Sacred Texts  Judaism  Index  Previous  Next 


The general height of the Levites was ten ells.

Shabbath, fol. 92, col. 1.

Ten things cause hemorrhoids:--Eating cane leaves, the foliage and tendrils of the vine, the palate of cattle, the backbones of fish, half-cooked salt fish, wine lees, etc.

Berachoth, fol. 55, col. 1.

Ten things provoke a desperate relapse in a convalescent:--Eating beef, fat meat, broiled meat, fowl, or roasted eggs, shaving, eating cress, taking milk or cheese, or indulging in a bath. Some say also eating walnuts, others say eating cucumbers, which are as dangerous to the body as swords.

Ibid., fol. 57, col. 2.

Ten curses were pronounced against Eve:--The words "greatly multiply," "thy sorrow" (alluding to rearing a family), "thy conception," (in sorrow shalt thou bring

{p. 107}

forth," "thy desire shall be to thy husband," "he shall rule over thee," express six of these. The remainder are:--She should be wrapped up like a mourner (that is, she should not appear in public without having her head covered); she was restricted to one husband, though he might have more wives than one, and was to be kept within doors like a prisoner.

Eiruvin, fol. 100, col. 2.

Ten things were created during the twilight of the first Sabbath-eve. These were:--The well that followed Israel in the wilderness, the manna, the rainbow, the letters of the alphabet, the stylus, the tables of the law, the grave of Moses, the cave in which Moses and Elijah stood, the opening of the mouth of Balaam's ass, the opening of the earth to swallow the wicked (Korah and his clique). Rav Nechemiah said, in his father's name, also fire and the mule. Rav Yosheyah, in his father's name, added also the ram which Abraham offered up instead of Isaac, and the Shameer. Rav Yehudah says the tongs also, etc.

P'sachim, fol. 54, Col.

To the ten things said to have been created on Sabbath-eve some add the rod of Aaron that budded and bloomed, and others malignant demons and the garments of Adam.


Rav Yehuda said, in the name of Rav, ten things were created on the first day:--Heaven and earth, chaos and confusion, light and darkness, wind and water, the measure of day and the measure of night. "Heaven and earth," for it is written, "In the beginning God made the heavens and the earth." "Chaos and confusion," for it is written, "And the earth was chaos and confusion." "Light and darkness," for it is written, "And darkness was upon the face of the abyss." "Wind and water," for it is written, "The wind of God hovered over the face of the waters." "The measure of day and the measure of night," for it is written, "Morning and evening were one day."

Chaggigah, fol. 12, col. 1.

Ten facts witness to the presence of a supernatural power in the Temple:--No premature birth was ever caused by the odor of the sacrifices; the carcasses never

{p. 108}

became putrid; no fly was ever to be seen in the slaughter-houses; the high-priest was never defiled on the day of atonement; no defect was ever found in the wave-sheaf, the two wave-loaves, or the shewbread; however closely crowded the people were, every one had room enough for prostration no serpent or scorpion ever stung a person in Jerusalem and no one had ever to pass the night without sleeping-accommodation in the city.

Yoma, fol. 21, col. 1.

Tradition teaches that Rabbi Yossi said:--The Shechinah has never descended below, nor did Moses and Elijah ever ascend on high; for it is said (Ps. cxv. 16), "The heavens, even the heavens, are the Lords; but the earth hath he given to the children of men? True, it is written, he admitted (Exod. xix. 20), "And the Lord came down upon Mount Sinai" but that, he remarked, was ten handbreadths above the summit. And true, too, is it written (Zech. xiv. 4), "And His feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives;" but that, too, he added, is ten handbreadths above it. And so, in like manner, Moses and Elijah halted ten handbreadths from heaven.

Succah, fol. 5, col. 1.

What entitles a place to rank as a large town? When there are in it ten unemployed men. Should there be fewer than that number, it is to be looked upon as a village.

Meggillah, fol. 3, col. 2.

In places where there are not ten Batlanim, men of leisure, that is, men always free to be present at every synagogue service, a minyan (number) has to be hired for the purpose. The notion that ten constitutes a congregation is based on the authority of Num. xiv, 27, "How long shall I bear with this congregation?" As the term "congregation" here refers to the ten spies who brought the evil report, it is concluded forsooth that ten men, and never less, is the orthodox minimum for a congregation.

Ten lights, said he, could not extinguish one; how shall one extinguish ten?

Ibid., fol. 16, col. 2.

These words are said to have been spoken by Joseph to his brethren, who, after the death of their father Jacob, feared lest Joseph should revenge himself upon them (Gen. l. 21). The Midrash and the Targums as usual furnish much additional information.

{p. 109}

Rav Assi said:--Nowadays, if a Gentile should betroth a Jewess, there is reason for regarding the betrothal as not therefore invalid, for he may be a descendant of the ten tribes, and so one of the seed of Israel.

Yevamoth, fol. 16, col. 2.

Rabbi Yochanan said:--If, after the death of her husband, a woman should remain unmarried for ten years and then marry again, she will have no children. Rav Nachman added:--Provided she have not thought of marrying all the while; but if she had thought of marrying again, in that case she will have children. Rava once said to Rav Chisda's daughter (who bore children to Rava, though she did not marry him until ten years after her first husband's death), "The Rabbis have their doubts about you." She replied, "I had always set my heart upon thee." A woman once said to Rav Yoseph, "I waited ten years before I married again, and then I had children." "Daughter," said he, "do not bring the words of the wise into discredit. It is thou, not they, that are mistaken." Then the woman confessed that she had been a transgressor.

Ibid., fol. 34, col. 2.

The Rabbis teach that if a man live with a wife ten years without issue he should divorce her and give her the prescribed marriage portion, as he may not be deemed worthy to be built up by her (that is, to have children by her).

Ibid., fol. 64, col. 2.

As a set-off we append here a romantic story paraphrased from the Midrash Shir Hashirim. A certain Israelite of Sidon, having lived many years with his wife without being blessed with offspring, made up his mind to give her a bill of divorcement. They went accordingly together to Rabbi Shimon ben Yochai, that legal effect might be given to the act of separation. Upon presenting themselves before him, the Rabbi addressed them in these fatherly accents:--"My children," said he, "your divorce must not take place in pettishness or anger, lest people should surmise something guilty or disgraceful as the motive for the action. Let your parting, therefore, be like your meeting, friendly and cheerful. Go home, make a feast, and invite your friends to share it with you; and then to-morrow return and I will ratify the divorce you seek for." Acting upon this advice, they went home, got ready a feast, invited their friends, and made merry together. "My dear," said the husband at length to his wife, "we have lived for many a long year lovingly together, and now that

{p. 110}

we are about to be separated, it is not because there is any ill-will between us, but simply because we are not blessed with a family. In proof that my love is unchanged, and that I wish thee all good, I give thee leave to choose whatever thou likest best in the house and carry it away with thee." The wife with true womanly wit promptly replied, "Well and good, my dear!" The evening thereafter glided pleasantly by, the wine-cup went round freely and without stint, and all passed off well, till first the guests one by one, and then the master of the house himself, fell asleep, and lay buried in unconsciousness. The lady, who had planned this result, and only waited its denouement, immediately summoned her confidential handmaids and had her lord and master gently borne away as he was to the house of her father. On the following morning, as the stupor wore off, he awoke, rubbing his eyes with astonishment. "Where am I?" he cried. "Be easy, husband dear," responded the wife in his presence. "I have only done as thou allowedst me. Dost thou remember permitting me last night, in the hearing of our guests, to take away from our house whatever best pleased me? There was nothing there I cared for so much as thyself; thou art all in all to me, so I brought thee with me here. Where I am there shalt thou be; let nothing but death part us." The two thereupon went back to Rabbi Shimon as appointed, and reported their change of purpose, and that they had made up their minds to remain united. So the Rabbi prayed for them to the Lord, who couples and setteth the single in families. He then spoke his blessing over the wife, who became thenceforth as a fruitful vine, and honored her husband with children and children's children.

A parallel to this, illustrative of wifely devotion, is recorded in the early history of Germany. In the year 1141, during the civil war in Germany between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines, it happened that the Emperor Conrad besieged the Guelph Count of Bavaria in the Castle of Weinsberg. After a long and obstinate defense the garrison was obliged at length to surrender, when the Emperor, annoyed that they had held out so long and defied him, vowed that he would destroy the place with fire and put all to the sword except the women, whom he gallantly promised to let go free and pass out unmolested. The Guelph Countess, when she heard of this, begged as a further favor that the women might be allowed to bear forth as much of their valuables as they could severally manage to carry. The Emperor having pledged his word and honor that he would grant this request, on the morrow at daybreak, as the castle gates opened, he saw to his amazement the women file out one by one, every married woman carrying her husband with her young ones upon her back, and the others each the friend or relation nearest and dearest to her. At sight of this, the Emperor was tenderly moved, and could not help according to the action the homage of his admiration. The result was that not only was life and liberty extended to the Guelphs, but the place itself was spared and restored in perpetuity to its heroic defenders. The Count and his Countess were henceforth treated by the

{p. 111}

Emperor with honor and affection, and the town itself was for long after popularly known by the name of Weibertreue, i. e., the abode of womanly fidelity.

Benedictory condolences are recited by ten men, not reckoning the mourners; but nuptial blessings are recited by ten men, including the bridegroom.

Kethuboth, fol. 8. col. 2.

The Mishnic Rabbis have ordained that ten cups of wine be drunk in the house by the funeral party; three before supper, to whet the appetite; three during supper, to aid digestion; and four after the meal, at the recitation of the four benedictions. Afterward four complimentary cups were added, one in honor of the precentors, one in honor of the municipal authorities, another in remembrance of the Temple, and the fourth in the memory of Rabbon Gamliel. Drunkenness so often ensued on these occasions that the number had to be curtailed to the original ten cups. The toast to the memory of Rabbon Gamliel was to commemorate his endeavors to reduce the extravagant expenses at burials, and the consequent abandonment of the dead by poor relations. He left orders that his own remains should be buried in a linen shroud, and since then, says Rav Pappa, corpses are buried in canvas shrouds about a zouz in value.

Ibid., fol. 8, col. 2.

At the age of ten years a child should begin to study the Mishna.

Ibid., fol. 50, col. 1.

Rabbi the Holy, when dying, lifted up his ten fingers toward heaven and said:--"Lord of the Universe, it is open and well-known unto Thee that with these ten fingers I have labored without ceasing in the law, and never sought after any worldly profit with even so much as my little finger; may it therefore please Thee that there may be peace in my rest!" A voice from heaven immediately responded (Isa. lvii. 2), "He shall enter peace: they shall rest in their beds."

Ibid., fol. 104, col. 2.

Ten measures of wisdom came down to the world; the land of Israel received nine and the rest of the world but one only. Ten measures of beauty came down to the world; Jerusalem monopolized nine and the rest of the

{p. 112}

world had only one. Ten measures of riches came down to the world; Rome laid hold of nine and left the rest of the world but one for a portion. Ten measures of poverty came down to the world; nine fell to the lot of Babylon and one to the rest of the world. Ten measures of pride came down to the world; Elam appropriated nine and to the rest of the world but one remained over. Ten measures of bravery came to the world; Persia took nine, leaving but one for the rest of the world. Ten measures of vermin came to the world; nine fell to the Medes and one to the rest of the world. Ten measures of sorcery came down to the world; Egypt received nine and one was shared by the rest of the world. Ten measures of plagues came into the world; nine measures were allotted to the swine and the rest of the world had the other. Ten measures of fornication came into the world; nine of these belong to the Arabs and to the rest of the world the other. Ten measures of impudence found its way into the world; Mishan appropriated nine, leaving one to the rest of the world. Ten measures of talk came into the world; women claimed nine, leaving the tenth to the rest of the world. Ten measures of early rising came into the world; they of Ethiopia received nine and the rest of the world one only. Ten measures of sleep came to the world; the servants took nine of them, leaving one measure to the rest of the world.

Kiddushin, fol. 49, col. 2.

Ten different sorts of people went up from Babylon:(1.) Priests, (2.) Levites, (3.) Israelites, (4.) Disqualified Cohanim, (5.) Freedmen, (6.) Illegitimate, (7.) Nethinim, (8.) Unaffiliated ones, and (10.) Foundlings.

Ibid., fol. 63, col. 1.

Ten characteristics mark the phlebotomist:--He walks sideling along; he is proud; he stoops awhile before seating himself; he has an envious and evil eye; he is a gourmand, but he defecates little at a time; he is suspected of incontinence, robbery, and murder.

Ibid., fol. 82, col. 1.

Rabbi Chanena ben Agil asked Rabbi Cheya ben Abba, "Why does the word, 'signifying that it may be well

{p. 113}

with thee' not occur in the first copy of the ten commandments (Exod. xx.) as it does in the second?" (Deut. v.) He replied, "Before thou askest me such a question, first tell me whether the word occurs in Deuteronomy or not? for I don't know if it does." The required answer was given by another Rabbi, "The omission of the word in the first publication of the ten commandments is due to the foresight of what was to befall the first tables, for if the word good had been in the tables, and broken withal, then goodness would have ceased to bless the sons of Israel."

Bava Kama, fol. 55, col. 1.

The Tosephoth in Bava Bathra (fol. 113, col. 1) ingenuously admits that the Rabbis were occasionally ignorant of the letter of Scripture. The above quotation may be taken as a sample of several in corroboration.

The Rabbis have taught that when pestilence is abroad no one should walk along the middle of the road, for there the angel of death would be sure to cross him. Neither when there is pestilence in a town should a person go to the synagogue alone, because there, provided no children are taught there, and ten men are not met to pray there, the angel of death hides his weapons. The Rabbis have also taught that (like the Banshee of Ireland), the howling of dogs indicates the approach of the angel of death, whereas when they sport it is a sign that Elijah the prophet is at hand, unless one of them happen to be a female, for it is her presence among them, and not any super-natural instinct, that is to be understood as the cause of the demonstration.

Ibid., fol. 60, col. 2.

Ten constitutions were founded by Ezra:--The reading of a portion of Scripture during the afternoon prayers on the Sabbath-day, and during morning prayers on the second and fifth days of the week (a rule that is to this day observed in orthodox places of worship), and this for the reason that three days should not pass by without such an exercise; to hold courts for the due administration of justice on the second and fifth days of the week, when the country people came to hear the public reading of the Scriptures; to wash their garments, etc., on the fifth day,

{p. 114}

and to prepare for the coming Sabbath; to eat garlic on the sixth day of the week, as this vegetable has the property of promoting secretions (see Exod. xxi. 10); that the wife should be up betimes and bake the bread, so as to have some ready in case any one should come begging; that the women should wear a girdle round the waist for decency sake; that they should comb their hair before bathing; that peddlers should hawk their perfumes about the streets in order that women should supply themselves with such things as will attract and please their husbands; and that certain unfortunates (see Lev. xv.) should bathe themselves before they came to the public reading of the law.

Bava Kama, fol. 82, col. 1.

Ten things are said about Jerusalem:--(1.) No mortgaged house was eventually alienated from its original owner (which was the case elsewhere in Jewry). (2.) Jerusalem never had occasion to behead a heifer by way of expiation for an unproved murder (see Deut. xxi. 1-9). (3.) She never could be regarded as a repudiated city (Deut. xiii. 12, etc.). (4.) No appearance of plagues in any house at Jerusalem rendered the house unclean, because the words of Lev. xiv. 34, are "your possession," an expression which could not apply to Jerusalem, as it had never been portioned among the ten tribes. (5.) Projecting cornices and balconies were not to be built in the city. (6.) Limekilns were not to be erected there. (7.) No refuse heaps were allowed in any quarter. (8.) No orchards or gardens were permitted, excepting certain flower-gardens, which had been there from the times of the earlier prophets. (9.) No cocks were reared in Jerusalem. (10.) No corpse ever remained over night within its walls; the funeral had to take place on the day of the decease.

Ibid., fol. 82, col. 2.

In the Book of Psalms David included those which were composed by ten elders:--Adam. (Ps. cxxxix.); Melchizedek (Ps. cx. ); Abraham (Ps. lxxxix.); Moses (Ps. xc.); the others alluded to were by Heman, Jeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Korah.

Bava Bathra, fol. 14, col. 2.

{p. 115}

A man once overheard his wife telling her daughter that, though she had ten sons, only one of them could fairly claim her husband as his father. After the father's death it was found that he had bequeathed all his property to one son, but that the testament did not mention his name. The question therefore, arose, which of the ten was intended? So they came one and all to Rabbi Benaah and asked him to arbitrate between them. "Go," said he to them, "and beat at your father's grave, until he rises to tell you to which of you it was that he left the property." All except one did so; and he, because by so doing he showed most respect for his father's memory, was presumed to be the one on whom the father had fixed his affections; he accordingly was supposed to be the one intended, and the others were therefore excluded from the patrimony. The disappointed ones went straight to the government and denounced the Rabbi. "Here is a man," said they, "who arbitrarily deprives people of their rights, without proof or witnesses." The consequence was that the Rabbi was sent to prison, but he gave the authorities such evidence of his shrewdness and sense of justice, that he was soon restored to freedom.

Bava Bathra, fol. 58, col. 1.

Till ten generations have passed speak thou not contemptuously of the Gentiles in the hearing of a proselyte.

Sanhedrin, fol. 94, col. 1.

The ten tribes will never be restored, for it is said (Deut. xxiii. 28), "God cast them into another land, as it is this day." As this day passes away without return, so also they have passed away never more to return. So says Rabbi Akiva, but Rabbi Eleazar says, "'As it is this day' implies that, as the day darkens and lightens up again, so the ten tribes now in darkness shall in the future be restored to light." The Rabbis have thus taught that the ten tribes will have no portion in the world to come; for it is said (Deut. xxix. 28), "And the Lord rooted them out of their land in anger, and in wrath, and in great indignation." "And he rooted them out of their land," that is, from this world, land cast them into another land," that is, the world to come. So says Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Shimon ben

{p. 116}

Yehuda says, "If their designs continue as they are at this day, they will not return, but if they repent they will return." Rabbi (the Holy) says, "They will enter the world to come, for it is said (Isa. xxvii. 13;), 'And it shall come to pass in that day that the great trumpet shall be blown, and they shall come which were ready to perish.'"

Sanhedrin, fol. 110, col. 2.

Ten things are detrimental to study:--Going under the halter of a camel, and still more passing under its body; walking between two camels or between two women; to be one of two men that a woman passes; between; to go where the atmosphere is tainted by a corpse; to pass under a bridge beneath which no water has flowed for forty days; to eat with a ladle that has been used for culinary purposes; to drink water that runs through a cemetery. It is also dangerous to look at the face of a corpse, and some say also to read inscriptions on tombstones.

Horayoth, fol. 13, col. 2.

Ten strong things were created in the world (of which the one that comes after is stronger than that which preceded). A mountain is strong, but iron can hew it in pieces; the fire weakens the iron; the water quenches the fire; the clouds carry off the water; the wind disperses the clouds; the living body resists the wind; fear enervates the body; wine abolishes fear; sleep over-comes wine, and death is stronger than all together; yet it is written (Prov. x. 2), "And alms delivereth from death" (the original word has two meanings, righteousness and alms).

Bava Bathra, fol. 10, col. 1.

With the utterance of ten words was the world created.

Avoth, chap. 5, mish. i.

There were ten generations from Adam to Noah, to show how great is God's long-suffering, for each of these went on provoking Him more and more, till His forbearance relenting, He brought the flood upon them.

Ibid., mish. 2.

There were ten generations from Noah to Abraham, to show that God is long-suffering, since all those succeeding

{p. 117}

generations provoked Him, until Abraham came, and he received the reward that belonged to all of them.

Avoth, mish, 3.

The greatest sinner is uniformly presumed throughout the Talmud to have a certain amount of merit, and therefore a corresponding title to reward (see chap. 2, No. 10 = Ps. xxxvii. 35-37). Much of this last is enjoyed by the wicked themselves in the present world, and the surplus is often transferred to the credit of the righteous in the world to come (see "Genesis," page 482, No. 173 = Matt. xiii. 12).

Abraham our father was tested ten times; in every case he stood firm; which shows how great the love of our father Abraham was.

Ibid., mish. 4.

Ten miracles were wrought for our forefathers in Egypt, and ten at the Red Sea. Ten plagues did the Holy One--blessed be He!--inflict on the Egyptians in Egypt, and ten at the sea. Ten times did our ancestors tempt God in the wilderness, as it is said (Num. xiv. 22), "And have tempted me now these ten times, and have not hearkened to my voice."

Ibid., mish. 5, 6, 7.

Ten times did God test our forefathers, and they were not so much as once found to be perfect.

Avoth d'Rab. Nathan, chap. 34.

Ten times the Shechinah came down unto the world:--At the garden of Eden (Gen. iii. 8); at the time of the Tower (Gen. xi. 5); at Sodom (Gen. xviii. 21); in Egypt Exod. iii. 8); at the Red Sea (Ps. xviii. 9); on Mount Sinai (Exod. xix. 20); into the Temple (Ezek. xliv. 2); in the pillar of cloud (Num. xi. 25). It will descend in the days of Gog and Magog, for it is said (Zech. xiv. 4), "And His feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives" (the tenth is omitted in the original).


The Shechinah made ten gradual ascents in passing from place to place:--From the cover of the ark to the cherub (2 Sam. xxii. ii); thence to the threshold of the house (Ezek. ix. 3); thence to the cherubim (Ezek. x. 18); thence to the roof of the Temple (Prov. xxi. 9); thence to the wall of the court (Amos vii. 7); thence to the altar (Amos ix. i); thence to the city (Micah vi. 9); thence to the mount (Ezek. Xi. 23); thence to the wilderness

{P. 118}

(Prov. xxi. 9); whence the Shechinah went up, as it is said (Hosea v. 15), "I will go and return to my place."

Avoth d'Rab. Nathan, chap. 34.

Ten different terms are employed to express the title of prophet:--Ambassador, Faithful, Servant, Messenger, Seer, Watchman, Seer of Vision, Dreamer, Prophet, Man of God.


Ten distinct designations are applied to the Holy Spirit:--Proverb, Interpretation, Dark, Saying, Oracle, Utterance, Decree, Burden, Prophecy, Vision.


Ten are designated by the term Life or Living:--God, the law, Israel, the righteous, the garden of Eden, the tree of life, the land of Israel, Jerusalem, benevolence, the sages; and water also is described as life, as it is said (Zech. xiv. 8), "And it shall be in that day that living water shall go out from Jerusalem."


If there are ten beds piled upon one another, and if beneath the lowermost there be any tissue woven of linen and wool (Lev. xix. 19), it is unlawful to lie down upon them.

Tamid, fol. 27, col. 2.

Alexander of Macedon proposed ten queries to the elders of the south:--"Which are more remote from each other, the heavens from the earth or the east from the west?" They answered, "The east is more remote from the west, for when the sun is either in the east or in the west, any one can gaze upon him; but when the sun is in the zenith or heaven, none can gaze at him, he is so much nearer." The Mishnaic Rabbis, on the other hand, say they are equidistant; for it is written (Ps. ciii. 11, 12), "As the heavens are from the earth, . . . so is the east removed from the west." Alexander then asked, "Were the heavens created first or was the earth?" "The heavens," they replied, "for it is said, 'In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.'" He then asked, "was light created first or was darkness?" They replied, "This is an unanswerable question." They should have answered darkness was created first, for it is said, "And the earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the

{p. 119}

deep," and after this, "And God said, Let there be light, and there was light."

Tamid., fol. 31, col. 2.

There are ten degrees of holiness, and the land of Israel is holy above all other lands.

Kelim, chap. 1, mish. 6.

There are ten places which, though Gentile habitations, are not considered unclean:--(1.) Arab tents; (2.) A watchman's hut; (3.) The top of a tower; (4.) A fruit-store; (5. ) A summer-house; (6.) A gatekeeper's lodge; (7.) An uncovered courtyard; (8.) A bath-house; (9.) An armory; (10.) A military camp.

Oholoth, chap. 18, mish. 10.

"An Ammonite or Moabite shall not enter the congregation of the Lord, even to the tenth generation," etc. (Deut. xxiii. 4). One day Yehuda, an Ammonite prophet, came into the academy and asked, "May I enter the congregation (if I marry a Jewess)?" Rabban Gamliel said unto him, "Thou art not at liberty to do so;" but Rabbi Joshua interposed and maintained, "He is at liberty to do so." Then Rabban Gamliel appealed to Scripture, which saith, "An Ammonite or Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord, even to the tenth generation." To this Rabbi Joshua retorted and asked, "Are then these nations still in their own native places? Did not Sennacherib, the king of Assyria, transplant the nations? as it is said (Isa. x. 13), 'I have removed the bounds of the people, and have robbed their treasures, and have put down the valor of the inhabitants.'" Rabban Gamliel replied, "Scripture saith (Jer. xlix. 6), 'Afterward I will bring again the captivity of the children of Ammon,' and so," he argued, "they must have already returned." Rabbi Joshua then promptly rejoined, "Scripture saith (Jer. xxx. 3), 'I will bring again the captivity of my people Israel and Judah,' and these have not returned yet." And on this reasoning the proselyte was permitted to enter the congregation.

Yadayim, chap. 4, mish. 4.

Next: XI.