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1. One desirous of celebrating a Srâddha must invite the Brâhmanas on the day before (it is to take place).

2. On the next day, in the forenoon, if it falls in the bright half of the month, and in the afternoon, if it falls in the dark half of the month, the Brâhmanas, who must have duly bathed and duly sipped water, must be placed by him, in the order of their seniority' (or) of their sacred knowledge, upon seats covered with Kusa grass.

3. (He must entertain) two (Brâhmanas) facing the east at the Srâddha of the gods (Visvedevâs), and three facing the north at the Srâddha of the manes;

4. Or one only at each Srâddha.

5. After having (worshipped the Visvedevâs and) offered a burnt-oblation: during the recitation of the first Pañkaka (pentad) at a Srâddha repast consisting

[LXXIII. 1-32. Âsv. II, 5, 11-14; IV, 7; Gobh. IV, 2-4; Pâr. III, 10, 48-55; Sânkh. IV, 1; M. III, 125, 204-259; Y. I, 225-248; Âpast. II, 7, 17, 11-19; Gaut. XV, Regarding the corresponding section of the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra, see Introduction. This chapter opens the section on Srâddhas (funeral oblations), which consists of thirteen chapters (LXXIII-LXXXV. Nand.)

1. The Ekoddishta and Sapindîkarana Srâddhas have been described above, XXI. The rules given in the present chapter refer to all the remaining kinds of Srâddhas, See 5-9, LXXIV, LXXVI-LXXVIII.

2. 1 At the Srâddha of the manes the oldest Brâhmana represents the great-grandfather; the one next to him in age, the grandfather; the youngest of the three, the father of the sacrificer. (Nand.)

5-9. The three Pañkakas referred to in Sûtras 5-9 are respectively vv. 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 of Kâthaka XXXIX, 10. (Nand.) The great majority of the Mantras quoted in Sûtras 11-26 have {footnote p. 233} not been traced in the Berlin US. of the Kâthaka, nor indeed in any other Samhitâ of the Veda, but there can be no doubt that they, belong, to the school of the Kathas, as nearly all are quoted by their Pratîkas in the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra, and given at full in Devapâla's Commentary on the latter. The above renderings of the Pratîkas rest upon Devapâla's interpretations. That the rules in 5 seq. teach the performance of a Srâddha according to the rites of the Katha school, is confirmed by Nand. in his remarks on 5 seq. and 9 seq.]

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of undressed grain or performed for the gratification of a special desire[1];

6. At a Srâddha repast consisting of meat, during the recitation of the second Pañkaka;

7. At a new moon (Srâddha), during the recitation of the last Pañkaka;

8. On the Ashtakâs (or eighth days) of the (three) dark halves subsequent to the full moon day of the month Âgrahâyana (or Mârgasîrsha)[1], during the recitation of the first, second, and last Pañkakas respectively;

9. Likewise on the Anvashtakâs (or ninth days of the dark halves of those months);

10. He must invite the manes, after having received permission to do so from the Brâhmanas[1].

11. Having driven away the Yâtudhânas by strewing grains of sesamum and by reciting the two

[5. 1 See LXXVIll.

8. The days referred to are the eighth days of the dark halves of the months Mârgasîrsha, Pausha, and Mâgha.

9. 'And on the Srâddhas taking place on the seventh day of the dark half, as ka indicates.' (Nand.) This statement does not, however, deserve much credit, as such Srâddhas are neither mentioned in our work nor in the Kâthaka Grihya-sûtra.

10. 1 'The permission of the Brâhmanas has to be asked with the Mantra, "I shall invite (the manes);" and their answer must be, "Invite the,!"' (Nand.)

11. The Yâtudhânas are a class of demons supposed to disturb {footnote p. 234} the effect of a Srâddha. The second Mantra, according to Devapâla, is from the Rig-veda, X, 15, 1.]

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Mantras (the first of which begins with the words), 'May the Asuras go away;'

12. He must invite the manes (with the four Mantras), 'Come near, O ye manes,' '(Conduct) them all (here), O Agni,' 'May my (ancestors) come near,' 'This is your (share), O ye manes.' Then let him prepare the water for washing the feet with scented water, which has been mixed up with Kusa grass and sesamum, while reciting (the three Mantras), 'Those standing[1],' 'Speech is imperishable,' and 'What my mother (has sinned)[1],' and offer it (to the Brâhmanas); let him prepare the Arghya (or water mixed with Dûrvâ grass, flowers, &c.) and offer it to them; let him offer to the Brâhmanas, to the best of his power, Kusa grass, sesamum, clothes, flowers, ornaments, incense, and lamps; let him take food sprinkled with clarified butter; let him look them in the face with the Mantra, 'O ye Âdityas, Rudras, and Vasus;' let him say, 'I will offer an oblation in the fire,' and if the Brâhmanas say, 'Offer an oblation,' let him offer three burnt-oblations[2].'

13. After having consecrated the offerings with the Mantras, 'They, who are my ancestors,' 'This is your (share), O ye manes,' and 'This offering,' he must pour (what is left of) the food into such vessels as happen to be there, or (into golden ones at the offering addressed to the Visvedevâs and) into silver

[12. 1 These two Mantras are also quoted, with slight variations, by Sânkhâyana III, 13, 5.--2 The three burnt-oblations have to be accompanied by the recitation of the three Mantras, 'To Soma accompanied by the manes svadhâ namah; to Yama Angiras svadhâ namah; to Agni who takes the offerings addressed to the manes svadhâ namah.' (Nand.)]

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ones (at the offering addressed to the manes), and offer it first to the two Brâhmanas facing the east (who have been invited to the Srâddha of the gods).

14. Afterwards he must offer it to the (three) Brâhmanas facing north (who represent his three ancestors, addressing himself) to his father, grandfather and great-grandfather, (and calling out) their name and race.

15. While the Brâhmanas are eating the food, let him mutter (the three Mantras), 'Whatever (trickles down) through my fault,' 'With days and nights[1],' and 'Whatever (limb) of yours, Agni.'

16. And (let him mutter) the Itihâsa (Epics), Purâna (Legends), and the Dharmasâstra (Institutes of the Sacred Law).

17. Near the leavings let him deposit upon blades of Kusa grass with the ends turned towards the south one ball of rice for his father, while saying, 'Earth is (like) a spoon, imperishable (satisfaction).'

18. With the Mantra, 'Air is (like) a spoon, imperishable (satisfaction,' let him deposit) a second ball for his grandfather.

19. With the Mantra, 'Heaven is (like) a spoon, imperishable (satisfaction,' let him deposit) a third ball for his great-grandfather.

20. With the Mantra, 'Those ancestors who

[14. The formula of this invocation, according to Nand., is this, 'To NN., my ancestor, of the Gotra NN., who is like a Vasu, (I offer) this food, svadhâ namah.' The use of the particle ka, according to the same, implies that the maternal grandfather and the other maternal ancestors must also be addressed as ordained below (LXXV, 7).

15. 1 A similar Mantra is quoted, Sânkh, III, 13, 5.]

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have died,' let him place a garment (upon the balls).

21. With the Mantra, 'Give us sons, O ye manes,' (let him place) food upon them.

22. With the Mantra, 'Enjoy it, O ye manes, partake of it, (each according to his share[1],' let him wipe off the grease from his hands with the ends of the blades.

23, With the Mantra, '(Ye waters) imparting vigour[1],' let him sprinkle the balls to the right with the wet (remainder of the food), and offer the Argha[2], flowers, incense, unguents, and rice, and other victuals and dainties to the Brâhmanas.

24. And (he must offer them, ) a jar with water, which has been mixed up with honey, clarified butter, sesamum, and (ointments, oil, and the like).

25. The Brâhmanas having eaten and being satisfied, let him sprinkle the food (as much as has been left by them) and the grass with the Mantra, 'Mayest thou not fail me,' and strew the food near the leavings; and having asked them, 'Are you satisfied? Is (the Srâddha) finished,' he must first give water for sipping to the Brâhmanas facing the north, and then to those facing the east; and he must sprinkle the place where the Srâddha has been offered (with water, with the Mantra), 'Well sprinkled.' All these rites he must perform while holding blades of sacred grass in his hand.

26. Afterwards he must, while turning his face towards the Brâhmanas facing the east, circumambulate

[22. 1gasan. Samh. II, 31; Kâth. IX, 6.

23. 1gasan. Samh. II, 34.--2 The Argha is a respectful offering, tile ingredients of which vary.]

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them from left to right, with the Mantra, 'What a crow (may have eaten of my offering),' and turn back again; he must honour them with sacrificial fees, to the best of his power, saying, 'May you be satisfied,' and on their answering, 'We are satisfied,' he must address them with the Mantra, 'The gods and the manes.'

27. After having given (to all) water (with the Mantra, 'May the food and water and whatever else I gave you be) imperishable,' (and calling out their name and race, and having added the Mantra, 'May the Visvedevâs be satisfied,' he must ask, with folded hands, and with an attentive and cheerful mind, the following (benediction) from the Brâhmanas facing the east:

28. 'May the liberal-minded in our race increase in number, and may the (study of the) Vedas and our progeny (also increase). May faith not depart from us, and may we have plenty to bestow on the poor.

29. They shall answer, 'Thus let it be.'

30. (The second half of the benediction shall be, as follows), "May we have plenty of food, and may we receive guests. May others come to beg of us, and may not we be obliged to beg of any one.'

31. After having received this double benediction (through the Brâhmanas saying, 'Thus let it be'),

32. He must dismiss the Brâhmanas, with the Mantra, 'With all food[1],' after having honoured them according to custom, accompanied them (as far as the limits of his estate), and taken his leave of them.

[32. 1 Rig-veda VII, 38, 8.]

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