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1. "Surely the first House appointed for men is the one at Makkah, blessed and a guidance for the nations.....And pilgrimage to the House is incumbent upon men for the sake of Allāh, upon every one who is able to undertake the journey to it" (3:95, 96).

2. "The pilgrimage is performed in the well-known months; so whoever determines the performance of the pilgrimage therein. there shall be no amorous speech, nor abusing, nor disputing in the pilgrimage and make provision" (2:197).

The word hajj means literally qasd (betaking oneself to a person or a place), and technically it means betaking oneself at a particular time to Makkah to perform certain devotional acts required by Islām. 'Umrah, from 'amara meaning he paid a visit to a place, means a visit to Makkah at any time of the year, and consists of some of the devotional acts of hajj. The Sacred House, called the Ka'bah a rectangular building 40 ft. by 35 ft., and the Haram, including Makkah and some adjacent territory, form the centre of the devotional acts of hajj and 'umrah.

The Ka'bah is called the first House of Divine worship on earth, and a pilgrimage to it is made incumbent upon every Muslim who has the means to undertake the journey to it (v. 1). Pilgrimage is spoken of as one of the basic institutions of Islām (H. ii:6), and its performance once in a lifetime is obligatory (h. 1). If a person is unable to perform it personally, he can do it through a substitute (h. 2). One must provide oneself beforehand with what is required for the journey (h. 3). Hajj can be performed only at a fixed time (h. 4) 'umrah may be performed at any time. Ihrām is the condition in which the pilgrim puts himself; what is to be done or not done in this state is described in hh. 5-8. There are particular places on the different routes to Makkah, where the pilgrim must enter into the state of ihrām (h. 9). The particular dhikr of hajj is the utterance of labbaika in a loud voice (h. 10). Making circumambulations of the Ka'bah, or tawāf, is the first devotional act of hajj or 'umrah (h. 11); it is performed by men and women together (h. 12). and may be made while riding (h. 13). The tawāf is commenced at the corner where the

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Black Stone is fixed, which is kissed at the start by making a sign with something (h 13). In kissing it there is no idea of paying Divine honour to it; the other corners were also kissed (bb. 14, 15). The tawāf, as a devotional act, is likened to prayer, and therefore a menstruating woman should postpone it (hh. 16-17). In the tawāf the first three circuits are made running and the last four walking (h. 18). Running between the Safā and the Marwah, known as sa'y, is the next devotional act of hajj and 'umrah, and with this the 'umrah ends (h. 18) The hajj proper begins on the 8th Dhu-l-Hijjah, which is called the yaum al-tarwiyah when the pilgrims proceed to Minā, and here they say their Zuhr and 'Asr prayers (hh. 19, 20), On the 9th Dhu-l-Hijjah, called yaum al-'arafah, the pilgrims proceed from Minā to 'Arafāt where they say the Zuhr and 'Asr prayers, and the imām delivers the Khutbah (h. 21.) 'Arafāt is left after sunset, and the Maghrib and 'Ishā' prayers on that day and the Fajr prayer on the following day, are said at Muzdalifah (hh. 22, 23), which is left before sunrise for Minā where the animals are sacrificed at about breakfast time. Then the tawāf al-ifādzah is performed and after this the pilgrim gets out of the state of ihrām (h. 24). The flesh of the animals sacrificed may be eaten, stored or distributed. and their skins must be given in charity (h. 25, 26). The head is shaven or the hair is clipped as a sign of getting out of the state of ihrām (h. 27). The 10th Dhu-l-Hijjah and the following two or three days, called the ayyām al-tashrīq, are spent in Minā. During these days the pilgrims may occasionally visit the Ka'bah (h. 28). Stones are thrown at three places known as the Jamrah and the pilgrim prays to God to keep the Evil one away from him (h. 29). The final act of hajj is the tawāf al-wadā', the circumambulation of the Ka'bah when leaving Makkah (h. 30). The pilgrim is allowed to do any business before or after the hajj (h. 31).

1 Ibn 'Abbās reported,

Al-Aqra' asked the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, O Messenger of Allāh! Is the pilgrimage to be performed every year or only once? He. said: "Only once; and whoever does it more than once, it is supererogatory."

(AD. 11:l.)

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2 Ibn 'Abbās said,

Fadzl was riding behind the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, when a woman of (the tribe of) Khath'am came........and she said, O Messenger of Allāh! The ordinance regarding pilgrimage made obligatory by Allāh for His servants found my father a very old man unable to sit firmly on a riding camel, shall I perform a pilgrimage on his behalf? He said, "Yes". And this happened in the Farewell Pilgrimage.

(B. 25:l.)

3 Ibn 'Abbās said,

The people of Yaman used to go to pilgrimage while they had no provisions with them and they said, We are those who trust (in Allāh). But

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when they came to Makkah they begged of people, so Allāh revealed: "And make provision, for the benefit of provision is the guarding oneself."

(B. 25:6.)

4 Ibn 'Umar said,

The months of hajj are Shawwāl and Dhul-l-Qa'dah and (the first) ten days of Dhu-l-Hijjah. And Ibn 'Abbās said, It is the Sunnah that a man shall not enter the state of ihrām1 except in the months of pilgrimage.

(B. 25:34.)

5 Ibn 'Umar reported about the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him,

A man asked him, What should a man wear in the state of ihrām? He said:

1. Ihrām, (from haram, a forbidden thing) signifies entering upon a state that causes what is avowed before to be forbidden or unlawful, and it is technically used to indicate the condition in which the pilgrim is required to put himself. What acts or things become forbidden in the state of ihrām is explained here and in the three hadīth that follow.

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"He shall not wear shirt, nor turban, nor trousers, nor head-gear, nor any cloth dyed with wars or saffron; and if he does not find shoes, let him wear leather stockings, and he should cut them off so that they may be lower than the ankles."3

(B. 3:51)

6 Ibn 'Abbās said,

One in a state of ihrām may smell sweet-smelling plants, and look in the looking-glass, and use medicines out of what he eats, (such as) olive oil and butter; and 'Atā' said, He can wear

2. This hadīth explains what the pilgrim should not wear when he enters upon a state of ihrām. Men wore only two seamless sheets, a sheet reaching from the navel to below the knees. (izār) and a sheet which covers the upper part of the body (ridā'), while women wore their ordinary simple garments. Wars is a plant with which clothes are dyed. Clothes dyed red or yellow are thus forbidden.

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a ring and carry a purse; and Ibn 'Umar made circuits, while he was in a state of ihrām, and he had girdled his belly with a cloth; and 'Ā'ishah's opinion was that there was no harm in wearing knickerbockers.3

(B. 25:18.)

7 Ibn 'Umar reported,

He heard the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, forbidding women in a state of ihrām wearing gloves, and veil, and garments dyed with wars and saffron, and (saying) that they might wear besides this what they liked of garments coloured with safflower, or made of silk (or silk and wool), or

3. Bukhārī explains that 'Ā'ishah allowed knickerbockers only for those who drove her riding camel. Trousers are allowed when an izār cannot be had (B. & M-Msh. 11:11).

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ornaments, or trousers, or shirt.4

(AD. 11:29.)

8 Abū Allāh said,

'I heard the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, uttering labbaika with glued hair.5

(B. 25:19.)

9 Ibn 'Abbās said, The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, appointed for the people of Madīnah Dhu-l-Hulaifah as the place where they should enter into the state of ihrām; for the people of Syria, Juhfah; for the people of Najd, Qarn al-Manāzil , and for the people of Yaman, Yalamlam. These are for them

4. The veil was worn in Arabia as a mark of rank: and it was, therefore, disallowed when a woman was in a state of ihrām, as pilgrimage required the obliteration of all differences of rank. Forbidding a veil in pilgrimage is further a conclusive proof that the Holy Qur'ān did not enjoin the wearing of veil, as in that case the prohibition here stated would be a contradiction of the Holy Qur'ān. Gloves are not allowed because like the veil they are a mark of rank. Ornaments are allowed because they are not a mark of rank. and are worn by even ordinary people and labouring classes.

5. Talbīd is the putting upon one's head gum or something glutinous, in order that the hair might become compact. This is allowed in the state of ihrām, lest the hair should become dishevelled or dusty.

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and for those who come upon them from other places, of those who have determined the performance of the hajj and 'umrah; and for him who is on the nearer side (of Makkah), the appointed place is from where he starts, so that for the people of Makkah it is Makkah.6

(B. 25:7.)

10 Ibn 'Umar reported,

The uttering of labbaika7 by the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, was thus:

"I am at Thy service, O Allāh! I am at Thy service.

"I am at Thy service; Thou hast no associate, I am at Thy service.

6. When the pilgrims reach the places mentioned or places opposite them in the sea, they enter into the state of ihrām. Such a place is called miqāt, an appointed place, or muhill, the place of raising voices with labbaika.

7. Labbaika (from labb-un, obeying or serving) means, I am at thy service or wait intent upon obedience to thee, or I am in attendance upon thee, or I am in thy presence, time after time (LL.) These are the oft-repeated words of the pilgrim when he enters upon a state of ihrām.

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"Thine is the praise and Thine the favour and Thine the kingdom, Thou hast no associate."

(B. 25:26.)

11 Urwah said,

'Ā'ishah informed me that when the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, entered (Makkah on pilgrimage), the first thing that he did was that he performed ablutions, then he made circuits (round the Ka'bah),8 and there was no 'umrah.

(B. 25:62.)

12 Ibn Juraij reported,

When Ibn Hishām forbade women making circuits along with men, 'Atā' said, How dost thou forbid them while the wives of the Prophet,

8. This is called tawāf al-qudūm. Tawāf (from tafa, he went round) is technically going round the Ka'bah. The tawāf Consists of seven circuits (h. 18).

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peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, made circuits along with men? I said, Was it after the (verses relating to) curtain (were revealed) or before (it)? He said, By my life! I found this after the curtain (orders). I said, How did men mix with them? He said, They did not mix with them; 'Ā'ishah used to make circuits remaining aside from the men, not mixing with them; ... but when they intended to go into the (Sacred) House, they stopped before entering (it) till the men were turned out.9

(B. 25: 61)

9. This hadīth shows that men and women performed the different acts of devotion together; only the women did not mix with men, just as in prayer in mosques they formed separate ranks. It further shows that a change was already coming over the simplicity of the Holy Prophet's time, and already men were thinking of enforcing stricter measures for the seclusion of women. and restraining their freedom. In fact, this was a necessary outcome of the ease which Muslims began to enjoy on account of their conquests.

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13 Ibn 'Abbās said,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, made circuits of the House riding on a camel, and every time that he came to the Corner, he made a sign with something which he had with him and said, Allāhu Akbar.10

(B. 25:61.)

14 Ibn 'Umar reported,

'Umar said, speaking of the Corner (the Black Stone), I call Allāh to witness that I know that thou art a stone-thou canst not harm or profit; and if I had not seen the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, kissing thee, I would not have kissed thee, then he kissed it.

(B. 25:56)

10. The Ka'bah has four comers (arkān, sing. rukn): the Black Stone called here al-Rukn, the Corner, but generally known as al-hajar al-aswad or the Black Stone, and the corners on the Yaman side are known as the Yamānī corners; the other two being the Shāmī (on the side of Syria) and the 'Irāqī (on the side of Mesopotamia). The circuit is commenced at the Black Stone which is the corner stone of the Ka'bah--it is often called al-Rukn or the Corner. The other corners may also be kissed, but the kissing of the Black Stone, the cornerstone of the Ka'bah, is one of the chief features of pilgrimage. Jesus Christ was referring to this very stone when he said, "The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner" (Matt. 21:42). It is, in fact, an emblem, a token, that part of the progeny of Abraham, Ishmael and p. 243 his descendants, which was rejected by the Israelites. was to become the cornerstone of the Kingdom of God. That there is no idea at all of Divine honour being paid to the Black Stone in kissing it, is shown by the next two hadīth. See also B. 25: 58.

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15 Ibn 'Umar said,

I have not given up the kissing of these two corners11, in difficulty and in ease, since I saw the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, kissing them both.

(B. 25:56.)

16 Ibn 'Abbās reported,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said: "The making of circumambulations round the House is like prayer except that you talk in it; and whoever talks in it, let him not talk anything but good,"12

(Tr.-Msh. 11:3.)

11. The Shāmī and the 'Irāqī corners. This shows that all four corners were kissed.

12. Tawāf is compared to prayer to show that the mind must be entirely engrossed with the idea of Divine presence. This comparison further draws attention to the fact that outward purity is as necessary in tawāf as in prayer.

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17 'Ā'ishah said,

'We went out with nothing in view but hajj, and when we reached Sarif, I menstruated. The Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, entered upon me and I was weeping. He said, "What is the matter with thee? Hast thou menstruated?" I said, Yes. He said:

"This is a matter that Allāh has ordained for the daughters of Adam, so do what the pilgrims do, except that thou shalt not make circuits round the House."

(B. 6:l.)

18 Ibn 'Umar reported,

When the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, made circuits in the hajj and the 'umrah, on first coming (to Makkah), he started with three circuits at a fast pace, and made four circuits

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walking; then he said two rak'as of prayer; then he ran between the Safā and the Marwah.13

(B. 25:62 )

19 Jābir said,

We came with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, we were not in a state of ihrām till the day of tarwiyah, and with Makkah to our back we uttered labbaika for the hajj.14

(B. 25:81.)

20 Abd al-'Azīz said,

I asked Anas, Inform me about something which thou hast known about the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, where did he say the Zuhr and the 'Asr prayers on the day of tarwiyah? He said, At Minā.

(B. 25:82.)

13. Safā and Marwah are two little hills near Makkah. This devotional act of Hajj is called sa'y. The running between Safā and Marwah, is performed seven times (B. 25:79.) The limits are indicated by two minarets. In the case of 'umrah, the pilgrim gets out of the state of ihrām with the sa'y.

14. Tarwiyah means watering or satisfying the thirst, and the 8th of Dhu-l-Hijjah is so called because on that day the pilgrims provide themselves with water for the following days which are to be spent in Minā and 'Arafāt. The hajj proper p. 246 thus begins on the 8th Dhu-l-Hijjah and pilgrims who get out of the state of ihrām on performing the 'umrah, enter into ihrām for hajj on this date.

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21 Sālim reported,

Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf, in the year in which he attacked Ibn al-Zubair, asked 'Abd Allāh, How dost thou do in the halting-place on the day of 'Arafah?15 Sālim said, If thou wilt follow the Sunnah, say the prayer at an early hour on the day of 'Arafah. Then 'Abd Allāh ibn 'Umar said, He is right; they used to combine the Zuhr and 'Asr prayers according to Sunnah.16 (B. 25:88.)

15. The 'Arafah is the ninth day of Dhu-l-Hijjah. The pilgrims remain in Minā on the 8th, and on the ninth they proceed to 'Arafāt about nine miles from Makkah. 'Arafah is derived from 'arf which means knowledge.

The halting at 'Arafāt is called wuqūf. It lasts only for a few hours, from afternoon till sunset, but it is the most important of the devotional acts of hajj so much so that there is no hajj without it. A sermon is here delivered by the imām on the mount known as the Jabal al-Rahmah (The Mountain of Mercy).

In the pre-Islām days, the Quraish did not go to 'Arafāt, as they considered themselves superior to the other tribes. Islām obliterated this distinction. (2:197; B. 25:91).

16. Minā is left at noon on the 9th, and the Zuhr and 'Asr prayers are combined in 'Arafāt where the pilgrims stay till sunset.

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22 Ibn 'Umar said,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, combined the Maghrib and 'Ishā' prayers at Muzdalifah-the iqāma was called out for each one of them; and he did not say any supererogatory prayer between them, nor after any one of them.17

(B. 25:96.)

23 'Amr ibn Maimūn said,

I was present with 'Umar; he said the morning prayer at Muzdalifah.

(B. 25:100.)

24 Ibn 'Umar said,

In the Farewell pilgrimage the Messenger of Allāh, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, profited by combining the 'umrah

17. After returning from 'Arafāt, the night is passed at Muzdalifah which is also called Jam'. Here the Maghrib and 'Ishā' prayers are combined, and then the morning prayer is said at a very early hour. The sunnah or supererogatory part is dropped when the prayers arc combined.

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with the hajj ................. So he performed the tawāf when he came to Makkah; and the first thing that he did was that he kissed the Corner, then he ran in the first three circumambulations and walked in four; then when he had finished the tawāf of the House, he said two rak'ahs of prayer near the Standing-place (of Abraham), then he uttered taslīm; and when he had done this, he came to the Safā, and made tawāf of the Safā and the Marwah seven times; then nothing that was forbidden to him (in ihrām) became lawful to him until he completed his hajj, and sacrificed the animal on the day of Sacrifice,18 and he returned and performed the tawāf of the House;19 then everything that was forbidden to him (in

18. The day of Sacrifice is the 10th Dhu-l-Hijjah. Animals are sacrificed at about breakfast time.

19. This is called the tawāf al-ifādzah, i.e., the tawāf after returning from 'Arafāt.

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ihrām) became lawful for him.

(B. 25:104.)

25 'Alī said.

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, appointed me, so I superintended the sacrifice of camels; and he ordered me so I distributed their flesh; then he ordered me and i distributed their coverings and their skins.20

(B. 25:120.)

26 Jābir said,

We used not to eat of the flesh of our sacrifices beyond the three days of Minā; then the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, gave us permission and said: "Eat and take it as a provision (for the journey)." So we ate and took it as a provision.21

(B. 25:124.)

20. The same rule should be followed in relation to the 'Īd sacrifices. Organized properly, the institution would be a source of immense strength financially.

21. Thus the flesh of the sacrificed animals may even be dried and kept for use when one likes.

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27 'Abd Allāh said,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, and a party of his companions, had their heads shaven, and some of them had their hair clipped.22

(B. 25:127.)

28 Ibn 'Abbās reported,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, used to visit the House in the days of Minā.23

(B. 25:129.)

29 Jābir reported,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, threw stones in the forenoon on the day of Sacrifice, and after this he threw stones in the afternoon.24

(B. 25:134.)

30 Anas reported,

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allāh be on him, said the Zuhr and the 'Asr and the Maghrib

22. The shaving of heads or the clipping of hair is a sign that the state of ihrām is over.

23. The days of Minā are the tenth of Dhu-l-Hijjah and the following two or three days, the latter being called ayyām al-tashriq.

24. The throwing of stones is described in detail in B. 25:142. It was a reminder of the spiritual fight which a man must be prepared to wage against evil. The throwing of stones teaches the lesson that man must learn to hate evil, and that he should try to keep the Devil at a stone's throw.

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and the 'Ishā' prayers, then slept a little at Muhassab; then he rode to the House and performed tawāf.25

(B. 25:144.)

31 Ibn 'Abbās reported,

Dhu-l-Majāz and 'Ukāz were markets for trade (during the pilgrimage) in the days of Ignorance. When Islām came, they (the Muslims) disliked this until it was revealed: "There is no blame on you if you seek bounty from your Lord", (that is to Say), at the time of pilgrimage.26

(B. 25:150.)

25. Muhassab is in Minā. The tawāf spoken of here is called the tawāf al-wadā' or the tawāf of departure from Makkah.

20. Material advantages may thus be combined with the great spiritual lesson learned in hajj.

Next: Chapter XIX: Jihād