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1. A drinker of spirituous liquor must abstain from all religious rites and subsist on grains separated from the husk for a year.

2. If a man has (knowingly) tasted any of the (twelve) unclean excretions of the body, or of the (twelve) intoxicating drinks, he must perform the Kândrâyana penance.

3. Likewise, if he has (knowingly) eaten garlic, or onions, or red garlic, or any plant which has a similar flavour (to that of garlic or onions), or the meat of village pigs, of tame cocks (and other tame birds), of apes, and of cows.

4. In all those cases men belonging to a twice-born caste have to be initiated a second time, after the penance is over.

5. On their second initiation, the tonsure, the girding with the sacred string, the wearing of the staff, and the begging of alms shall be omitted.

[LI. 1. M. XI; 93; Y. III, 254.--3. M. V, 19; Y. I, 176.--4, 5. M. XI, 151, 152; Y. III, 255; Gaut. XXIII, 2.--6. M.V, 18; Y. I, 177; Âpast. I, 5, 17, 37; Gaut. XVII, 27.--7-20. M. IV, 205-217; Y. I, 161-168; Âpast. I, 5, 16, 27, 29; 17, 4, 5; 18, 21-23; 19, 1, 15; 11, 6, 15, 14; Gaut. XVII, 10-12, 17, 19, 21, 31.--21. M. V, 16; Y. I, 177,178.--23. M. XI, 148.--25. M. XI, 150; Gaut. XXIII, 6.--26-42. M. V, 5-21, 24, 25; XI, 152-157; Y. I, 169-178; Âpast. I, 5, 17, 17-20, 22-26, 28, 29, 33-36; Gaut. XVII, 14, 16, 22-26, 28, 29, 32-34.--43-46. M. XI, 158-160.--59. M. V, 36; Y. I, 179; Âpast. I, 5, 17, 31.--60. M. V, 38; Y. I, 180.--61. M. V, 39.--62. M. V, 34--63-78. M. V, 40-55.--64. Sânkh. II, 16, 1. See also Bühler, Introd. to Digest, p. xxxi, note.--76, 77. Y. I, 181.]

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6. If a man has (unawares) eaten meat of a fivetoed animal, with the exception of the hare, the porcupine, the iguana, the rhinoceros, and the tortoise, he must fast for seven days.

7. If he has eaten the food of a multitude of persons, of a harlot, of a thief, or of a singer, he must subsist upon milk for seven days.

8. And[1] (if he has eaten) the food of a carpenter or of a leather manufacturer;

9. Or of a usurer, of a miser, of one who has performed the initiatory ceremony of a Soma-sacrifice, of a jailer, of an Abhisasta, or of a eunuch;

10. Or of a dissolute woman, of a hypocrite, of a physician, of a hunter, of a hard-hearted or cruel person, and of one who eats the leavings of food;

11. Or of a woman who has neither husband nor son, of a goldsmith, of an enemy, or of an outcast:

12. Or of a malignant informer, of a liar, of one who has transgressed the law, and of one who sells himself, or who sells (molasses or other) liquids and condiments;

13. Or of a public dancer, of a weaver, of an ungrateful man, or of a dyer of clothes;

14. Or (the food) of a blacksmith, of a man of the Nishâda tribe (who subsist by fishing), of a stage-player[1], of a worker in cane, or of a seller of weapons;

[8. 1 'As shown by ka, "and," other persons who have a dishonourable profession, such as fishermen, have also to be understood.' (Nand.)

9. Abhisasta means 'accused of a heinous crime,' i.e. 'a person of bad repute.' (Nand.) See also Dr. Bühler's notes on Âpast. I, 9, 24, 6, and on Gaut. XVII, 17.

14. 'This is the usual meaning of the term rangâvatârin. Nand. explains it by 'wrestlers and the like.']

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15. Or of a trainer of dogs, of a distiller of spirituous liquor, of an oil manufacturer, or of a washerman;

16. Or (the food) of a woman in her courses (whether belonging to her, or dressed for her), or of one who lives under one roof with the paramour of his wife;

17. Or (food) which has been looked at by the killer of an embryo (of a Brâhmana), or which has been touched by a woman in her courses, or nibbled by a bird[1], or touched by a dog, or smelt at by a cow;

18. Or that which has been designedly touched with the foot, or that which has been sneezed at;

19. Or the food of insane, or wrathful, or sick persons;

20. Or (food that is given) in a disrespectful manner, or the meat (of animals killed) for no sacred purpose.

21. After having (unawares) eaten the flesh of any sort of fish, excepting the Pâthîna, Rohita, Râgîva, Simhatunda, and Sakula fishes, he must fast for three days.

22. Likewise, after having (unawares) eaten the flesh of (any other) aquatic animal (such as the alligator, or the Gangetic porpoise).

23. After having (knowingly) drunk water from a vessel in which spirituous liquor had been kept, he must drink for seven days milk boiled together with the Sankhapushpî plant.

[17. Nand. considers the term patatrin to refer to crows only in this place. Kullûka (on M. IV, 208) interprets it by 'crows and the like.' See also Gaut. XVII, 10.

20. See Dr. Bühler's notes on Gaut. XVI 19, 31.]

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24. After having (knowingly drunk water) from a vessel in which an intoxicating beverage had been kept, (he must drink the same) for five days.

25. A Soma-sacrificer, who has (unawares) smelt the breath of a man who had been drinking spirituous liquor, must plunge into water, (suppress his breath) and mutter the Aghamarshana three times. and eat clarified butter afterwards.

26. For eating (designedly) the flesh of an ass, of a camel, or of a crow[1], he must perform the Kândrâyana penance.

27. Likewise, for eating (knowingly) the flesh of an unknown (beast or bird), meat kept in a slaughterhouse, and[1] dried meat.

28. For eating (unawares) the flesh of carnivorous beasts; (tigers- and others), or birds (hawks and others), he must perform the Taptakrikkhra.

29. For (knowingly) eating a sparrow, or (the heron called) Plava, or a Brâhmanî duck, or a Hamsa, or the (wild cock called) Raggudâla, or a Sârasa crane, or a Dâtyûha, or a male or female parrot, or a crane, or a heron, or a cuckoo, or a wagtail, he must fast for three days.

30. Likewise, for eating (unawares the flesh of) animals whose hoof is not cloven (such as horses),

[26. Nand. argues from a passage of Praketas, that the flesh of the following other animals, dogs, jackals, cocks, boars, carnivorous animals in general, Gangetic porpoises, apes, elephants, horses, tame hogs, cows, and human beings, is also implied here. But if that were the case, Sûtra 26 would be partly a mere repetition of, and partly opposed to, the rules laid down in Sûtras 33 and 22.

27. 1 Nand. infers from a passage of the Brâhma-purâna, that the use of the particle ka further implies a prohibition to eat the flesh on the back, or flesh which had been interred in the ground, or covered with earth, fried meat, and the flesh of the uterus.]

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or of animals having a double row of teeth (such as the Rohita deer).

31. For eating (unawares) the flesh of any bird, excepting the francoline partridge, the Kâpiñgala, the (quail called) Lâvaka, the peahen, and the peacock, (he must fast) for a day and a night.

32. For eating (knowingly) insects (ants and others), he must drink for one day (water in which the plant) Brahmasuvarkalâ (has been boiled).

33. For eating (unawares) the flesh of dogs, he must perform the same penance[1].

34. For eating (unawares the mushroom called) Khattrâka, or (the mushroom called) Kavaka, he must perform the Sântapana penance.

35. For eating (unawares) stale food, other than a mess prepared with barley (such as cakes), or with wheat (such as, gruel), or with milk (boiled with rice, or mixed with coagulated milk, or otherwise dressed), and dishes sprinkled with fat (such as clarified butter), sour gruel, and sweetmeats, he must fast (for one day).

36. Likewise, (for eating unawares) the juice flowing from an incision in a tree, (plants raised in) unclean substances (such as excrements and the like), and the red exudation of trees.

37. Also, (for eating unawares) the root of the water-lily; (and for eating) rice boiled with sesamum. or with beans, Samyâva[1], rice boiled in milk with sugar, pastry, Sashkulî (cakes), or food destined for

[33. 1 'And he must perform the Sântapana penance mentioned in the next Sûtra, as the use of the particle ka implies.' (Nand.)

37. 1 Nand. interprets this term by utkarikâ, which, according to Wilson, is a sort of sweetmeat made with milk, treacle, and clarified butter. Kullûka (on M. V, 7) has a somewhat different interpretation.]

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the gods, if those dishes have not been announced to the gods first; and (for eating) food destined for burnt-oblations.

38. Also, for tasting the milk of any animal, save the milk of cows, goats, and buffalos (and for tasting any eatables made of such milk)[1].

39. Also, (for tasting the milk) of those animals (cows and the rest) within ten days after their giving birth to a young one.

40. And (for tasting) the milk of a cow whose milk flows of itself, of one that has just taken the bull[1], or of one whose calf is dead[2].

41. And (for tasting the milk of a cow) that has been feeding upon ordures.

42. And (for tasting) any such food as has turned sour (but not that which is sour by nature, like sorrel), except sour milk (and what is made with it).

43. A student, who partakes (unawares) of a Srâddha repast, must fast for three days.

44. And he must remain in water for a whole day (afterwards).

45. If he eats honey or meat (at any time), he must perform the Prâgâpatya penance.

46. If any one eats (unawares) the leavings of the

[38. 1 Nand. infers from the use of the particle ka that the same penance is ordained for tasting any other production of those animals, as e. g. their excrements.

40. 1 Sandhinî means 'a cow that has just taken the bull,' or 'a female animal that gives milk once a day,' or 'a cow that is milked by the calf of another cow.' (Nand.) Haradatta (see Âpast. I, 5, 17, 23; Gaut. XVII, 25) interprets it by 'an animal giving milk while big with young.' For other interpretations, see the Petersburg Dictionary.--2 'The particle ka indicates that animals bearing twins have also to be included in this prohibition.' (Nand.) See Gaut. loc. cit.]

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food of a cat, of a crow, of an ichneumon, or of a rat, he must drink water in which the Brahmasuvarkalâ plant has been boiled.

47. For eating (unawares) what has been left by a dog, he must fast for one day, and drink Pañkagavya (afterwards).

48. For tasting (knowingly) the excrements of five-toed animals (excepting human excrements), he must (fast) for seven days (and drink Pañkagavya on the eighth).

49. If one (not a student) eats (unawares) of a Srâddha repast consisting of raw food, he must subsist on milk for seven days.

50. If a Brâhmana eats what has been left by a Sûdra, (he must also subsist on milk) for seven days.

51. If he eats what has been left by a Vaisya, (he must subsist upon milk) for five days.

52. If he eats what has been left by a Kshatriya, (he must subsist upon milk) for three days.

53. If he eats what has been left by another Brâhmana, (he must subsist upon milk) for one day.

54. If a Kshatriya eats what has been left by a Sûdra, (he must undergo the same penance) for five days.

55. If he eats what has been left by a Vaisya, (he must undergo it) for three days;

56. And so must a Vaisya, if he eats what has been left by a Sûdra.

[50. Nand. explains that he should drink Pañkagavya alternately with milk. This explanation extends to the following Sûtras also (up to Sûtra 56). He further argues from another Smriti text that the term Sûdra means 'Sûdras and women' here.]

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57. For (knowingly) eating (undressed) food, which has been left by a Kandâla (or Svapaka or other member of the seven lowest castes), he must fast for three days.

58. For (unawares) eating dressed food (left by such), the Parâka penance is ordained.

59. Let no Brâhmana ever eat (the flesh of) beasts which has not been consecrated with Mantras; but if it has been consecrated with Mantras, he may eat it, following the eternal rule (laid down in the Veda).

60. As many hairs as the beast has, which he has slain in this world, for so many days will the killer of a beast for other purposes than a (Srauta or Smârta) sacrifice, suffer terrible pangs in this world and in the next[1].

61. It is for sacrifices that beasts have been created by the Self-existent (Brahman) himself. Sacrificing causes the whole universe to prosper; therefore is the slaughter (of beasts) for a sacrifice no slaughter.

62. The sin of him who kills deer for the sake of gain, is not so great (and visited less heavily) in the world to come, than the sin of him who eats meat which has not been offered to the gods.

63. Plants, cattle, trees, amphibious animals, and birds, which have been destroyed for the purposes of sacrifice, obtain exaltation in another existence (in which they are born as Gandharvas, or other beings of a high rank).

[60. 1 My translation follows Nand. It is, however, doubtful, whether the reading is correct; see Manu V, 38.

62. This is because the former kills animals in order to support his family, whereas the latter eats meat merely in order to tickle his palate. (Nand.)]

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64. When honouring a guest, at a sacrifice, or when worshipping the manes, or the gods, a man may slay cattle, but not otherwise on any account.

65. That twice-born man who, knowing the exact truth (promulgated) in the Veda, slays cattle for the sacrifices (ordained in the Veda), will convey himself and the cattle (slain by him) to a blissful abode.

66. A self-controlled[1] man of a twice-born caste, whether he be a householder, or be dwelling with his spiritual teacher, or in the forest, must never slay an animal in opposition to the precepts of the Veda, even in cases of distress.

67. That slaughter which is in accordance with the precepts of the Veda, and has been fixed for this world of movable and immovable creatures, should be considered as no slaughter at all; because it is from the Veda that law shines forth.

68. He who hurts animals that do not hurt any one, merely in order to afford pleasure to himself, will never obtain happiness, whether living or dead[1].

69. He who gives no living creature intentionally the pain of confining or killing (or hurting) it, from benevolence towards all (creatures), will enjoy everlasting happiness.

70. Whatever he thinks of, whatever he strives for, and whatever he desires in his heart, all that is easily obtained by him who does not injure any created being.

71. Meat cannot be obtained without injuring an

[66. 1 Nand. interprets the term âtmavân by samnyâsî, 'an ascetic, or member of the fourth order,' apparently because the first three orders are mentioned in this Sloka. I have followed Kullûka's interpretation (on M.V, 43).

68. 1 'But it is no sin to kill tigers or other beasts of prey.' (Nand.)]

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animal, and the murder of animals excludes the murderer from heaven, therefore must meat be avoided.

72. Reflecting upon the origin of flesh[1] and upon the (sin of) hurting or confining animated creatures, he must abstain from animal food of any kind.

73. He who transgresses not the law and eats not flesh like a Pisâka, is beloved by men and remains free from disease.

74. He who gives his consent to the killing of an animal, he who cuts it up, he who kills it, the purchaser and the seller, he who prepares it, he who serves it up, and he who eats it, all these are denominated slaughterers of an animal.

75. There is no greater sinner than he who, without giving their share to the manes and to the gods, wants to increase his own flesh with the flesh of another creature.

76. Those two, he who performs a horse-sacrifice annually for a hundred years and he who does not eat meat, shall both obtain the same recompense for their virtue.

77. By eating (wild rice or other) sacred fruits or roots, and by living upon such grains as are the food of hermits, a man does not reap so high a reward as by avoiding meat

78. (An eater of flesh must say within himself), Me he (mâm sa) will eat in the next world, whose

[72. 1 The human soul is enveloped in six sheaths, three of which come from the father, and three from the mother. The three that come from the mother are skin, flesh, and blood. Now flesh is said in the Sruti to be derived from the menstrual discharge, and the latter is one of the species of forbidden food. (Nand.)]

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flesh I am tasting here.[1] This, say the learned, is the derivation of the word flesh (mâmsa).

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