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I. The Hymn of Huitzilopochtli.

I. Vitzilopochtli icuic.


1. Vitzilopuchi, yaquetlaya, yyaconay, ynohuihuihuia: anenicuic, toçiquemitla, yya, ayya, yya y ya uia, queyanoca, oya tonaqui, yyaya, yya, yya.

2. Tetzauiztli ya mixtecatl, ce ymocxi pichauaztecatla pomaya, ouayyeo, ayyayya.

3. Ay tlaxotla tenamitl yuitli macoc mupupuxotiuh, yautlatoa ya, ayyayyo, noteuh aya tepanquizqui mitoaya.

4. Oya yeua uel mamauia, in tlaxotecatl teuhtla milacatzoaya, itlaxotecatl teuhtla milacatzoaya.

5. Amanteca toyauan xinechoncentlalizquiuia ycalipan yauhtiua, xinechoncentlalizqui.

6. Pipiteca toyauan xinechoncentlalizquiuia: ycalipan. yautiua, xinechoncentlalizqui.

Var. 6. This verse is omitted in the Medicean MS.


1. In ivitzilopochtli ayac nouiui, id est, ayac nechneneuilia, ayac iuhqui, in iuhqui. Anenicuic, id est, amo ca nen nonicuic, in quetzali, in chalchihuitl in ixquich ynotlatqui, toçiquemitl. Queyanoca oya tonaqui, id est, onocatonat, onocatlatuit.

2. Q. n., tetzauiztli, id est, oquintetzauito, in mixteca inic oquiyaochiuhqui: oquimanilito in imicxi in pichauazteca, ioan in mixteca.

3. Ay tlaxotla tenamitl, q. n., quitepeua inin tena in aquique yauchiuallo. Iuitli macoc, q. n., oncan quitema

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in tiçatl in ihuitl. Mopopuxotiuh yauhtlatuaya, q. n., inic mopopuxoticalaqui yauc, ioan, q. n., yeuatl quitemaca y yauyutl quitemaceualtia, tepanquizqui, mitoayaqui yehuatl quichioa yauyutl.

4. Oya yeua huel mamauia, q. n., çan oc momamauhtiaya in aya momochiua yauyutl. Teuhtla milacatzoaya q. n., in noteuh in opeuh yauyutl, aocac momauhtica iniquac ynoteuhtli moquetza ynoteuhtica tlayoa(lli).

5. Amanteca toyauan, q. n., yn iyaoan yn aquique in cani omocentlalique ca in calipan in yautioa ca tlatlaz ynin cal.

6. Pipiteca, toyaoan, xinechoncentlalizque, q. n., in pipiteca y yaoan mochiuhque. Yn calla in mochiua yauyutl in i calipan.


The Hymn of Huitzilopochtli.

1. Huitzilopochtli is first in rank, no one, no one is like unto him: not vainly do I sing (his praises) coming forth in the garb of our ancestors; I shine; I glitter.

2. He is a terror to the Mixteca; he alone destroyed the Picha-Huasteca, he conquered them.

3. The Dart-Hurler is an example to the city, as he sets to work. He who commands in battle is called the representative of my God.

4. When he shouts aloud he inspires great terror, the divine hurler, the god turning himself in the combat, the divine hurler, the god turning himself in the combat.

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5. Amanteca, gather yourselves together with me in the house of war against your enemies, gather yourselves together with me.

6. Pipiteca, gather yourselves together with me in the house of war against your enemies, gather yourselves together with me.


Huitzilopochtli was the well-known war-god of the Azteca, whose functions are described by Sahagun (Historia, Lib. I., cap. 1) and many other writers. The hymn here given is probably the tlaxotecuyotl, which was chanted at the celebration of his feast in the fifteenth month of the Mexican calendar (see Sahagun, Historia, Lib. IL, cap. 34). The word means "his glory be established." It was commenced at sunset and repeated till sunrise.

1. "In the garb of our ancestors" (to-citli-quemitl). The high priest appeared in the insignia of Quetzalcoatl, which, says Sahagun, "were very gorgeous." (Hist., Lib. II., Appendix.)

2. Mixteca, plural of Mixtecatl, an inhabitant of Mixtecapan, near the Pacific. The Huasteca, a nation of Maya lineage, lived on the Gulf coast.

3. The god was called the Hurler, as he was believed to hurl the lightning serpent (the xiuhcoatl).

5. Sahagun recites the legends about the Amanteca (Historia, Lib. IX., cap. 18). Here the name refers to the inhabitants of the quarter called Amantlan.

6. Pipiteca, a nomen gentile, referring doubtless to a certain class of the hearers.

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This hymn may be compared to another, descriptive of the same divinity, preserved in Sahagun's MS. in Madrid. It is as follows, with my translation by its side.

Can maceualli
Can tlacatl catca.
Quiyocoyani in yaoyotl
Ca itechpa mitoaya
Tepan quitlaza
In xiuhcoatl
Quitoznequi yaoyotl
Teoatl tlachinolli.
Auh iniquac ilhuiq'xtililoya
Tealtilaya impochteca.
Auh inic mochichiuaya:
Xiuhtotonacoche catca

Only a subject,
Only a mortal was.
A magician,
A terror,
A stirrer of strife,
A deceiver,
A maker of war,
An arranger of battles,
A lord of battles;
And of him it was said
That he hurled
His flaming serpent,
His fire stick;
Which means war,
Blood and burning;
And when his festival was celebrated,
Captives were slain,
Washed slaves were slain,
The merchants washed them.
And thus he was arrayed:
With head-dress of green feathers,
Holding his serpent torch,
Girded with a belt,
Bracelets upon his arms,
Wearing turquoises,
As a master of messengers.


When in Florence, in 1889, I had an accurate copy made of the Nahuatl text and all the figures of the first book of Sahagun's History. The colored figure of Huitzilopochtli is in accordance with the above description.

Next: II. War Song of the Huitznahuac