Sacred Texts  Native American  California  Index  Previous  Next 

Notes on the Shoshonean Dialects of Southern California, by A. L. Kroeber, [1909], at


The previously published Agua Caliente vocabulary was gone over with Jose Miguel of the Reservation at Banning, who learned from his mother this dialect intermediate between Luiseño and Cahuilla. Only such words are here presented as he gave in a more or less new form. The differences consist in part of the presence and absence of final a. It appears from the preceding

p. 247

discussion of the Cahuilla dialect that this ending is a subjective case suffix, and not part of the word itself. Other discrepancies between the two lists are due to the occurrence of certain nouns in one list with the possessive prefix, which causes the loss of their ending. Such are: no-gotapi, gutapi-c; no-hu-ya, hu-l; ne-piv’a, piva-t.

Ten, namadulwanut; eleven, suplawat namixunut; twelve, wi namixunut; twenty, wis namidulwanut.

Woman, newikat; baby, pulyinic; tooth, no-tma; beard, nu-muc-um; nail, nu-cul’u; leg, ne-sivi; blood, no’-ow‘; house, kitc-a; my bow, no-gotapi; my arrow, no-hu-ya; my pipe, ni-itcip; my tobacco, ne-piv’a; throwing stick, wakat; sky, tukvatc-a; sun, tamyat-a; night, dukmiat-a; thunder, daucunvat-a; snow, ayu’-ya; fire, kut; smoke, miat-a; ash, xocxic; rock, qawic; sand, haxal (cf. Luiseño ex’la, Gabrielino öxar, earth, land); grass, saval; bear, hunwut-a; wolf, iswat-a; coyote, isil-a; deer, sogat-a; skunk, dokal-a; jackrabbit, suitc-a; rabbit, tisaxat; crow, alwat; rattlesnake, sewat; fleas, mugatc-im; my lice, n-ala-m; red, xwat-xwat-ic; small uku-tsi; good, atca-ya; bad, olol-ic; this, i’i; there, axwa-tc; much, moditc-a; who, ha-xa; tomorrow, pañhavecpuk; yes, hoo; no, qai; eat, poye; drink, ba’; dance, tani; sing, hawi; sleep, go’ba; see, noli; sit, natca; walk, wakela.

Next: San Juan Capistrano