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1. In (the last watch of the night, which is called)

[27. Nand. refers the term bhikshu, which has been rendered by 'ascetic,' i. e. a member of the fourth order, to the six sorts of beggars enumerated by Parâsara. But as the first three orders are mentioned in this Sloka, it is certainly more natural to translate the term as has been done above.

29. 1 Nand. thinks that hermits or members of the third order are meant by this term. But it seems preferable to refer it to the Rishi authors of the Veda, to whom the first of the five sacrifices, the study of the Veda, is more immediately addressed. See Âpast. I, 4, 13, 1; Gaut. V, 3.

LX. I. M. IV, 92; Y. I, 115.--1, 2. M. IV, 50; Y. I, A; Âpast. {footnote p. 195} I, 11, 31, 1; Gaut. IX, 41-43.--3. M. IV, 49; Âpast. I, 11, 30, 15; Gaut. IX, 38.--4. M. IV, 46; Âpast. I, 11, 30, 18.-- 5. Âpast. loc. cit. 16; Gaut. IX, 40.--8-10. M. IV, 46, 47.--11, 12. M. IV, 45; Âpast. loc. cit. 18; Gaut. IX, 40.--11, 19. Y. I, 134.--15, 21. M. IV, 46, 56; Y. I, 134, 137; Âpast. loc. cit. 18.--16, 18. M. IV, 45; Gaut. IX, 40.--22. M. IV, 48; Y. I, 134; Âpast. 20.--23-26. M. IV, 49; V, 136, 137.--23, Âpast. 15; Gaut. IX, 37.--24. Y. I, 17. Chapters LX-LXIV treat of the daily duties of a householder. (Nand.)]

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the hour sacred to Brahman, let him rise and void his excrements.

2. By night (let him void them) facing the south, by day and during either twilight (let him void them) facing the north.

3. (He must) not (void them) on earth which has not been previously covered (with grass and the like);

4. Nor on a ploughed field;

5. Nor in the shade of a tree (fit to be used for sacrifices);

6. Nor on barren soil; 7. Nor on a spot abounding in fresh grass; 8. Nor where there are worms or insects; 9. Nor in a ditch (or hole, or upon the roots of a tree); 10. Nor on an ant-hill; 11. Nor on a path; 12. Nor on a public road; 13. Nor in a place previously defiled by another person; 14. Nor in a garden; 15. Nor in the vicinity of a garden or of (a reservoir of) water; 16. Nor on ashes; 17. Nor on coal; 18. Nor on

[6. Nand. infers from the use of the particle ka, that the following places (mentioned by Manu IV, 46, according to Nand.'s reading, which differs from the traditional one) are also included in this prohibition: a river, a mountain, the ruins of a temple, and the top of a mountain.

17. Nand. infers from the use of the particle ka, and from a text of Yama, that chaff and potsherds are also intended here.]

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cow-dung; 19. Nor in a fold for cattle; 20. Nor in the air; 21. Nor in water;

22. Nor facing the wind, or fire, or the moon, or the sun, or a woman, or a (father or other) Guru, or a Brâhmana;

23. Nor without having enveloped his head;

24. Having cleaned his hindparts with a clod of earth, or with a brick, (or with wood or grass,) and seizing his organ (with his left, after having removed his garment), he must rise and clean himself with water and earth (previously) fetched for the purpose, so as to remove the smell and the filth.

25. The organ must once be cleaned with earth, the hindparts three times, the one hand (the left) ten times, both hands together seven times, and both feet together three times.

26. Such is the purification ordained for householders; it is double for students treble for hermits; and quadruple for ascetics.

Next: LXI.