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The Samaritan Chronicle, or the Book of Joshua (Part I)

The Samaritan Chronicle


The Book of Joshua, the son of Nun.


Translated from the Arabic, with notes by

Oliver Turnbull Crane, M.A.

John B. Alden, Publisher, New York, 1890

(Note that the notes from this book are not here shown)

(Chapters 1- 25)





The Samaritan Book of Joshua was first brought to the notice of European scholars by the eminent Orientalist, Joseph J. Scaliger, who obtained a manuscript of it from the Samaritans of Cairo, in the year 1584. This MS. was deposited by him in the library of the University of Leyden, and for a long period remained the only copy of the work in Europe; in fact, it is only within the last half of the present century that other MSS. have been obtained; one of these is now in the possession of the British Museum, and another is said to be in the library of trinity College, Cambridge. To the celebrated Swiss theologian and scholar, Johann Heinrich Hottinger, is due the credit of making the contents of this work fully known to scholars; this he did in his Exercitationes Anti-Moriniance de Pentateucho Samaritano, published in 1644, wherein he gave a condensed Latin translation, or rather epitome, of the whole chronicle: he likewise treated of it in other of his writings, especially in his Smegma Orient, (1657), which contains a fair resume' of its contents. Hottinger's works remained the principle source from which scholars drew their information of the character and contents of this chronicle of the Samaritans, until in the year 1848, T.W.J. Juynboll edited the Arabic text of the Leyden MS. with a complete Latin translation to which were added elaborate dissertations and copious critical notes. This translation of Juynboll's at once superseded all that had preceded it, and has ever since remained the standard.

The translation now offered- the first that has ever been attempted in English- is made directly from the Arabic text as printed by Juynboll, while the MS. in the British Museum has been examined and consulted in many cases. To those who may take the trouble to compare this English translation with Juynboll's Latin, it may occasion surprise to find that, in the interpretation of a considerable number of passages they materially differ; if such will, however, only turn to the original Arabic and consult it, the writer confidently believes that the English rendering will be found to more exactly represent the original than the Latin. It should be borne in mind, however, that the Leyden MS. is in the Samaritan characters, though written in the Arabic language, which the scribe often wrote in a most careless and negligent manner, and hence the MS. is in many places exceedingly difficult to decipher. Juynboll edited it in Arabic characters, but, on account of the wretchedness of the writing, was often driven to conjectural readings and emendations, yet he always placed in the margin the exact, or supposed, words of the text, thus affording the student an opportunity to form an independent judgment as to the justice and accuracy of his emendations, and upon careful consideration one is sometimes forced to the conclusion that Juynboll has unintentionally erred, both in his reading of the text and in his conjectural corrections, and that the discarded words in the margin are in some cases to be preferred to his attempted improvements. These facts will explain some of the variations which distinguish this translation from the Latin one of Juynboll.

It is not the intention of the writer to detract one whit from the praise which is due to Juynboll, for the care he bestowed upon his work and for his truly able translation and the scholarly and erudite notes that he added to it; to all of which the writer here makes acknowledgment of his great indebtedness.

Next to the Jews there is scarcely any people that excite the interest of biblical students more warmly than the Samaritans. Their origin, their history, their literature and their traditions are questions that have brought to their investigation a succession of able scholars, and are to day still subjects of intense interest and research. The present translation is put forth with the hope that it may not be unwelcome to the many who are interested in these subjects, but to whom this Chronicle in the original language has been a sealed book.

Among the Samaritans themselves this book is not held to be of Divine inspiration- for they believe that only the five books of Moses are inspired- nevertheless, they greatly revere it and hold it in the highest estimation, and believe it to contain a true and authentic history of the period of which it treats. As to when it was composed and who was its author we have no positive knowledge. From the inscription which the Leyden MS. bears we learn that the first part of the codex, as it now stands, was written in A.D. 1362-3, and the latter part in A.D. 1513. Juynboll's researches led him to the conclusion that it was redacted into its present form about A.D. 1300, out of earlier documents. This is probably the fact, and it is all that can be safely predicated as to the time of its compilation.

A marked feature of the book is the number of legends and traditions it contains, some of which- so far as we are aware- are to be met with nowhere else. Most of them, however, are intimately connected with similar legends current in the East, and show a common origin with those of the Jews, and frequently with those of the Mohammedans. In the notes an effort has been made to notice such Jewish or Moslem legends and traditions as are identical or show an affinity with those mentioned in the text, in order that the reader may see wherein the various versions agree or differ. Care has been taken also to identify, so far as it was possible, all places or localities mentioned in the Chronicle, and to give their ancient Hebrew names. This, it is believed, will not be without value to all such as are unfamiliar with the modern Arabic names of the places in Palestine, and who might otherwise be at a loss to know the Arabic names in the Chronicle.

To all who are interested in the history, geography and legends of Palestine this Chronicle of the Samaritans will be of particular interest; and while it is not to be denied that many of its statements are incredible, still the fact that much of it contains is of true value and is not to be ignored, but may be used discriminately to good advantage by scholars to shed light upon a large range of subjects, our knowledge of which is and always has been extremely limited; in support of this we might refer to the recognition it has received at the hands of such writers as Bishop Patrick, Dean Stanley, Capt. Condor and others.

In conclusion, the translator wishes to express his obligation to his father, Rev. Oliver Crane, DD., LL.D., for his kindly interest and encouragement throughout, and for many good criticisms and suggestions in revising the manuscript, and also to his friend Antun `Abdallah Salih of Beirut, Syria, for valuable assistance in interpreting certain obscure and corrupt passages in the original.


Morristown, N. J., December 1889.





This is the book narrating the chronicles of the children of Israil, from the time that our master Musa (Moses), the prophet- peace be upon him- the son of `Amran, invested Yush'a (Joshua) the son of Nun with the Kalifate over his people. All of this is translated from the Hebrew language into the Arabic language, after the manner of a rapid translation by word of mouth, and giving only the statement of the narrative, and nothing more: even what God- Powerful and Glorious- showed forth of signs and miracles and wonders, which man is too weak to adequately specify and describe; such as, what happened at the Urdun (Jordan), and also at the time when the giants were humbled, and with what victory and power and might and authority God came to his (Joshua's) assistance; also what they (the children of Israel) witnessed at the time of their entering the land, besides what they witnessed in Wady el-Mujib, and on mount Sina (Sinai) and its vast wilderness, with the essential incidents of this event which God made manifest, even the quaking of its mountains, together with what there was of thunders and lightnings connected with this, and joining the fires to the very heaven, and their hearing the code of their laws from the divine and eternal voice, from whom shone forth flashes of light, representing the form of its writer, even the Creator. Afterwards what happened to them at the greater Sea, not to mention what their adversaries witnessed in Greater Misr (Egypt), and what calamities overtook their enemies, such as Fir'aun (Pharaoh) and his army, and `Amlaq (the Amalekites) and its host, and Sihun (Sihon) and his kingdom, and `Uj (Og) the father of `Anaq with his sorcery, and kings of Mab (Moab) with their greatness. Also what happened unto Qarun (Korah) the son of the uncle of Harun (Aaron) and to the company who were with him, namely that some of them the earth opened its mouth and swallowed, and they went down alive to the deepest depths, while as to others of them the divine fire came forth and consumed their bodies. And also what happened to the people while they were in the wilderness forty years, suffering want, without a guide and with no provisions or clothing, and barely living and existing; whom the cloud overshadowed by day and the pillar of fire protected from cold by night, and whose food was the manna from heaven; and when there was need of water, our master Musa- peace be upon him- the son of `Amran, brought it forth for them from the rock and from the parched ground and stone, until they themselves had drank, and all that were in the company both living souls and animals. And it shall come to pass, that when they who are possessed of intelligence, but are yet unbelieving, shall have heard of what God did bountifully bestow upon them (the children of Israel), and with what happiness He did surround them, and how He lifted off of them all calamities, whether heavenly or earthly, and also what new things He revealed unto them, then they will know that, there is no Lord but their (the children of Israel) Lord and no prophet, but their prophet, and no book but their Book, and no true religion but their religion; and (they shall also understand) the excellency of the perfect creed, and the certainly of its validity, and that it is greatest in rendering praise to the Creator- Mighty and Glorious- the One who is omnipotent to do whatever He pleaseth. And when one shall hear of the decline of the kingdom of the children of Israil, and what calamities and misfortunes and exiles and dispersions overtook them by reason of their disobedient doings and their rebellious actions, his fear will be increased for Him from Whom nothing escapes and of Whose kingdom nothing is destroyed- Blessed be he and exalted! And now of Him do we implore complete right-guidance and all-embracing favor in His mercy. Verily He is a hearer and answerer (of prayer).





At the completion of the hundred and nineteenth year, on the first day of the eleventh month, of the life of our master Musa the prophet- peace be upon him- God revealed unto him in the plain of Mab (Moab), that he should lay his hand upon the head of Yush'a, the son of Nun, the spiritual man; meaning by this, that he (Moses) should give him (Joshua) information of the profound secret, and revealed to him the vision of his dream and the science of knowledge, as much as he was capable of bearing; by the which his heart would be strengthened and his spirit perfected and his soul elevated, and the rule over the creatures (the children of Israel) be rendered easy unto him; and that he should also inform him of the Name, by which he should put to flight hostile armies, and by which a nation that no country could contain and whose numbers were countless might be confounded. And He ordered him(Moses) to set him (Joshua) before el-`Azar (Eleazar) the imam- peace be upon him- and to assemble unto him(Joshua) the people of learning and knowledge with the nobles and rulers, and ratify a compact with him, and make a new covenant with him, and invest him with the kingly authority, and install him in the rule over all the children of Israil. Thereupon the Prophet laid on el-`Azar the imam- peace be upon him- the command, which rested on him, to superintend the affair with completeness and splendor, and not to enter upon any affair or turn aside under any circumstance, except after he had seen to this. And at the completion of his inauguration, the priests sounded with trumpets, and the heralds made proclamation for his standard, and the banners and flags were unfurled to his reign. Our master, the prophet Musa- peace be upon him- had seen that he (Joshua) was wont to go forth in the front line of battle during his (Moses') days, in order that he might by actual trial gain experience of what he knew and had observed. And immediately he (Moses) gave command that, there should be selected out from the children of Israil- meaning by this, that there should be chosen from among them- twelve thousand men; from each tribe one thousand men; and thereupon he would with these make an attack upon the Midyanites, to take satisfaction for Israil out of them and their country. Now, before mention is made of the cause of this retaliation, we would remark, that the children of Israil had been restrained from intermeddling in any way with the affairs of the `Ammanites and Mabites, and were under orders not to appropriate to themselves any of their territory; and they did do only what necessity compelled them to do with them. Hereafter we will explain and elucidate this, by the will of God and his assistance, and the goodness of his guidance and favor.




When the children of Israil went down into the plain of Mab, God revealed unto our master Musa, God revealed unto our master Musa, the Prophet- upon him be the most excellent peace- that he should not have anything to do with the `Ammanites and Mabites, nor should he wage war with them; "Because I," said God, "will not appropriate any of their lands to the children of Israil." And he (Moses) obeyed this and did accordingly. Now when it reached the ears of the kings of Mab and `Amman and Midyan what had happened unto Sihun and `Ug, of destruction and ruin and the taking captive of people and the talking of cities, forsooth they were sore distressed and feared exceedingly because of this; and they sent messages unto Bila'am, the son of B'aur (Beor), by men pre-eminent in sorcery and wisdom- for all the solders knew of him by reason of his invocations. And the delegates came into his presence, and said unto him: "The five kings of Mab and `Amman send unto thee their salutations, and say to thee: O, our master and our chief, we know that circumstances are brought about by thee, a knowledge of which the people of learning fall short of attaining unto, and that whatsoever thou blessest, is blessed, and whomever thou cursest, is cursed; and that thou canst put to route all armies by thy invocations and words. Now, perchance, there has already reached thee what has happened in Misr through the children of Israil, and in the sea and in the wilderness, and what happened unto `Amlaq, the chief of tribes, by reason of them, and what they did with Sihun and `Ug, and what they have resolved upon in reference to their permanent dwelling-places. And now their army has descended upon our border, and they are working for our destruction, and already they cover the face of the land; and we have come unto thee and hope to obtain relief of thee and security from them, through thy own free blessing and propitious aid, and also through what we have decided upon of happiness for thee, and the rendering of thy will absolute. Perchance now, our condition will be improved through thy agency, and thou wilt curse this people, and wilt prevail over them and effect a change in present circumstances through thy renown which is spread abroad, and the dignity of thy authority in consequence of thy circumstances, riches and servants; and there will be glory to us and to thee among all kings, in addition to what reward will be added unto this, in consideration for thy grand beneficence toward a people whom no country can obtain, and whose numbers are countless and beyond reckoning; for thou wilt have prevented a multitude from being murdered by fire. For the character and manner of this army is, that it is not restrained by a feeling of shame from an old man, nor does it accord protection to a woman, or have pity on a child, or show compassion toward an animal; for they do nothing else but murder with the sword, and stone to death with stones, and crucify, and burn with fire: yea, this is its custom, and it does not allow any mercy to be shown, or protection to be granted, unto any and it spares not even a leafless palm branch in its annihilating and destroying. By God, O our master, hasten unto us, bringing with thee whatever is necessary, and be not wanting unto us in this matter which involves the preservation of life, and we will reward a good deed with its like, and an evil deed with its like. And now, peace."

And when Bila'am heard this message, he made reply to the company of wise and trained men, and said unto them: "I will treat with due respect your rights, and the rights of those who urge you on in this message; but my action is controlled by the One whom I serve, if He gives me permission to go with you, I would accomplish your desire and the desire of those who urge you on in the message, and I would accomplish their (the children of Israil's) destruction, and in the end complete their annihilation, and would leave unto you a memory, for which you would praise me to the end of the ages. And now decide to lodge with me this night, and I will hear what shall be addressed unto me, and we will wholly act in accordance therewith, whether it be of good or evil." And the people consented, and lodged with him. And he began to offer worship to the One whom he was accustomed to serve, and it was said unto him: "Do not thou go with the people, nor curse Israil, for they are blessed." And he came to them with these words; thereupon they returned to the kings, and informed them of what had happened; but this only increased the more their desire after them, and this was high honor to him. And now there rode unto Bila'am more illustrious delegates than those who had gone before, and greater by far than they; yet they made less promises to him, and said in the second message: "Now see to it that thou comest unto us; for we are able to honor thee, and to give bountifully unto thee." Thereupon the people came unto him with this message; and Bila'am answered the messengers and said: "It is necessary that ye understand that, if the kings should give unto me their houses full of silver and gold, I cannot transgress what my Lord commands; but now abide this night with me, and I will hear what communication shall be addressed to me, and I will act in accordance with it, whether it be favorable or unfavorable." So the people lodged with him; and the man started in on the beginning of his performance and service and worship. God then desired to make a manifestation of His mysteries: now behold He could not do this Himself, nor could He do it through one who worshipped Him after the manner of anyone of the children of Israil, nor could He do it by writing, or by the agency of any of His angels, but forsooth only by sending unto him His very Command. And the companion of Bila'am upon beholding the spectre of the Command of God, fled away from it, and he became the visible form of the agent of the Creator who addressed Bila'am; for this was the device employed to communicate with him. And the Command of God said to him: "Did not I say unto thee, O Bila'am, when the people came unto thee; `go with them'?"; making inquiry to see what craving Bila'am had for the journey. But he answered him not a syllable, though his usual custom was to say: "Not so; for without my God I give ear to nothing." And he did not fully believe that he had heard the correct interpretation of the speech, until He commanded him to mount and ride, and then he was made to saddle his ass, and went along with the wise men of Mab. And the anger of the Creator was aroused, because of his starting out on the journey before he had sought instruction (of God), and he placed Himself in the way to make an attack upon him. Now he (Balaam) was riding upon his she-ass, and boasting of her before the people of learning, that he had no need of a guide when with her, and that he had no necessity ever to beat her. But when she espied the Agency of the Creator- Mighty and Glorious- standing in the way, with His drawn sword in His hand, she swerved aside out of the way through fear of Him; and this was the first of the putting to shame of Bila'am and of his remorse; and he beat her with his staff. And the Agency of the Creator removed to a place between walls in a field, and stood still; and when the ass behold Him, she shied into one of the walls and injured Bila'am's foot, and he beat her more violently. And when the learned and wise men beheld this, they said unto him: "O our master, it cannot be that there is a cause for her opposition to the execution of this mandate of the Divine Word?" And he answered and said unto them: "It was desired that this mandate should be carried out." And the Agency of God again passed on, until He stopped in a narrow place where there was no turning out either to the right or to the left; and when the ass beheld Him, she lay down under him (Balaam), and he again beat her violently. And God put speech on the tongue of the animal, and thereupon she said to Bila'am: "What have I done unto thee that thou shouldest beat me these three times? Am not I thine ass upon whom thou ridden since thou hast created up till now? Have I ever acted badly toward thee like as this time?" And he said: "No." Then God opened the eyes of Bila'am, so that he saw the Agency of God, even an angel standing in the way with His drawn sword in His hand, and he threw himself down before Him; and said unto him: "Why hast thou beaten thine ass three times? If thou hadst got right in front of me, I would have killed thee and saved he alive; for I have seen the wickedness of thy inclination. Now however, go along with the people, but keep carefully to what I shall say unto thee, and do not overstep it." Thereupon Bila'am journeyed on; and when the kings heard of his journeying, they came out to meet him, and they found him perplexed in his affair, and he informed them as to what had happened, and that in accordance with it he could not do anything except by the command of God- Mighty and Glorious. And the people took him to the cliff which is described in the holy Pentateuch, that he might behold all the children of Israil. Now after the man had been thus met and honored and made much of, his zeal was increased to obtain to the uttermost degree the love of the people. Thereupon he built on the cliff that has been described seven altars, and offered up on every altar a calf and a ram, and began to worshipping that he might hear what would be addressed unto him. And he heard what did not please him, and he announced what he had heard to the company of the kings; and they said to him: "Remove unto another place, and perhaps there the cursing of this place will be easier." And he obeyed them, and he did like he had done the first time, and he heard greater things than the first communication; and he began to go to the extreme in glorifying the children of Israil and honoring them. And the king of Mab said to him: "If thou dost not curse them, do not bless them." Then he besought them that he might remove unto another place, and he went and did as he had done the second time. And his eyes fell upon the desert and he saw the tribes of Israil, and divine spirits were guarding them, that is, the angels were protecting them every soul; and he turned away the evil eye from them, and hastened to glorify and bless them, until he said concerning them: "O Israil, cursed be he who curseth thee, and blessed be he who blesseth thee." And the anger of the king was aroused against him; but Bila'am said unto him; "Let not thine anger be aroused against me; did I not say unto thee that I could not act contrary to what I am commanded? But now assemble the kings with thee, that I may inform them your company of what will happen unto you and others besides you of the people, and I will give you information about a device, which, if carried out, will occasion their annihilation. Thereupon the kings assembled, and he made known unto them marvelous news, the explanation of which would be long; and he said to them: "Round about these people the holy angels keep guard, and the King of the heavens and the earth is with them, and it is not allowable to make use of sorcery against them, nor the science of astrology; nor will His heart repudiate them, except when they give themselves over to unbelief, or are led to do so by some stratagem, then the Creator will become angry with them and they will perish, and not a single one of them will survive."






When the kings heard him relate what has preceded, they said to him: "How is the way to accomplish what thou hast mentioned concerning their destruction?" And he looked up the last resource of infidelity and pollution, and made it known unto them, and said to them: "Select of the most beautiful and fair women as many as ye can, and the king shall be the first to send forth his daughter with them; thereupon give unto each one of them an idol which she may worship, and an ornament which she may look at, and perfume which she may inhale, and food and drink; and the daughter of the king should be in a chariot which is wafted along with the wind, and it should be enjoined upon her that she make it her aim to go to the tabernacle, and pay her respects to no one except to their chief unto whom the crowd show deference, for he is their chief. And if in this she meets his approval, then she shall say unto him: " Wilt thou not receive me, or eat of my food and drink of my drink and offer sacrifices unto my god? For after this I will be thine, and with thee will do whatsoever thou desirest." For know, O king, that by the chief of this people being polluted, both he and his company will perish, and of them there will not remain a survivor." And the kings did what he recommended unto them; and there were collected to them twenty-four thousand girls, and they sent them away on the Sabbath day. And as they descended opposite the tabernacle, the chief of the tribe of Shim'aun (Simeon) rose up; for he was the chief of fifty-nine thousand men and was in the advance. And the daughter of the king advanced unto him, for she on beholding the great deference shown to him by his companions supposed him to be the prophet Musa- peace be upon him, and he ate of her food and drank of her drink and worshipped the idol which was in her hand, and after this she was submissive to him in his desire. Thereupon everyone of them- I mean this particular tribe- took one girl for himself; and the Creator became angry at the people, and destroyed of them in the wink of an eye four thousand men together with four thousand girls. And had not Finahas (Phinehas) the imam- peace be upon him- rushed from the presence of Musa the Prophet- peace be upon him- while he and his assembly were weeping at the door of the tabernacle, and seized in his hand a lance and bursting in upon them thrust through the man and girl- I mean the daughter of the king- and dispatched them, assuredly would the wrath of the Creator have destroyed the whole people; but by this action he removed and warded off the Divine anger from the children of Israil. And to Finahas- peace be upon him- there resulted from this noble fame and an excellent remembrance, and a covenant to the end of the ages. And praise be to God the Creator without cessation!





When the stratagem of Bila'am against the children of Israil was accomplished and there had perished of them this great number, and they had been overtaken by this calamity, God revealed to the prophet Musa- peace be upon him- that he should take vengeance for the children of Israil upon the people of Midyan, before that he should return to his elements (meaning by this, before his decease). So he commanded Yush'a the son of Nun, at the time of his investing him with his successorship, that he should go forth with the company which he specially mentioned, and with him Finahas, the imam, for he had gained the victory and a name, and he it was who had averte3d the Divine anger, and not anyone else, for he had hastened to obey his Lord. Now Bila'am had returned unto the king of Mab to congratulate him over the calamity of the children of Israil, and he found the kings collected together and indulging in joy and merriment, and before they were aware, 12,000 men had surrounded their city, whereupon they made haste in sending out the harlots with ornaments and censers and perfumes, taking for granted that what they had made a successful beginning in would be carried out to a perfect completion. But they (i.e., the Israelites) slaughtered these (the women) with the sword. Then Finahas- peace be upon him- with his cousin, went in advance and sounded with the trumpets, and the walls of the fortress fell down in ruins, and the army entered into Midyan, and they killed simultaneously the five kings and every man whom they found in it. And they began to make inquires about Bila'am, and they found him in a house of worship, and lo, he engaged in worship and was performing service. And they brought him out, and he was talking in speech that was unintelligible and could not be understood, because of the greatness of his confusion and bewilderment and the aberration of his mental faculties. And Yusha, the son of Nun, exerted himself to preserve him alive, that our master Musa- the peace of God be upon him- might behold him; but they of the tribe of Shima'un who beheld him were not obedient, nay, even, they cried out the Law against him, and put him to death. And Yusha said: "Who killed him? Why have ye done this, seeing we had taken him under our protection?" And they said unto him: " O our master, there should be no protection granted to an infidel, nor security to a sorcerer; had we not killed him, he might have effected the accomplishment of a stratagem against thee and against thy people. And we have dared to go contrary to thee in killing him, because of what was in our hearts concerning his deed, and if there be sin in our action in violating the protection accorded to him, lo, we assume it; but to our master belongs such exalted sentiments that he will look with liberality upon our excuse." And he approved of what they said and justified their action. And the people plundered Midyan, and drove away its cattle and took captive its women and children; and not a thing remained in it but they took it. And they returned laden with booty, victorious and safe; not a single man of them was missing. And our master Musa, the prophet- peace be upon him- with el-`Azar (Eleazar), the imam, the son of Harun (Aaron), and a crowd of chiefs went out to meet them. And when the beheld what there was among their number of captive women, our master Musa, the Prophet- upon him be the most excellent peace- became angry at them, and said to them: "This crowd has been the cause of your destruction." Thereupon he commanded them to kill every women who had known a man, and every boy child, and that none should remain except female children who had not known a man; and that they, together with the company that was with them, should separate themselves seven days for the purpose of purification. And they did so. And the number of the female captives who remained over after those who were killed, was thirty-two thousand girls; and of sheep there was 675,000 head, and of cattle there was 72,000 head; and of horses and mules and camels, 61,000 head; and of gold and silver and vessels and general goods, such a quantity as is impossible to define and describe. But, more wonderful than this, was the unharmed condition of the 12,000 men who entered a province such as this was, without the loss of a single man of them, or even one of them being overtaken by the bow of a sword or hit with a stone. Blessed be God, the One who is able to do whatsoever He pleaseth, and of Him do I ask assistance, and unto Him do I put my trust, and unto Him do I return penitently.






When God informed our master Musa, the Prophet, of the time when he could no longer remain alive, He commanded him to go up unto the mountain known as Nabah (Nebo). And he (Moses) proceeded to give instructions to Yusha, the son of Nun, and to the children of his brother, and to the assembly of the leaders, with regard to all necessary matters. And they remained with him some time, along will all the officers of the army and the people of wisdom; and he put them under a covenant that they would go with the children of Israil in the way which he had commanded them, and not swerve from it either to the right or to the left; and he ordered the priests to sound upon the trumpets, and send forth heralds who should proclaim throughout the congregation of the children of Israil: "Whoever desires to see our master Musa the Prophet- the most excellent, peace be upon him- let him come, that he may hear his blessing and whatever he shall reveal, and look upon him and bid him farewell, before he goes to the place which God has chosen for him." Thereafter he entered into the tabernacle and offered on the brazen altar the sacrifices, and lifted up the veil, even the veil of the holy house, and cast incense upon the golden altar, and worshipped his Lord; and then he bid farewell to the temple and what there was in it of omnipotence and divine majesty, and went out. And all the children of Israil according to their ranks were gathered together unto him, and he sat down upon an exalted seat, as was his custom, whereon he was elevated above the people and the light of his countenance shone as the rays of the sun. And he began to deliver an address unto the congregation of the children of Israil, in which he gathered together just as many as a servant of God could, of passages of praise to God, whose names are holy: and in it he expounded intelligence of the Divine favor which were to come, and the cause of Wrath and Error. And he informed the children of Israil concerning the deluge of fire, and the day of vengeance and reward, and defined the time of his return unto them. Then he announced unto them what should happen unto every tribe, and that would marshal them complete in the days of final perfection and completion. And he blessed them altogether, and they listened unto him. And, when the time came to bid farewell to each individual army, they began to cry aloud and wail and weep; and after a space of time he commanded them to be quiet and to sit down. Then he departed, walking slowly up the ascent of the mountain unto which God had ordered him to ascend, and with him were Yusha, the son of Nun, and el'Azar the imam, and the assembly of the leaders who were bidding him farewell and weeping at the approach of his separation from them and clinging to him. And when the farewells were prolonged with them, and night drew near, a pillar of divine fire descended and separated between them and their master- peace be upon him- and no one knows what happened to him after this, even unto this time. His allotted period of life had reached its limit, and the term of his existence among men- peace be unto him- and now his dealings were directly with his Lord and His angels. And of God do we beg that He would unite us to him through His mercy. Behold He is over all things powerful, and He is my sufficiency and illustrious Protector.






When the master Musa, the Prophet- peace be upon him- disappeared from him and from the congregation of the children of Israil, and the COMMAND separated him from them, which event he was unable to avert from himself, and there passed away from them the sight of him, and when all had completely despaired of his return, Yush'a, the son of Nun, wept for him and proclaimed with his loudest voice, saying: "O Master! The death of every one of the children of Adam, from the first to last, was witnessed, and his grave seen; but thou! Who has seen thy grave? What prophet of the prophet can attain unto thy glory, or prolong his memory unto the extent thy memory is prolonged? Where is one who has brought to life the dead and caused the living to die, through the permission of his Lord, besides thee? Unto what prophet do the infidels bear testimony as to his prophetic office, except thee? What prophet, in the ages past or yet to come, did cause his congregation to hear the voice of the Creator from the regions of the heavens, except thee? Where is one who shall arise, and his words ascend on high and ward off the Divine anger, and bring down Divine mercy, except thee? What prophet fasted before his Lord, until he fasted one hundred and twenty days including the nights, except thee? What prophet boasted of his being the one who held converse with God without anything intervening between them, except thee? Where is one, who has trodden the fire, and cleft the darkness, and rent the clouds, and reached unto the curtain of omnipotence, besides thee? What book ascribed to any prophet has it the teaching of the worship of the Creator, and of how access may be had to Him, except they book? O one who killed the Nil (Nile) with his rod! O one who did reveal new things! O one who showed forth wonders! O one who manifested signs! O one who light up the darkness! O one who cleft the sea with his rod! O one-who put to rout armies with his hand! O one who warded off the Divine anger by his petitions! O one who brought down Divine mercy by his intercessions! O one whose very sustenance was the worship of his Lord! O one who went out from the boundaries of humanity and human power into the Divine power! O one who understood the past and knew what was to come! O one who ruled his enemies by his invocation! O my master and my lord! How can I exist and how can they people exist, now that thou art gone? After this his weeping increased as did also the weeping of the congregation that was with him, and when the grief and wailing had been long indulged in, with submission and humility, it was announced to Yush'a, the son of Nun, saying: "Return thou and those that are with thee of the army, and do not oppose the command of God"-May His name be glorious.






When Yush'a, and the priests returned after bidding farewell to the prophet- peace be upon him,- the congregation of the children of Israil met them, and they commenced weeping for their master, yea, every company by company, and they continued weeping for him thirty days and nights. And the nations heard their clamor and wailing and crying, and they assembled together in confederation on the borders and rejoiced exceedingly when they were informed of the death of the prophet- peace be upon him, -and they resolved to encounter the children of Israil. But when God- Powerful and Mighty- perceived the conspiracy of the Canaanites, of those who were assembled unto them, He made a manifestation of Divine power and revealed unto Yusha, the son of Nun, that he should strengthen his own and the people's courage, by saying unto them: "That as He had been with them in the past, so would He be with them in the future so long as they continued in worshipful submission." Praise he unto Him to Whom belongs the kingdom and the majesty and the power and eternal existence. There is no God but He, and no kingdom but His kingdom.







After the death of Musa, Kalimu'l-lah, God made a revelation unto Yush'a, the son of Nun, the disciple of Musa, the servant of God, saying unto him: "O Yush'a, arise, start out, and with thy people pass over the Urdun (Jordan) unto the land which I am about to give unto the children of Israil; all the places which your feet shall tread shall belong to you. Your boundary shall be from the wilderness to el-Ludnan (Lebanon), and from the river el-Farah (Euphrates) unto the uttermost sea; and no enemy shall stand before you. O Yush'a, do not abolish the reading of what Musa the prophet inscribed and wrote, with what is intrusted unto the Liwanites (Levites) in the place in the holy house, and learn from it night and day, even all the days of thy life, that thou mayest be instructed; for if thou observest the same and dost not swerve from what is commanded thee to the right or to the left, thou wilt succeed and prosper, and thy enemies will be put to rout by thee, and thou shalt tread upon their necks." And at this time the communication ended.






After Yush'a, had heard what God had revealed unto him, he joined unto himself el-Azar, the imam- peace be upon him- and he sat down upon his sacred chair, while Yush'a sat upon his royal chair. And there gathered unto them, the holy priests, and the Liwanites who offered the sacrifices, and the twelve chiefs who always attended them, and the chief judges, and the seventy chosen wise men, and the officers over the thousands, and hundreds, and fifties, and tens. And with the assembling of this congress, the trumpets sounded and the heralds went forth proclaiming a general assembling of the children of Israil. And it was not but an hour before there were gathered unto them the old men and the young, with many of the women and children and all the army. And then Yush'a, began to enumerate to them the things that God-Powerful and Mighty- had manifested by the hand of our master Musa the Prophet- peace be upon him- in their behalf and that of their predecessors. Next he recalled to them wherein they had acted contrary to Him, and tried Him, and rebelled against Him. And he said unto them: "O assembled men, I am going to bind you to the covenant and compact which existed before the death of the Prophet- peace be upon him- that you will not associate others with God, and that you will see to the promulgation of the laws upon which this covenant is founded, and it is, namely, the explanation of the law, and the explanation of what the obedient will receive and what shall befall the disobedient. And now this covenant in which I do confirm you is not with you and you alone, but includes you and those whom ye shall beget unto the end of the ages." And he told them what the other nations were wedded to, concerning the worship of idols; and informed them that God was with them as long as they remained in obedience, but that He would remove His favor from them upon their acting disobediently, and that then their ways would not prosper, nor would there be a united nation. Then he proclaimed in his loudest voice: "Assembled men, let there not be among you a disseminator of corrupt designs, spikes of corn and wormwood, (meaning by this, one who associates others with God and unites the worship of others with His worship); nor let there be among you one who cogitates in his heart wicked doctrines, or opposition to the command of God- Powerful and Mighty- lest there be a destruction of his mighty, holy nation and all its greatness, and separation from the Creator-may His name be holy- and your enemies attain unto their desires and plunder you of your cattle, and wives, and children. For whoever adopts these views, or any part of them, there shall fall upon him all the calamities which were written in the Holy Law, and God will blot out the remembrance of him under heaven, and will make him distinguished by reason of his calamities, apart from all the tribes of Israil. And so, be sincere with your souls and your conscience, that I may renew the covenant with you in accordance with what you may say; and God and His heavens and His earth, and His angels, shall bear witness against you in what happens between us and you; may the sentence be in your favor and not against you. And now if ye continue in keeping what has been commanded you, God- may He be blessed and exalted- will bless you and keep you and protect you and lead you to victory and will subdue your enemies and give the land, concerning which He swore, by His own omnipotence, unto your ancestors, Ibrahim, and Ishaq (Isaac) and Yaqub (Jacob)- peace be upon them. And He will keep you, and will keep the land in all happiness, and He will remove calamities and all disasters, and multiply you; but when ye shall have been disobedient and rebellious, the Divine favor will be removed from you; and the Divine power from your side, and from your support, and the angels will be removed from your side, and the name of the greatest King depart from giving you assistance, and there shall fall upon you those things which are written in the book of Wrath and Curse, and He will scatter your troops, and forget your affairs and the enemies will take possession of you, and there will remain no longer to you a king, or shrine, or possessions, or men, and God will disperse you throughout the regions of the earth from one extremity of it to the other, and He will make you servants and subjects. So now, whatever ye say and believe and covenant, let it be the real covenant binding upon you, and let this second covenant be added unto that which He covenanted with you through our master Musa the Prophet- peace be upon him. Therefore act sincere from your souls, and the secret thoughts of your hearts.






The congregation of the children of Israil answered him, while crying out, weeping and humbling themselves before God, and casting their souls into His hands, saying: "O our master and our lord, we hear and will obey the command of God- Mighty and Powerful- and of His true and faithful Prophet, and also thy command, O king, and the command of our imam and our rulers, and there will be no opposition to what ye order, and no deviation from what ye say either to the right or to the left, nor from whatever our master Musa, the Prophet- peace be upon him- has ordained, and there shall be no rejection of a single part of it; and whoever shall rebel and deviate, and act treacherously, let upon him be the Curse and Wrath, for after this manner did our master Musa, the Prophet- peace be upon him- agree with us and impose conditions upon us, and put us under oath, and covenant with us, and offer up for us the sacrifices, and we answered him as we have answered you. And God is the witness over us in this, and He is our sufficiency and bountiful Protector."






When Yush'a, beheld the zeal of the people he said, "The One who has insight into you and your purposes is God." And he renewed with them the covenant and compact, and offered for them the offerings, and the imam blessed them. Thereupon he and the imam, each of them, sat down on his throne; and he summoned the leaders, and demanded of them that they should make out a census of the children of Israil, tribe by tribe, and that the enumeration throughout the congregation, should embrace all men from the age of twenty years up to the age of fifty years, excepting the tribe of Lawi (Levi). And he ordered that this tribe should be enumerated, from the boy of a month old upwards: for so had our master Musa, the Prophet- peace be upon him- given orders before his death. But such as were under age twenty of age and over fifty years of age were not to be included in the enumeration. And the leaders made out the census, and the whole amounted to 601,730 men, although of this number the tribe of Rawban (Reuben), and the tribe of Gad, and the half tribe of Manashshah (Manasseh), had their landed possessions behind the Urdun (Jordan), even nine cities with their districts, which had belonged to Sihun and `Ug, the sons of Anaq; three cities and their provinces had been conquered by Nabih and his cousin of the tribe of Manashshah. For it did come to pass that, when our master Musa, the Prophet- peace be upon him- conquered these cities and destroyed their inhabitants, that there gathered unto him the leaders of these two tribes and a half, and they said unto him: "O our master and our lord, these cities suit us, for we have many animals and cattle, even though they be approximately less than one sixth of the assigned lands, while the whole number of the census of our men comes close on to one fifth of the army of the children of Israil." And he rebuked them, supposing that they preferred settling apart from their brethren. But they answered: "Behold we will leave our luggage and our cattle in these cities, and we will march forward under one enrolment, thrusting aside every pretext, and we will not return to our assigned lands until our brethren have got possession of all their assigned lands, and after that we will return unto our assigned lands and to our own places." And our master Musa, the Prophet- the most excellent, peace be upon him- answered them favorably, in reply to what they had asked of him, and assigned to them while he was alive this region. And the first of those whom Yush'a, the son of Nun, enrolled in his army, were the two and a half tribes, and the whole number of their enrolment was 110,580 men; and-according to these figures- the chiefs apportioned out the land from the Urdun to the sea. And this is the enrolment, based on the census, of the prosperous, victorious, holy, triumphant and blessed army. And the census of the tribe of Lawi was apart from the company of which mention has been made before; for the members of this tribe did not engage in the wars, nor did they separate from the service of their Lord; and the whole of their census, from a boy one month old and upwards, was 23,000 men. And when the leaders came with the enrolment of the census, Yush'a the son of Nun made them appear before him, and he announced good tidings unto them, namely, that God would bless them so as that there would result from one, a thousand as our master Musa the Prophet- peace be upon him- promised them from God- may His name be blessed.






When Yush'a, the son of Nun, heard about the mustering of the Kanaanites, and the assembling of the giants, he sent out spies from the men of experience, intelligence, prudence and piety, to see the army of the enemies and make an investigation, and to proceed to Yar'ha (Jericho) and make an investigation as to the number of its men, and of those who were collected unto them, and then returning make it known to him. So the spies bid the army farewell, and invoked God's favor, and started out on their journey, having changed their outward appearance to the condition of ones who had come from far distant places. Now the spies knew all the languages spoken in the army of the enemies. And when they arrived at it they began to weep, and the enemy asked them, what news they had, and they said, "We are men from the people of the east, our companions have heard tidings of this great nation, which was for forty years in the wilderness without a guide or provisions, and the report reached our company that they have a Lord whom they speak of as `The King of the heavens and earth,' and that He has appropriated unto them both our country and your country, and so our companions have sent us out, that we may find out the truth of what has been reported unto us, and make it known to them. And we have journeyed and already passed by you a long time ago, while ye were busily engrossed in your occupations, and we did come to the army of that nation and found them perplexed, wandering round and round in the wilderness, and the secret among them was, that their God had become angry at them, and would not bring any of them into the land except two men; so we have returned with this good news, gladdened and rejoicing.

Now when it was so at this time that, we know what this nation had done with Sihun and `Ug, and with their lands and territories, and also what they did with the kings of Midyan and Mab, and the talking of their women and children and that this nation was bent upon entering your country and then our country, we made haste that we might make known to our companions the truth of this. And we journeyed unto them from the mountains, and we had but just reached the vicinity of the camps, when there came forth unto us three or four men, and each of them took hold of one of us, and fetched us into the presence of the new king, who had been invested with the kingdom as successor to Musa the Prophet- the best of peace be upon him. Now his companion was merciful who lifted not up his glance to any one; but this one was as a giant man, whose conversation broke souls, and whose speech split hearts, and whose reproach struck astonishment into minds. And we had but just stood in his presence when he knew our name and our origin and our country, and when we started out, and the places at which we had encamped, and in all that he mentioned unto us he was correct. And we at once believed in him and his Lord, through fear of him, but he answered us, that: This faith is not a faith to be accepted, when ye do so through fear; yet there is no fear for you; go, return and say to all whom ye meet and to your companions: Look out for your own welfare, and whoever flees away is safe, but whoever remains shall perish. For after the space of a week, the water of the Urdun will stand still for me by the command of our Lord- the Highest- until His people shall cross over; and not a fortress shall be shut in their faces, when they shall have gone around it seven circuits, for its walls will fall, and all they who remain, who are found inside, will perish: and the city and territory will be our territory, and the assigned lands shall become ours, assigned unto us by the King of the heavens and earth; whose creatures and servants all kings are. And this is the whole of what we heard from him, and we know that his name is Yush'a, the son of Nun, and that he is the one who put to route the Amlaq (the Amalekites), and is the slayer of Sihun and the destroyer of `Ug, and the one who ruined the kings of Midyan and Mab. O woe to us and woe to you, and whatever is attached unto our country and your country; for they are a people who have no pity, nor do they leave survivors or show compassion, nor do they make a truce, except with those who are outside of us and you, for we stand, in their estimation, in the character of infidels and profligates and as a haughty and rebellious people; and the one who is lucky among us and among you is he who takes his own people between his hands and flees away with all speed, until he shall have got out beyond all their assigned lands, ere he feels regret where regret will profit him nothing." And the men rode on and pursed their journey, and after this manner did they speak with all whom they met until they returned to Yariha (Jericho), and here it became known about them, and they were sought after to be destroyed, and they begged protection of a woman who was called Rehab the innkeeper, whose house was beside the walls of the city, and she took them out and concealed them, and gave excuse unto those who sought them, saying, that they had already returned. Then she made a covenant with them and they with her, that, if God- Mighty and Powerful- should vanquish for them this city, they would spare her, and spare whatever souls were in her courtyard, of her own people. And the spies enjoined upon her to fix upon the roof of her house a sign which they should know, so that when she knew they were drawing nigh unto the city, she should display it; but they stipulated with her, that they would be innocent of the blood of all such as were found, of her own people, outside of the courtyard. And she brought them out, by night, and God willed their safe escape, and they returned to the army. And they told the king and the imam and their congregation, what they had witnesses and what had happened, what they witnessed and what had happened to them, and what favor the woman had done in their behalf. And the congregation answered them that they would spare the woman, in accordance with what they had covenanted with her. And the report of her spread abroad throughout the army, and the whole congregation of them knew her.






When Yush'a, the king, heard the statement of the spies, he sent forth the leaders, to proclaim throughout the army that they should proceed in the journey, having with them provisions for three days, and also to say in the proclamation: "O assemblies of men? Fear not, nor be dismayed, for God, your God, is about to journey with you, that He may show forth with you a miracle at this time, to make you successful over your enemies; and as to the miracle which God will show forth with you at the Urdun, the like of it has not been heard of in the ages past, now shall the like of it be heard of in the ages yet to come. And it is the first terror of you that shall fall upon the hearts of your enemies. Therefore, know, that the holy priests shall carry the golden ark, which is the ark of the covenant, which covenant is celestial substance, for it is the tablets whose writings was of Divine light: lo they are celestial substance; and when the priests with the ark shall enter the water of the Urdun, the water will stand still, and subside by the power of the ALMIGHTY, until that the water below flows away, while the water above shall mount up and increase upon itself, until all the children of Israil, and those who are in their company, shall pass over in absolute dryness."

The Yush'a, the son of Nun, himself called out and said: "O assemblies of men! God commands you that there should be between you and the priests who carry the ark an extent of equal space to two thousand yards, so do not approach unto it within this distance, that God may complete His work with you." The he ordered the twelve chiefs to take from under the feet of the priests, twelve stones, after that the children of Israil had finished the passage over the Urdun, and that each one of them should write his name upon his stone, in order that what had happened might be preserved and perpetuated through the eternity of the ages to come, even the miracle which God- may His name be glorious- would show on the Urdun. And the Liwanites (Levites) proclaimed with loudest voice: "Praise be to God of Gods, and Lord of Lords, to Whose commandments, animate and inanimate things are obedient, and the heavens and the earth and the seas and the rivers and all that therein is. There is no God but He, and no kingdom lasts but His kingdom, nor any power but His power, nor any sovereign except under His sovereignty. Perish whoever deny Him and believe in another than He, for He is the God.






And the children of Israil did as the king commanded them. And the cloud was lifted up, on the first (day) of the first month, of the first year of the first period of seven years of the Jubil (Jubilee) even from the beginning of the entering in of the children of Israil within the boundaries of the assigned lands. And up to this time there had elapsed, of the days of the world as established by the law, two thousand, seven hundred and ninety-four complete years, and this reckoning of time is correct, which the learned know by chronological computations based on the era of the flood. And the priests proceeded forward when the cloud was lifted up, and attained to the distance from the army which he prescribed unto them. And when the priests with the ark approached the water of the Urdun, the Liwanites shouted aloud, and the congregation of the children of Israil joined in with them, saying with one voice; "There is no power or strength in the presence of Thy power, O Lord of worlds!" And the water stood still, and rose up in accumulation, by the power of its Creator; He who is almighty over whatever He wills, the Worker of miracles and wonders. And continued to be heaped up, wave upon wave, until it became like unto huge mountains, while the priests stood praising God, and shouting halleluiahs and saying: "Praise be unto Him, in obedience to whom every thing exists." And they stood, with the ark, on the dry ground in the midst of the Urdun, until all the children of Israil, with their large throng, and their cattle, had passed over on the dry ground through the midst of the Urdun, on its bottom, and it was dry like as in the days of harvest. And the Liwanites were praising and shouting halleluiahs, and saying: "Praise be unto Him in obedience to whom every thing exists. Praise be unto Him by whose will this is come to pass." And when the people came out of the Urdun they observed the commandment, and took the twelve stones from under the feet of the priests, and each man wrote his name upon his stone, and the king also took a similar stone. And when the priests with the ark came up out, the waters rushed down with great tumult, and winds blew violently with the rushing down of the waters. And the nations heard about this great miracle, and their hearts were broken up, and their confederated troops were scattered. And the water of the Urdun destroyed, at that time, many places which were near it, by reason of the great violence of the wind which accompanied it. And God does whatever He wishes- Glorious be His name. And of Him do I ask assistance, and upon Him do I put my trust, and unto Him be the praise for what He has bestowed.





Then Yush'a, the son of Nun, and the children of Israil offered up the hymn of praise, which our master Musa the Prophet- peace be upon him- offered up at the sea of el-Qulzum, and they added thereunto praises and halleluiahs, and rendered praise and thanksgiving for what God had generously bestowed upon them. And among the number of the hymns of praise which they offered up, they said: "Who is like unto Thee, O Thou who art perfect in holiness! O Thou who dost inspire terror! O Thou who dost reveal secret things! O Thou who dost perform new things! O Thou worker of miracles! O Thou displayer of wonders! How, O our Lord, shall we address Thee? O Thou revealer of signs! O Thou who makest light the darkness! Who is like unto Thee? There is no likeness like unto thy likeness, for Thou art the origin of actions and likenesses and bodies, and forms, and shapes, and spiritual things, which are endowed with the attributes of Thy nature." On that day Yush'a, the son of Nun, was magnified in honor among the children of Israil, and they feared him as they had feared Musa the Prophet- peace be upon him- and they knew that God was with him. And Yush'a, the son of Nun, set up twelve stones as a monument, rising up in the Urdun. And the chiefs erected the twelve stones in a place called Jalil (Gilgal), that the generations to come might behold them, and remember the drying up of the Urdun, and so praise to Doer of miracles; and that fathers might tell sons of this deed, and that kings and nations might hear that our God is the one conquering God. And when the kings of esh-Sham (Syria) heard of the children of Israil's crossing over into the land appointed unto them, and about the stoppage of the water of the Urdun, and its drying up, they arrayed themselves in funeral robes, and were smitten with fear, and some of them died through fear of the children of Israil, on account of the greatness of the awe which they inspired. And God made a revelation to Yush'a, the son of Nun, saying: "To-day have I spread awe of you and your people over these nations, and I have lifted off from thee, and from thy people, every impurity and infirmity." And Yush'a named the place Jalil, and it is its name unto the end of the ages. And praise be unto God, the One who endureth without cessation.






Upon the departure of the king from the place which he had named Jalil, they encamped in the district of Yariha, on the first day (of the feast of unleavened bread), the fourteenth day (of the first month). And they kept the Passover at this time, and ate unleavened bread from the new crops. And the manna ceased with their entrance into the land, and their eating of its crops, and of the fruit of its trees. And when the army had drawn near round about the city, Yush'a the son of Nun, retired apart from the camps, that he might worship his Lord by night, and when he had finished his devotions, he lifted up his eyes, and behold, the figure of a man standing, with his sword drawn in his hand, and he called out to him: "Yush'a!" Thereupon he (Joshua) replied: "Art thou of us, or of our adversaries?" And he answered him, and said: "I am the messengers of God, who rule over punishments." And he (Joshua) cast himself before him on the ground, because of his majesty. Then he rose up and said to him: "Lay upon thy servant the command which has been brought unto him." And he said unto him: "King, take off thy shoes from off they feet; for the place whereon thou standest is a holy place. God- Powerful and Mighty- says unto thee; O Yush'a, look before thee, behold I am about to place in thy hand this disobedient city, even Yariha, with its king and its people; now therefore choose for thyself, from among every tribe a thousand men. And they shall go round about the city, six circuits in six days, with the golden ark, the ark of the covenant, before them; and they shall not talk in conversation, or be intent upon anything except offering up praises and halleluiahs, nor shall they make an intermission in this, or raise any great tumult during the space of six days; yet the two priests shall be along with the two clamorous trumpets. But on the seventh day they shall go round about the city the seventh time, and the two priests shall sound with the two trumpets, and when the company hear the sound of the trumpets: then let them shout with a loud voice, three times, saying: `God is omnipotent in battles. God is His name.' And at the completion of this act, the wall of the city will be demolished, and the fortresses will fall down before the people, and the army shall enter the city and destroy it." And Yush'a returned and assembled the leaders of his people, and commanded that they should select twelve thousand men. And when they came unto him, he gave orders to them to march, and with them should be the sintly priests, bearing the ark and two trumpets. And he gave instructions unto the company, that they should offer up halleluiahs and praises, during the six days, in a low tone of voice; but on the seventh day they should round about the city six times, "And on the seventh time around the priests shall sound the trumpets, and upon their hearing the trumpets, the whole army shall shout with a loud voice, and instantly advance: and then the fortifications will be demolished, and God will put the city in your hands. And when this has been successfully accomplished by you, and ye have attained the city, ye shall put to death every breathing thing which ye find in it, whether of men or animals. And ye shall destroy it and burn it, and shall not leave in it any, except the woman who is known as Rahab the innkeeper; her ye shall spare, and also those souls that are in her courtyard, according as the spies made covenant with her. O assemblies of Men! Be watchful of yourselves; do not take anything from the city; burn its gold and silver and brass and iron, and all its appurtenances, and do not meddle with anything that is devoted; for then would ye and the army perish." And the people did as he instructed them. And on the seventh circuit the priests sounded with the two trumpets, and they cried out with a great shout; and at that, the walls of the city fell down, and the army entered in, and put to death every breathing thing in it from man even to animals. And they collected all the furniture which was in it, and placed it in the middle of the city, and burned it, and it became a mound never to be rebuilt. And Yush'a proclaimed in the loudest voice; " O assemblies of men! It is forbidden unto you, and unto those who shall rise up of your seed, to build up in this city one single stone." And it is the first of the rebellious cities, known as Ancient Yariha; and this city was devoted, destroyed, burned and converted into a mound, never to be built up or restored, throughout eternal ages. And this was done after the spies had entered the courtyard of the woman, and brought out her and every soul that was in her courtyard, and preserved them from death. And the name of Yush'a, by this act of his, was spread abroad unto the different regions of the earth. And a man of the children of Israil committed a trespass, and entered into the temple of the idols of this city, and he found therein a goodly thing of gold, and tongue of gold, their weight was two thousand, two hundred and fifty mithqals, and he took them and concealed them in his tent; now it had been forbidden him to even touch it, not to mention his taking it in theft, and hiding it in his place of abode. And the Lord became angry with the children of Israil, on account of him. And neither the leaders nor the king knew about this deed. But praise be unto Him who knows secrets, and who shows forth miracles. Blessed be His name, and exalted be His fame.






When it was morning of the day of which mention has already been made, Yush'a the king, and all the army, came before the temple, and he made chiefs present themselves before el'Azar, the imam- peace be upon him,- and upon him were the jewels. And the jewel which was inscribed with the name of Yahudah (Judah) grew black; and he, in succession, presented the tribe of Yahudah, in its companies, name by name, before the jewel; and it grew black at the family of Zarah (Zerah), the son of Yahudah, And the man at once presented himself and stood before Yush'a the king. And the king said unto him: "O man! Lift up thy face to the King of the heavens and earth, and know that He knows secrets, and, O, woe be to the one who imagines that he can conceal from Him anything, or cover up from Him a matter. So now confess as to how you have sinned, and what you have taken of the devoted thing; for God has become angry with His people on your account." And the man answered him, and said: "I know, O king, that I have committed a great sin before God, Who knows what is secret and concealed, and I have been a traitor to the covenant of God, and of His messenger; for I entered the temple of the chief idol of Yariha, and there found a goodly thing of gold, and tongue of gold, and their weight was two thousand and fifty mithqals, and my soul became greedy for this, and I took it and buried it in my tent. And now if a crime like mine can be pardoned, well and good, seeing that God is merciful and compassionate; but if there is no pardon for it, then let there be executed what thou shalt command in my affair." Then the king sent immediately trustworthy people, and they brought what the man had mentioned he had felt greedy after, and so had taken it. And the governor and his associates, the chiefs, brought him before the temple of the creator, and command was given that he should be burned outside the camp. And he took the man and burned both him and whatever children he had, and cattle, and all that he possessed, and he placed all in a deep valley, and commanded the whole army to stone it with stones. And he named the valley: The valley of `Akur (Achor). And after this God removed His anger from the children of Israil; for what they did appeased Him. And unto Him be praise; for His bounty and the excellency of His favor and goodness.






After the capture of the city, the king and his people returned unto the place which was named Jalil. And they took no notice until there came unto them a company of men, whose faces were blackened, and their garments and shoes worn out, and with them was bread that had become putrid. And they approached unto the king and unto the chiefs of the children of Israil, in this place, and saluted them, as the like of them were wont to salute, and they prostrated themselves before the assembly; then they said to the king: "We seek protection of thee and of thy people, that we may exist in your company; for we are of those who choose for ourselves, God your Lord." And he answered them: "Verily I will not grant protection unto you, unless ye inform me who ye are and from what place ye come." And they answered him: "We are people from a far distance, we have heard of your fame, and what signs and wonders God- Powerful and Mighty- has revealed to the children of Israil, even in the sea, and in the desert, and in Wady el-Mujib, and what has happened unto the kings through you. And now, O king, we have repaired unto thee that we might be in the company of those who beg protection with thee; for we believe in thy Lord, and we will not resist whatever thou shalt prescribe unto us, be it small or great. And behold thou seest our blackened faces, and our worn-out clothes, and our dried-out food; for we did not start out from our places, to come here in garments of old clothes, but this is the necessary result after the long journey. And now trust us with protection, that we may exist in the company of this great, blessed, holy people." And Yush'a bid some of his people advance unto them, and he entered into a covenant with them, and swore unto them by the God of Israil, that they would not kill them, nor those who were members of their company. And when it was after three days, the king found out that, that they were of his enemies, from three towns near him, on the south of the blessed mountain, and they were: Jaba'un (Gibeon) and Qiryah (Kirjath-jearim), and Birut (Beeroth). And no one of the army was able to go to this place, because of the protection granted, and the oath, and covenant. Thereupon the king summoned the men, and said unto them; "Why did ye conceal from em, and say that ye were from a distance, while ye were neighbors?" And they answered him, and said: "We knew that the God of the children of Israil, had commanded you to destroy these places, and not to spare the sword in any place in which a soul was, and we feared for ourselves, and did what we did; and now we are in thy hands, O king, do with us whatever you decide upon." And he set them at liberty, and make proclamation throughout the children of Israil, saying: "Do not kill them; but they shall become among the class of those cutting wood and drawing water for the beasts." And they did this with them, according to what he commanded.





Some of the Kana'anites, when they heard of the children of Israil's passing over the Urdun, had fled to one people and another; but when they had been informed of what had befallen Yariha and its people, all those who were dwelling around Urdun, and the great sea, gathered themselves together, and entered into an agreement, and made preparation to meet the children of Israil, and join in battle with them. And the sent five of their chiefs, with the majority of the army with them; and they were bidden to advance and make an attack upon the three towns which had sued for themselves protection with the children of Israil. And they began with Jaba'un and put its people to great straits. And the inhabitants of Jaba'un sent unto Yush'a, the king, to inform him of the truth concerning the intentions of the kings, and that they had already commenced by destroying them, and that they were now in a state of severe siege and extreme distress; and they pled their cause with him with the greatest emphasis, and begged him to deliver them from this enemy, who was carrying out the designs against them. And while they proceeded on their journey, the king collected his assembly, and God made a revelation to him in that night, saying: "Do not fear, O Yush'a, behold I am about to give over into thy hands these five chiefs; do not let a single man of them, or of their soldiers, escape safe." So he marched forward and surprised the army of the enemies by night, and the watchword of the children of Israil was GOD THE OMNIPOTENT IN BATTLES, GOD IS HIS NAME. And the five kings were driven in flight before them unto Kasahah, and unto Maqadah (Makkedah). And when the children of Israil came up with them, they conquered them, and did not spare in killing them. And Yush'a spoke unto the day to stand still, and it stood still; and the day was great, for God heard the voice of the children of Israil, and sent forth the angels with them. And the five kings, the chiefs already mentioned, fled and found a cave in Maqadah. Then the king ordered to place great stones on the mouth of the cave, that he might keep them under guard, until they (the children of Israil) should return, when they have made an end of destroying the rest of the army. And he killed the multitude of the people, and not a single man of them did escape safe. Then they returned to the cave, and the king gave command to bring them (the five kings) out, and to throw them down upon their faces and ordered the prominent leaders of the army to tread with the soles of their shoes upon their necks; and he said to the children of Israil: "Be strong and of good courage, and fear not, nor be dismayed, for thus shall God do with your enemies." The he gave command that the kings should be killed, and be crucified until the setting of the sun; and after sunset he gave orders, that they should be placed in the cave to which they fled, along with the wood upon which they had been crucified, and also that there should be placed over the mouth of the cave, a mound of stones, to perpetuate the knowledge of this unto the end of ages. And they did what he ordered, and the, being gladdened, assembled together.






When it was the beginning of the eight month (now this is the time of the journeying of this army), the king divided the infantry and cavalry into three bands, and sent each band in a different direction, while he and they who were with him journeyed along in the highway, tending towards the hostile people; and he first alone was the one who surprised the enemies' camp, and he held them for a considerable time in an engagement, and they were not as yet recovered from the surprise, when there arose a cloud of dust, and the army approached from every side. And when the children of Israil behold one another, they shouted out with loudest voice: God is our Lord, who wages instead of us the war." And God on that day showed miracles with the enemy, for it came to pass that every one who would flee fire met him and burned him up. And a spectre appeared among them, so that the horses did stampede with them, upon hearing the shouts of the children of Israil and carried them down to death; and the hours of the day were lengthened out for them, as God had promised them, until they had accomplished in it the results of a whole year, and not a remnant in it the results of a whole year, and not a remnant of the enemies was left after this battle. And the king from Mahzun wrote a letter unto el-Azar, the imam, binding it on the wing of a bird; telling him in it the good news about what God had bestowed upon them, and what He had shown forth among them of miracles and signs, which should be eulogized. And he also informed him that he would not return until he should have taken possession of the remaining territorial districts for the children of Israil. And he set the bird at liberty on the mourning of the fifth day, and it immediately proceeded on its journey, under the blessing of God and the goodness of His guidance and grace.

And he (Yush'a) continued descending upon one city after another, and taking possession of them, and doing with the rebellious like unto what we have already mentioned, until he had completed the subjugation of the territories, and then he returned in the first month of the second year. And it resulted, that he, in one year, took possession of all their territories, and this was the region of the seven Kana'anites, whose fame is enduring, well known and spread abroad. Then he and all who were with him removed apart for purification; now there descended from the blessed mountain a great river which watered the lowlands, and to it the king went down with all his army. And when he had completed his purification, el-Azar the imam offered up for the sacrifices, and they celebrated a grand feast, the carrying out of which was complete and consummate. Never was there witnessed a better feast than it; for the people were united, not having as yet dispersed throughout their territorial sections, and when they did shout, and praise, and exult with halleluiahs, they were heard in the most distant and remote places. And when the feast was over, the king and his assembly gathered together, and began to arrange the distribution of the territories among their people; and they asked God, Mighty and Powerful, for His favor and guidance.






The king selected men from the geometricians and their associates, and from the land surveyors, and those who were well skilled in matters pertaining to lands, and from those who were assisted in surveying, and those who were expert in estimating. And he gave instructions that they should divide it into ten parts; and he himself set about equitably distributing the nine and one half tribes over the ten sections. Thereupon he defined unto them the boundaries of the lands, according to what our master Musa the Propet- peace be upon him- explained in the chapter of the boundaries, which is mentioned in the Law, where he says: "When ye come into the land of Kana'an (and this is the land that shall fall unto you for an inheritance, according to the boundaries thereof), then your south quarter shall be from the wilderness of Sin along by the places of Edum." And this is the boundary of the lands of the two and one half tribes. And then he again says: "And your boundary on the south shall be, from the furthest eastern part of the salt sea unto the side of Misr (Egypt); and the goings forth of this boundary shall be at the gulf." That is, from the isthmus of the wilderness; by which is meant the land of el-Hejaz (Arabia), and esh-Sham (Syria), and the pass of Haljat (?), a narrow place which reaches to the sea (the Arabah). And the going forth thereof shall be southward of Quds-er-Raqim"; meaning thereby, to the south of a place called Quds-barna (Kadesh-barnea), upon the bonders of esh-Sham and el-Hejaz; for the idea held by the people of that time was to the effect that it came unto el-Khaq (?) until it reached unto the Nil of Misr (Nile of Egypt), which is the valley whose going forth are to the sea, the coast line of which extents from Misr to Falastin (Palestine) and to er-Rum (Greece). "And your western boundary shall be the last sea." And the last sea is from Misr unto esh-Sham. "And the border towards esh-Sahm extends from the great sea to the mountain el-Jabal (Mount. Hor) and to Ainan of Hums (Hazar-enan)." The king here meaning the bend in the mountain el-Libnan (Lebanon), as far as the limit of its land in the district of Dimashq (Damascus), until coming eastward it goes around it, and returns sloping downwards unto the Urdun, and its goings forth are unto the salt sea, which is the final point designated in the beginning of the chapter. "And this," (said Joshua) "is the smaller part of the assigned land but they (the surveyors) shall make a return on the half of the greater assigned territories, according to the sum of the census of the nine and one half tribes." Then he instructed them that they should set apart forty-eight cities, out of all the territories of the children of Israil, unto the Liwanites, taken out from the divisions; and from their total number there should be six cities of them (even three cities from the whole number of the cities of the two and one half tribes, and three cities form the whole of the assigned lands of the nine and one half tribes), concerning which cities God- Mighty and Powerful- gave command that they should be set apart, and he named them; "Cities of repulse"; that is, of refuge to the one who flees thereunto, even to the one who should kill his companion inadvertently, that is, by accident, or through carelessness, without intention, or malice aforethought; so would these cities be a repulse to the avenger. And the slayer shall not be killed until he shall have stood before the judge and the assembly of the leaders; and now if he did kill intentionally, he shall himself be killed; but, if it was through carelessness, then he shall flee unto some one of these cities, and he shall not go forth from it until the chief imam dies; and if he do go forth outside of the boundary of this city, and the avenger meet him and slay him, then shall he be innocent of his blood. And the men (that is, the geometricians and the estimators and they who ere skilled in matters pertaining to lands) started out on their journey, according as they had been commanded.








After this the king assembled the two and one half tribes before el-Azar, the imam- peace be upon him-and the leaders; and they thanked them for their deeds and the help and assistance they had rendered, and said unto them: "Ye have zealously observed the covenant of God and the covenant of our master Musa- the best of peace be upon him- and there now no longer remains to us an argument against you; for verily, ye have acted kindly, and have preserved life and borne hardships, and have been patient in abstaining from visiting those whom ye have left behind, until your brothers have gained their goal in taking possession of their assigned lands. And now your standing is exalted, and your deeds grow before God your Lord, who is the rewarder of good deeds, with their like a thousand- fold; and ye have got possession of your assigned lands, which are most excellent for your people, and in them ye have no opponent or oppressor. And these are our wishes of good fortune to you in it: may God multiply unto you in addition to it, its like." Then he gathered together their prominent men, and invested them with robes of honor, and gave presents unto them. And he commanded them and enjoined upon them, to go over the list of the census; and they did this, and not a single man of them was missing. And they did eat and drink together, and renewed the covenant between them, that they would remain in obedience unto God always, and in the love of His Prophet, and keep His commandments; and that they would come to the support of one another whenever any tidings should reach them, whether by night or by day, in ease or in distress, in joy or in sorrow; nor would they have a falling out with each other, nor pretend to be asleep; but, on the contrary, would vie with one another in showing haste and speed. And they proceeded to bind themselves unto this with a great oath. And el-`Azar, the imam- peace be upon him- offered up for them the sacrifices, and then the leaders of the congregation of the children of Israil gathered together to bid them farewell. Thereupon the king appointed as king over the 110,580 men (which was the number of the two and one half tribes), Nabih (Nobah)the son of Jil'ad (Gilead), of the tribe of Manashehah, and invested him with the royal robe, and placed upon him a crown, and had him ride one of his chosen horses, and sent forth before him a herald, proclaiming: "This is the king of the two and one half tribes, who is invested with their judicial matters, who shall oversee their affairs; the chief leader of their army; the chief orator among them; the one who shall be asked concerning their affairs and every judgment of his shall be carried out, and in whatever matter of judgment to el-`Azar, the imam- peace be upon him. O assembled men! Whosoever shall oppose his decree, or withdraw from obedience to him, the blood of this one can be shed, and all the people shall be innocent of his crime." Then he delivered unto him a copy of the book of our master Musa, the son of `Amran the Prophet- peace be upon him- and he enjoined him to read it night and day, and informed him that in it were marvelous indicatory signs, showing how life may be prolonged in this present fleeting world and in the world to come, and also that in its reading was protection from spirits, and the evil eye, and calamities, and witchery, and the skill of the enemy. And he gave over to him twelve tribes, whom he commanded to adhere unto him and not leave him, until he should have corresponded with every chief of a tribe resident at the court of the king and the saint of God; and he also selected for him men from the learned, who might ease him in the administration of the government, and whom he might consult in important matters which unexpectedly arose to him. And, moreover, he gave over to him two thousand men of the Liwanites, who should take up their residence in the cities that had been set apart unto them among these tribes, and these should receive the portion of God, and the portion of His saints: tithes and votive offerings; and should perform whatsoever sacrifices were incumbent upon them in every month, and should execute the judicial sentences in the presence of their leaders, and should establish prayers for them, and oversee the matters which it is unlawful for any body else but them to do. Thereupon the banners were unfurled before him (Nabih) and the trumpets sounded, and the saint of God and the king (Joshua) rode out with their assembly to bid them farewell; and it was a great day, the like of which it was not possible could have existed in the world. And they proceeded on their journey under the protection of God, victorious, triumphant, happy and rejoicing. And when the news reached their friends who were watching over their affairs on the other side of the Urdun, their assembly came out to meet them. And Nabih divided out that region according to the sum of the number of his companions. And the Liwanites entered into their places, and attended to the offering of praises and halleluiahs. And glory be to God, for His bountiful favors unto them.








After the return of the geometricians, and those who were trained in surveying the land out into fields and equitably proportioning them, and in rendering correct judgments as to their trees and everything that would hinder their cultivation, the king and the twelve chiefs assembled together. Now these were they to whom our master Musa the Prophet- peace be upon him- had given instructions that they should unite with him in dividing out the land; with the restriction, however, that no one should obstinately oppose him, nor should any quarrel or dispute occur between them; and they began to arrange the division of it into ten parts, and distributed the tribes over the ten parts according to the greater or less numbers a tribe had, until they had equalized all this. And when they did come to an agreement with regard to it, they permanently settled it and perfected it, and clearly set forth; and when the opinion of the assembly was agreed as to the rectitude of this, they brought up the lists unto the saint of God, the imam el-`Azar- peace be upon him- and when he had carefully perused it, he wrote it, he wrote with his own hand a copy of the distribution and divisions of the tribes. Thereupon he wrote ten tickets, inscribed on which were the parts of the distributions and of the assigned lands, and he wrote the name of each one of the parts of the tribes upon a ticket, and gave unto each several chief his ticket. And then each chief went apart with his people and assembled the leaders of his followers, and divided out every part according to the sum of the census, to every man according to the size of his family. And with every one (of the chiefs) there went forth some of the geometricians and surveyors to equitably arrange matters among them. And the district embracing the excellent mountain fell among the assigned lands of Yusha the king, the son of Nun, and of his comrade Kalab (Caleb) the leader of the whole tribe, and with which he had started out on the journey (from Egypt) in company with him (Yusha). Thus was every one permanently located in his place. And he (Yusha) distributed some of the Liwanites, every one in the place which had been set apart for him out of the whole of the assigned lands, over and above the division, that they might administer the affairs of the people in reference to prayers and judicial matters, and also receive the tithes and perform the sacrifices. And he assigned unto each tribe chief-justices who should correspond with the imam, and give him information of what happened in their districts. Then Yusha the king built a fortress on the mountain to the north of the Blessed Mount, which (fortress) is known as Shamrun (Samaria). And this wont was to visit with el-Azar one day in each week; and one day with the learned, that he might take counsel with them; and one day with the chiefs, that he might inquire into their affairs; and one day he spent in attending to his own business and matters; and on three days he left not the book of God, during night and day. And this was his method in his administration of government, when he was not out waging war; for he did not hold himself aloof from them. And he built a synagogue on the summit of the Blessed Mount, and collected and kept in it the tabernacle of the Lord, and no one, after him, did hold it, except the priests and the Liwanites.






Then the children of Israil began to inhabit their assigned lands and to put them under perfect cultivation, and to worship their Lord with acceptable service, and to fulfill on each day whatsoever sacrifices were incumbent upon them. And God showed forth with them blessings and watchful care, so that calamities were removed away from them; and not a single one of the kings of the enemies did have power to do any violence unto them. So that there was a multitude of their own travelers journeying from every province unto the Blessed Mount three times a year, along with various kings, with wealth and joy and gladness; and not one of the enemies dared even to look towards them, or stand up in opposition to them. And the king and the leaders and the whole army continued in rest and tranquility for a period of twenty years. There was no molestation or insurrection since now their surrounding enemies were far removed from them and dispersed throughout the regions of the earth; and they who were near them had made peace with them, so no one was stirring up a commotion, nor was there a kingdom spreading itself abroad except their kingdom, or any hand outstretched except their hands. And not a single day did pass but that they hears news of all their companions; and thus did they continue to have intelligence of them, until this period came to a close. Then after this there happened those things which by the will of God, and His assistance, we will narrate and explain. (To Him be the praise.)

Next: The Samaritan Chronicle, or the Book of Joshua (Part II)