.

p. 52



 The name for the month of February was Pacha pucuy, and neither in this month did they do anything but attend to their farms.



 The month of March was called Paucar-huara. No festival was celebrated of any kind in this month.



 The month of April was called Ayrihuay. In it they reaped the crops and got in the harvests, and hence they call it Ayrihuay. Those who had received arms as knights, went to the farm of Sausiru, to fetch the maize that had been reaped there; which is beneath the citadel. It is here they say that Mama-huaca, the sister of Manco Ccapac, sowed the first maize. They cultivated this farm every year, for the body of this Mama-huaua, making from the crop the chicha that was necessary for the service of the body, and delivering this chicha to those who had charge of the body, which was embalmed. Then, in their order, they brought the maize of the harvests of the Creator, the Sun, the Moon, the Thunder, the Ynca, and Huanacauri, and of all the dead lords. They brought it in small baskets, singing a chaunt called yaravi, and dressed in gay clothes. All the rest of the people of Cuzco went to bring in this maize, except on the first day, when it was brought by the youths who had received knighthood. The priests, called Tarpuntays, offered up a lamb in sacrifice, beseeching the Creator ever to grant them good harvests. This lasted for four days, after which they went back to their farms; and so the year ended, and the month of May returned.

p. 53

 Besides the ceremonies peculiar to each of these months, they performed others called ayuscay rutu-chica-quicu-chicu. The ayuscay was when a women conceived. On the fourth day they put the babies into a cradle called quirau, and they invited the uncles and other relations to see it; but no other ceremony of any kind was performed in consequence of this event.

 The rutuchico is when the child attains the age of one year. Then, whether it be a boy or a girl, they give it the name that it is to have until it is of age. In the case of a boy, this is when he is armed as a knight, and receives the huaraca. He is then given the name that he is to bear until death. In the case of a girl it is when she attains the age of puberty, when she also receives the name she is to bear until death. The child was then shorn, and to perform the ceremony, the eldest uncle was called, who cut the first hair. Then the other relations did the same, and afterwards the friends of the parents. They all drank, and the principal uncle gave the child the name it was to bear until it came of age.

 The quicuchica is when girls reach the age of puberty: from the first day until the last, which was three days more or less. They fasted during the two first days, without eating anything at all, and on the third day they were given a little raw maize, that they might not die of hunger. They were confined in a place within the house, and on the fourth day they were washed, and dressed in clothes called ancalluasu, with shoes of white wool. Their hair was plaited, and a sort of bag was placed on their heads. On this day the principal relations came, and the girl came forth to set food before them, and to give them to drink. This lasted for two days, and the principal relation gave her the name she was to bear from thenceforth, and taught her how she should behave, and how she should obey her parents. They then offered gifts according to their means, without p. 54 any idolatrous practice whatever; and this custom was ordained by Ynca Yupanqui.

 When the Ynca gave women as wives, they were received because it was the command of the Ynca. The man went to the house of the girl's father, not to say that the Ynca had given her, but that he desired to serve for her, and so the relations of the girl were assembled, and their consent was obtained. The youth remained in the house of his father and mother-in-law for a space of four or five days, and carried in fuel and straw for them. Thus the agreement was made, and he took the girl for his wife; and because the Ynca had given her, it was considered that she was taken until death, and she was received on this understanding, and never deserted.

 The Ccapac-cocha was instituted by Pachacutec Ynca Yupanqui, and was as follows. The provinces of Colla-suyu, Chincha-suyu, Anti-suyu, and Cunti-suyu brought to this city, from each lineage or tribe, one or two male and female children aged about ten years. They also brought cloth and flocks, gold and silver. Then the Ynca seated himself in the Huacay-pata, or great square of Cuzco. The children and the other sacrifices walked round the statues of the Creator, the Sun, the Thunder, and the Moon, which were placed in the square, taking two turns. The Ynca then called to the Priests of the provinces, and commanded them to divide the sacrifices into four parts, in token of the four provinces, Colla-suyu, Chincha-suyu, Anti-suyu, and Cunti-suyu, which are the four divisions into which the land is divided. He told them, "Take, each one of you, his part of these offerings and sacrifices, and offer them to your principal huacas." So the children were strangled and buried with the silver figures of sheep, and the gold and silver figures of men and sheep, and they burnt the cloth, with some bags of coca. The people of Cuzco carried these sacrifices as far as Sacalpiña, about a league from Cuzco, p. 55 where they were received by the Indians of Anta, and in this way they were passed on until they were delivered at the places where they were to be offered up. In the same way, they were passed on to the other provinces. The Lord Ynca offered these sacrifices when he began to reign, that the huacas might give him health, and preserve his dominions in peace. No huaca or place of worship, how small soever, was left out in the distribution of the sacrifices, for the things that were to be sacrificed at each place were all set apart. The reason why all the huacas, whether they were sacred trees, fountains, or hills, or lakes, received part of the sacrifice, was because it was held to be an evil omen if any were left out, and because it was feared that if any were omitted they would be enraged, and would punish the Ynca. If any of the hills were very steep and could not be ascended, the sacrifices were hurled to the summits from slings. Thus, at all the principal huacas throughout the provinces, these sacrifices were offered up; and afterwards at all the smaller sacred places. At each place was offered up the portion that was assigned for it at Cuzco; for in Cuzco there was the Quipucamayu, or accountant, who took an account of each portion of the sacrifice, and of the province to which each was to be sent.

 They began to make the sacrifices in Cuzco, in the following order. The first was offered to the Creator, and was received by the priest who had charge of its image, and they prayed for long life and health, and for victory against the enemies of the Yncas, also that while this Ynca was Lord all the provinces might remain at peace, and be prosperous. After this prayer they strangled the children, first giving them to eat and drink, that they might not enter the presence of the Creator discontented and hungry. From others they took out the hearts while yet alive, and offered them to the huacas while yet palpitating. They anointed the huaca with the blood from ear to ear, and they called p. 56 this pirac. To others they gave the body with the blood, and finally they interred the bodies with the other sacrifices, in a place called Chuquicancha, which is a small hill above San Sebastian, about half a league from the town. Then the Priests of the Sun, in the same order, received what was assigned to their Deity, and in the same place they performed the sacrifice to the Sun, with the following prayer:—


Prayer for the Sun.

 Uiracochaya punchau cachan tutacachannas pacnicpacarichun yllarichun nispac nicpunchac churi yquicta carillacta quispillacta purichuruna rurascay-quictacancharin yampac quilla-rincanpac Uiracochaya casilla quispilla punchau Ynca runay-anani chisca yquicta quillari canchari ama un cochispa ama-nanachispa caçista quispicta huacaychaspa.  O Creator! Thou who saidest, let there be night and day, dawn and twilight, grant to thy child the Sun that when be rises be may come forth in peace. Preserve him that be may give light to men whom thou hast created. O Creator! O Sun! thou who art in peace and safety, shine down upon these people, and keep them in health and peace.

 In like manner, the priests of the Thunder, which was called Chuqui-ylla, received the children and other sacrifices which were assigned to it, and buried them in the same place, called Chuqui-cancha; and the same order was observed with the sacrifices to the Moon; prayers being offered up on each occasion that the Ynca might always be granted health and prosperity; and that he might always be victorious over his enemies. Afterwards the whole of the priests together offered to Heaven the sacrifices that were set apart for that purpose, and also to the earth; repeating the following prayer:—

 Pachacmama! cuyrumama casillacta quispillacta Ccapac Ynca huahuay yquctamacari hatalli.  O mother earth! preserve the Lord Ynca, thy son, who stands upon thee, in peace and safety.

p. 57

 All the above sacrifices were placed in the Chuqui-cancha. Then the priests who had charge of the huaca Yanacauri offered their sacrifice. This huaca was of Ayar-cachi,5 one of the four brothers who were said to have come out of the cave at Tampu; but, as I have treated of this fable in the beginning of the history which your most illustrious Lordship possesses, I will not dwell upon it here. As this was the principal huaca, besides those already mentioned, the priest who had charge of it, with his comrades, received the children and other things that were dedicated to it, and sacrificed them on the hill called Huanacauri, which is two leagues and a half from Cuzco, a little more or less. They offered up a prayer at the time of making the sacrifice, beseeching the huaca that the Ynca, its descendant, might ever be youthful and victorious, and that ever, during the life of the reigning Ynca, the country might be at peace. Afterwards sacrifices were performed at all the fountains, hills, and other places in Cuzco that were held to be sacred; but no child was killed for these sacrifices. These places were so numerous in Cuzco, that it would be tedious to enumerate them here, and I will not do so because they are given in the account of the huacas which I have presented to your most reverend Lordship. As soon as they had concluded the sacrificial ceremonies in Cuzco, the Priests brought out those which had to be sent to other parts, in the way that has already been described. The order of marching with the sacrifices was that all the people who went with the Ccapac-cocha (also called Cachahuaca) took ways apart from each other. They did not follow the royal road, but traversed the ravines and hills in a straight line, until each reached the places where the sacrifices were to be made. They ran, and as they went they raised cries and shouts which were commenced by an Indian who was deputed to perform this duty. Having given the word, all the others p. 58 continued the same cries. The cries were to beseech the Creator that the Ynca might ever be victorious, and be granted health and peace. They carried on their shoulders the sacrifices and the lumps of gold and silver, and the other things destined to be offered up. The children that could walk went on foot, and others were carried in their mothers' arms. When they reached their destinations, the Huacacamayoc, who had charge of the huacas, received those that were intended for their huacas, and sacrificed them, bringing the gold and silver and other things; and the children, having first been strangled, were burnt in sacrifice, with the sheep, lambs, and cloth.

 It is worthy of remark that children were not sacrificed at all the huacas, but only at the chief huaca of each lineage or province. In this way they travelled over all the dominions of the Ynca, with these sacrifices, until each one reached the extreme point of the empire, in the direction in which he travelled. The journeys were so well ordered and arranged, and they were so well equipped when they started from Cuzco that, although the sacrifices and the places at which they were to be delivered were numerous, they never made a mistake. For this service the Ynca had Indians in Cuzco, who were natives of the four Suyus or provinces. Each one had a knowledge of all the huacas, how small soever they might be, that were in the province over which he was Quipucamayoc or Accountant. They were called Vilcacamayoc. Each Indian had charge of nearly five hundred leagues of country, and he had an account of the things that were to be sacrificed at every huaca within his district. Those who had to set out from Cuzco received their destined sacrifices from the Vilca-camayocs, with instructions as to whom they were to deliver them. In the chief places of each province there were also Indians with the same duties, who kept an account of the sacrifices; nevertheless, as the sacrifices were increased or augmented according to the will p. 59 of the Ynca, the instructions were sent from Cuzco as regarded what was to be done at each place.

 They held this sacrifice, called Ccapacocha or Cachahuaca, in such veneration that, when those who were making journeys over uninhabited tracts with the sacrifices met other travellers, they did not raise their eyes to look at them, and the travellers prostrated themselves on the ground until the sacrifice-bearers had passed. When those bearing sacrifices passed through a village, the inhabitants did not come out of their houses, but remained, with deep humility and reverence, until the said Ccapac-cocha had passed onwards.

 They also had a custom, when they conquered and subjugated any nations, of selecting some of the handsomest of the conquered people and sending them to Cuzco, where they were sacrificed to the Sun who, as they said, had given them the victory.

 It was also their custom that, whenever anything excelled all the rest of its kind in beauty, they worshipped it, and made it huaca or sacred.

 They worshipped the sumrnits of all peaks and mountain passes, and offered maize and other things; for they said that, when they ascended any pass and reached the top, they could there rest from the labour of the ascent. This, they called chupasitas.

 About ten years ago there was a joke among the Indians. They had a kind of song called taqui uncu; and, as one Luis de Olivera, a Priest in the province of Parinacochas, in the bishopric of Cuzco, was the first who described this idolatrous pleasantry, I will here insert his account of it.

 In the province of Parinacochas, in the diocese of Cuzco, the said Luis de Olivera learnt, that not only in that province, but in all the other provinces and cities of Chuquisaca, La Paz, Cuzco, Guamanga, and even Lima and Arequipa, most of the Indians had fallen into the greatest apostasy, departing p. 60 from the Catholic Faith, which they had received, and returning to the idolatries which they practised in the time of their infidelity. It was not understood how this had come to pass; but it was suspected that the wizards, whom the Yncas kept in Uiscacabamba, were at the bottom of it. For in the year 1560, and not before, it was held and believed by the Indians, that an ointment from the bodies of the Indians had been sent for from Spain to cure a disease for which there was no medicine there. Hence it was that the Indians, at that time, were very shy of the Spaniards, and they would not bring fuel or grass or anything else to the house of a Spaniard, lest they should be taken in and killed, in order to extract this ointment. All this had originated from that villainy, with the object of causing enmity between the Indians and Spaniards. The Indians of the land had much respect for the things of the Ynca, until the Lord Viceroy, Don Francisco de Toledo, abolished and put an end to them, in which he greatly served God our Lord. The deception by which the Devil deceived these poor people was the belief that all the huacas which the Christians had burnt and destroyed had been brought to life again; and that they had been divided into two parts, one of which was united with the huaca Pachacama, and the other with the huaca Titicaca. The story went on that they had formed in the air, in order of battle against God, and that they had conquered Him. But when the Marquis6 entered this land, it was held that God had conquered the huacas, as the Spaniards had overcome the Indians. Now, however, it was believed that things were changed, that God and the Spaniards were conquered, all the Spaniards killed, and their cities destroyed, and that the sea would rise to drink them up, that they might be remembered no more. In this apostacy they believed that God our Lord had made the Spaniards, and Castille, and p. 61 the animals and provisions of Castille; but that the huacas had made the Indians, and this land, and all the things they possessed before the Spaniards came. Thus they stripped our Lord of his omnipotence. Many preachers went forth from among the Indians, who preached as well in the desert places as in the villages, declaring the resurrection of the huacas, and saying that they now wandered in the air, thirsty and dying of hunger, because the Indians no longer sacrificed nor poured out chicha to them. They declared that many fields were sown with worms, to be planted in the hearts of the Spaniards, and of the Spanish sheep, and of the horses, and also in the hearts of those Indians who remained Christians. The huacas, it was announced, were enraged with all those who had been baptized, and it was declared that they would all be killed unless they returned to the old belief and renounced the Christian faith. Those who sought the friendship and grace of the huacas would, it was urged, pass a life of prosperity and health. Those who would return to the love of the huacas and live, were to fast for some days, not eating salt nor aji, nor coloured maize, nor any Spanish thing, nor entering churches, nor obeying the call of the priests, nor using their christian names. Henceforth the times of the Yncas would be restored, and the huacas would not enter into stones or fountains to speak, but would be incorporated in men whom they would cause to speak: therefore the people were to have their houses prepared and ready, in case any huaca should desire to lodge in one of them. Thus it was that many Indians trembled and fell to the ground, and others tore themselves as if they were possessed, making faces; and when they presently became quiet, they said, when they were asked what they had felt, that such and such a huaca had entered into their bodies. Then the people took such an one in their arms, and carried him to a chosen spot, and there they made a lodging with straw and cloaks; and began to worship the huaca, offering p. 62 sheep, colla-chicha, llipta, mollo, and other things. Then they made a festival for two or three days, dancing and drinking, and invoking the huaca that was represented by the possessed man. Such persons, from time to time, preached to the people, threatening them, and telling them not to serve God, but the huacas; and to renounce all christianity, with all christian names, and the shirts, hats, and shoes of Christians. These possessed persons asked the people if they had any relics of the burnt huacas, and when they brought some piece of stone they covered their heads with a mantle before the people, and poured chicha, and the flour of white maize on the fragment. Then the possessed shouted and invoked the huaca; and rose up with the fragment in his hands, thus addressing the people. "You see here your support. You see here that which can give you health, and children, and food. Put it in its place, where it was in the days of the Yncas;" and this was done with many sacrifices. The wizards who in those times were detected and punished, had freely performed their offices, returning to them, and not leaving the Indians who were possessed by huacas, but receiving the sheep and coys offered as sacrifices.

 This evil was so widely credited that not only the Indians on the Repartimientos but those who lived in the cities, among Spaniards, believed and performed the prescribed fasts. At last the said priest, Luis de Olivera, began to punish the people of that province and of Acari, and reported the matter to the Royal Audience of Lima and to the Lord Archbishop, and the Bishop of Charcas, and to Friar Pedro de Toro, the steward of the Bishop of Cuzco. At last the apostacy began to wane, but altogether it lasted for seven years.

 As they believed that God and the Spaniards were conquered, the Indians began to rise, as happened in the year 1565, when the Licentiate Castro was Governor of these p. 63 kingdoms, who received reports from the Corregidors of Cuzco, Guamanga, and Huanuco. These cities were prepared for war during some time.

 There were several forms of apostacy in the different provinces. Some danced and gave out that they had the huaca in their bodies. Others trembled for the same reason. Others shut themselves up in their houses and shouted. Others flung themselves from rocks and were killed. Others jumped into the rivers, thus offering themselves to the huacas. At last our Lord, in his mercy, was pleased to enlighten these miserable people; and those who were left were led to see the nonsense that they had believed, that the Ynca was dead or at Vilcapampa, and that nothing of what had been predicted had taken place, but the very opposite.

 By reason of this devilish teaching, there are still some Indian sorcerers and witches, though their number is small. When any Indian is sick, these witches are called in to cure him, and to say whether he will live or die. Having pronounced upon the case, they order the sick man to take white maize called colli sara, red and yellow maize called cuma-sara, yellow maize called paro-sara, sea shells called mullu mullu, of all the colours they can collect, which they call ymaymana mullu. When these things are collected, the wizard grinds the maize with the shell, and gives it ground to the sick man that, breathing on it, he may offer it to the huacas and vilcas; with these words:—"O all the huacas and vilcas of the four provinces of the land, my grandfathers and ancestors, receive this sacrifice, wheresoever you may be, and give me health." They also make him breathe on a little coca, and offer it to the Sun, praying for health; and the same to the Moon and Stars. Then, with a little gold and silver of little value in his hand, the sick man offers sacrifice to the Creator. Then the wizard commands him to give food to the dead, placing it on their tombs, and p. 64 pouring out chicha; if he is in the part of the country where this can be done, and if not in a corner of his house. For the wizard gives the patient to understand that he is visited with this sickness because the dead are starving. If he is able to go on foot to some junction of two rivers, the wizard makes him go there and wash his body with water and flour of white maize, saying that he will there leave his illness. At the end of this ceremony the wizard tells him that, if he would free himself from his sickness, he must confess all his sins, without concealing any. They call this hichoco. These Indians are so simple that some of them readily, and with little persuasion, fall into this apostacy and error, though some afterwards repent and confess their sins.

 There are also a very great number of Indian men and women who, understanding the offence against our Lord that they commit in doing this, will not permit any such acts, but rather accuse those who do them before the Cura, that they may be punished. If some exemplary punishment was inflicted on the wizards, I believe that this great evil would soon disappear, although, as I have said, there are now few wizards.

 In this land there are different nations and provinces, and each one had its own rites and ceremonies, before it was conquered by the Yncas. The Yncas abolished some of the rites, and introduced others. Thus it is no less desirable to know the rites and ceremonies which existed in each of the provinces, other than those of the Yncas, of which I have here written. The means will be acquired, by this knowledge, of rooting out these idolatries and follies; and mean while, with the help of our Lord, the visit I have made through the parishes and valley of this city called Cuzco, is now concluded.





p. 3

1 For an account of the origin of this hospital, see my translation of G. de la Vega, ii, p. 258.

2 Bishops of Cuzco
 1534. Fray Vicente de Valverde.
 1543. Fray Juan Solauo, to 1550.
 1570. SEBASTIAN DE ARTAUN. Died at Lima 1584, at a Provincial Council.
 1584-93. Fray Gregorio de Montalvo.

p. 4

3 Tia-huanacu.

4 Mitimac, a colonist or settler.—See G. de la Vega, I, lib. iii, cap. 19.

p. 6

5 One name for the Ynca's head-dress. The "brilliant circle".

6 The battle-axe used with one hand.—G. de la Vega, I, lib. 9, cap. 31.

7 Near Cuzco. From Paccari, the dawn, and tompu, an inn.

8 "Teacher of the World."

p. 7

9 The "Tocay" of the tradition given by G. de la Vega, I, lib. i, cap. 18.

p. 8

1 See my translation of G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 241, 335, 527.

2 A macaw.

p. 11

3 Quisuar is the name of a tree (Buddleia Incana). Cancha, a place.

4 See G. de la Vega, i, p. 295, and ii, p. 243, of my translation; and the plan of Cuzco. There is still an ancient wall, with serpents carved on it, at this spot.

p. 12

5 Puquio, a spring or source.

6 The royal fringe, worn across the forehead.

p. 13

7 Mentioned four times by Garcilasso de la Vega, i, pp. 65, 66, and ii, pp. 169 and 230. He says that the first settlement, made in the valley of Cuzco, was on the hill called Huanacauri, and that a temple was built there. It was looked upon as very sacrcd, and was the spot whence races were run.

p. 16

8 "Place of gold." The temple of the Sun at Cuzco.

9 Punchau, "day". A name for the Sun.

1 "Teacher of the World."

2 Thunder and lightning.

p. 17

3 Priests. The word does not occur in Garcilasso de la Vega. Tarpuni is the verb "to sow".

4 Baskets.

p. 18

5 A tribe south of Cuzco.

6 On leaving Cuzco, this road is nearly east.

7 All these places are in the vale of Vilca-mayu, up which the road passes from Cuzco to lake Titicaca.

8 Not Andahuaylas, but a village near Cuzco, now called Andahuaylillas.

9 Music.

1 More correctly Huayllina, a song.

p. 19

2 Ccuri, gold; Collque, silver; Napa, salutation.

3 Tarpuy-quilla, the sowing month.

p. 20

4 Rimac-pampa.—G. de la Vega, ii, p. 239.

5 Quespi, crystal.

p. 21

6 Thunder.

7 The Creator.

p. 22

8 Descendants of Ynca Mayta Ccapac.

9 Descendants of Tupac Ynca Yupanqui.

1 Vicaquirau. Descendants of Ynca Rocca.

p. 23

2 Sacsahuana or Xaquixaquana.

3 Ccoya, the Princess, and Paullu, a son of the Ynca Huayna Ccapac. They were the lords of the Pisac vassals when Molina was writing.

4 Panaca is a term for lineage.—See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 531. Perhaps from Pana, sister of a brother.

5 See the account of the ceremonies in G. de la Vega, ii.

p. 25

6 Huanacauri.

7 Apu-ppunchau. The lord of day.

p. 26

8 Upper and Lower Cuzco.

p. 27

9 See also G. de la Vega.

1 Yahuar, blood; Sancu, pudding.

p. 34

2 Huarachicu.

p. 37

3 Ñusta, princess; Calli, valorous; Sapa, alone, unrivalled.

4 Muchani, the verb to adore, to kiss.

5 Pacsa is the word for the moon, in the Collao dialects. In the Ynca language it is Quilla.

p. 38

6 Slings.

p. 40

7 Aloe fibre.

p. 41

8 Raymi-napa.

p. 42

9 Huari.

p. 43

1 Huaman, a falcon; Cancha, place.

p. 44

2 G. de la Vega says that the lineage of the Ynca Sinchi Rocca was called Raurana Panaca.

p. 46

3 Pichio for piscu, a bird.

p. 47

4 Toctu is honey.

p. 57

5 See G. de la Vega, i, p. 73.

p. 60

6 Pizarro.