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The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30), by Hermann Oldenberg, [1892], at


p. 360



From the end there takes place omission or addition.



This refers again to the same subject, namely what has to be done if there are either more or less mantras than there are acts which they are to accompany. In that case it is here allowed to use as many mantras as there are acts, and to drop the rest of the mantras. Or, if there are less mantras than there are acts, then, after the mantras have been equally divided, the last verse is to be multiplied. For instance, in the Dvikapâla sacrifice for the two Asvins, the placing of the two kapâlas is accompanied by two mantras. The rest of the mantras enjoined in the prakriti is left out. But if there are, for instance, twelve or more ishtakâs, bricks, to be placed, while there are only ten mantras, then the mantras are equally divided, and the fifth and tenth to be repeated, as many times as is necessary to equal the number of the ishtakâs.



As the Prakriti has been told before, anything that has not been told before, should be at the end.



This seems to mean that anything new, peculiar to a Vikriti, and not mentioned in the Prakriti, should come in at the end, that is, after those portions of the sacrifice which are enjoined in the Prakriti.



The rule should stand on account of the fitness of the Kumbhi, a large pot, the Sûla, the spit for boiling the heart, and the two Vapâsrapanîs, the spits for roasting the vapâ.



Kumbhî is explained by sronyâdipâkasamarthâ

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brihatî sthâlî; Sûla by hridayapâkârthâ yashtih, and Vapâsrapanî by vapâsrapanârthe yashtî dve. The exact object of the Sûtra is not quite clear. Prabhutva is explained by samarthatva, that is, fitness. This would mean, that on account of their fitness, or because they can be used for the object for which they are intended, or, so long as they can be used, the rule applying to them should remain. The commentary explains tantram by tantratâ or ekatâ. It may mean that the same pots and spits should be used, so long as they fulfil their purpose. The next Sûtra would then form a natural limitation.



But if there is a different kind of animal, there is difference (in pots and spits), owing to the diversity of cooking.



If different animals are to be cooked, then there must be different pots for each (pratipasum), because each requires a different kind of cooking. The commentary adds that, as the reason for using different pots is given, that reason applies also to young and old animals of the same kind (gâti), i, e. the young and small animal would require a different pot and a different kind of cooking.



At the Vanaspati sacrifice, which is a modification (vikâra) of the Svishtakrit, the addresses (nigama) of the deities should take place in the Yâgyâ, because they are included in the Prakriti.



These nigamas of the deities are not mentioned in the rules of the Vanaspati sacrifice, but they are mentioned in the rules for the Svishtakrit sacrifice of the Darsapûrnamâsa, which is the Prakriti, and should therefore be taken over. Here again, because a reason is given, it is

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understood that the same reason would apply to other portions of Svishtakrit also, such as the Dvir abhighârana, which is to be retained in the Vanaspati sacrifice.



The Anvârambhanîyâ or initiatory ceremony does not take place in a Vikriti, because the Vikritis would fall within the time of the Prakriti, and the Anvârambhanîyâ has but one object, namely (the initiation of) the Darsa-pûrnamâsa sacrifice.



The Anvârambhanîyâ ceremony has to be performed by those who begin the Darsa-pûrnamâsa sacrifice. It has thus one object only, and is never enjoined for any other cause. It is not therefore transferred to any Vikriti, such as the Saurya ceremony, &c. The Darsa-pûrnamâsa sacrifice having to be performed during the whole of life, or during thirty years, the Vikritis would necessarily fall within the same space of time. The initiatory ceremony has reference to the Darsa-pûrnamâsa sacrifice only, and thus serves as an introduction to all the Vikritis, without having to be repeated for each.



Or (according to others) the Anvârambhanîyâ should take place (in the Vikritis also), because the time (of the Darsa-pûrnamâsa) does not form an essential part.



This Sûtra is not quite clear. It shows clearly enough that, according to some authorities, the Anvârambhanîyâ or initiatory ceremony of the Darsa-pûrnamâsa sacrifice should take place in the Vikritis also; but why? Because the time has not the character of a sesha, which is said to be a synonym of aṅga, an essential part of a sacrifice.

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[paragraph continues] When it is said that the Darsa-pûrnamâsa should be performed during life, this is not meant as determining the time of the sacrifice. It only means that so long as there is life a man should perform these sacrifices, and that their non-performance would constitute a sin. The former argument, therefore, that the time of the Vikriti sacrifices would fall within the time of the Prakriti sacrifice is not tenable.



And again, because there is difference in the undertaking.



Ârambha, the beginning, is explained as the determination to perform a certain sacrifice (darsapûrnamâsâbhyâym yakshya iti niskayapurahsarah saṅkalpah). The object of the undertaking in the case of the Darsa-pûrnamâsa sacrifice, as the Prakriti, is simply svarga, in the Vikritis it may be any kind of desire. Therefore the Anvârambhanîyâ ceremony of the Darsa-pûrnamâsas should be transferred to its Vikritis. This seems to have been the opinion of the same authorities who are referred to in Sûtra CLVII. The final outcome of the whole controversy, however, is clearly that our Âkârya is in favour of omitting the Anvârambhanîyâ in the Vikritis. Anayoh pakshayor anvârambhanîyâbhâvapakshasyaiva balavattvam âkâryâbhilashitam iti manyâmahe. The Anvârambhanîyâ is not to be considered as an ordinary Aṅga, but as a special act to fit the sacrificer to perform the Darsa-pûrnamâsa and to perform it through the whole of his life.



For every object (new sacrifice) let him bring forward the fire (let him perform the Agnipranayana, the fetching of the Âhavanîya from the Gârhapatya fire). When the sacrifice is finished

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the fire becomes again ordinary fire, as when the (divine) fire has returned (to the firesticks).



The fire for a sacrifice is supposed to be set apart or consecrated (sâstrîya), but it is so for a special sacrifice only, and when that sacrifice is ended, it is supposed to become like ordinary fire again. Artha is prayogana, the sacrifice for which the fire is intended (agnisâdhyavihitakarmânushthânam; tasya tasya vihitasya karmanonushthânârtham gârhapatyâdibhya âhavanîyâdyagnim pranayet). The commentator remarks that there are two Agnis, the one who is visible, the other who is the god. Now while the divine Agni leaves the coals and ascends or is absorbed again in the two firesticks (aranî), the other remains like ordinary kitchen fire. See on Samârohana, Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, p. 311; Âsvalâyana-Srauta-sûtra III, 10, 4-5.

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