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1. Now a Brâhmana may take four wives in the direct order of the (four) castes;

2. A Kshatriya, three;

3. A Vaisya, two;

4. A Sûdra, one only.

5. Among these (wives), if a man marries one of his own caste, their hands shall be joined.

6. In marriages with women of a different class, a Kshatriya bride must hold an arrow in her hand;

7. A Vaisya bride,. a whip;

8. A Sûdra bride, the skirt of a mantle.

9. No one should marry a woman belonging to the same Gotra, or descended from the same Rishi ancestors, or from the same Pravaras.

[XXIV. 1-4. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21, 74; M. III, 12-14; Y. I, 56, 57.--5. M. III, 43; Y. I, 62.--6-8. M. III, 44; Y. I, 62.--9, 10. Weber loc. cit. 75; M. III, 5; Y. I, 53; Âpast. II, 5, 11, 15, 16; Gaut. IV, 2-5.--12-16. M. III, 8.--12. Y. I, 53--17-26. M. III, 20, 21, 27-34; Y. I, 58-61; Âpast. II, 5, 11, 17--II, 5; 22, 2; Gaut. IV, 6-13.--27, 28. M. III, 23-26, 39; Âpast. II, 5, 12, 3; Gaut. IV, 14, 15.--29-32. M. III, 37, 38; Y. I, 58-60; Gaut. IV, 30-33.--38. M. V, 151; Y. I, 63.--39- Y. I, 63.--40. M. IX, 90; Y. I, 64.--41. M. IX, 93.

1. This chapter opens the section on Samskâras or sacraments, i. e. the ceremonies on conception and so forth. (Nand.) This section forms the second part of the division treating of Akira. See above, XIX.

9. According to Nand., the term Gotra refers to descent from one of the seven Rishis, or from Agastya as the eighth; the term Ârsha (Rishi ancestors), to descent from the Ârshtishenas or Mudgalas, {footnote p. 107} or from some other subdivision of the Bhrigus or Ângirasas, excepting the Gâmadagnas, Gautamas, and Bhâradvâgas; and the term Pravara, to the Mantrakrits of one's own race, i. e. the ancestors invoked by a Brâhmana at the commencement of a sacrifice. Nand.'s interpretation of the last term is no doubt correct; but it seems preferable to take Gotra in the sense of 'family name' (laukika gotra), and to refer the term samânârsha to descent from the same Rishi (vaidika gotra). See Dr. Bühler's notes on Âpast. II, 5, 11, 15, and Gaut. XVIII, 6; Max Müller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 379-388; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 69-41. If ârsha were connected with pravara, the whole compound samânârshapravarâ would denote 'a woman descended from the same Rishi '= samanârshâ, Y. I, 53, and samânapravarâ, Gaut. XVIII, 6.]

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10. Nor (should he marry) one descended from his maternal ancestors within the fifth, or from his paternal ancestors within the seventh degree;

11. Nor one of a low family (such as an agriculturer's, or an attendant of the king's family);

12. Nor one diseased;

13. Nor one with a limb too much (as e. g. having six fingers);

14. Nor one with a limb too little;

15. Nor one whose hair is decidedly red;

16. Nor one talking idly.

17. There are eight forms of marriage

18. The Brâhma, Daiva, Ârsha, Prâgâpatya, Gândharva, Âsura, Râkshasa, and Paisâka forms.

19. The gift of a damsel to a fit bridegroom, who has been invited, is called a Brâhma marriage.

20. If she is given to a Ritvig (priest), while he is officiating at a sacrifice, it is called a Daiva marriage.

21. If (the giver of the bride) receives a pair of kine in return, a is called an Ârsha marriage.

22. (If she is given to a suitor) by his demand, it is called a Prâgâpatya marriage.

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23. A union between two lovers, without the consent of mother and father, is called a Gândharva marriage.

24. If the damsel is sold (to the bridegroom), it is called an Âsura marriage.

25. If he seizes her forcibly, it is called a Râkshasa marriage.

26. If he embraces her in her sleep, or while she is unconscious, it is called a Paisâka marriage.

27. Among those (eight forms of marriage), the four first forms are legitimate (for a Brâhmana);

28. And so is the Gândharva form for a Kshatriya.

29. A son procreated in a Brâhma marriage redeems (or sends into the heavenly abodes hereafter mentioned) twenty-one men (viz. ten ancestors, ten descendants, and him who gave the damsel in marriage).

30. A son procreated in a Daiva marriage, fourteen;

31. A son procreated in an Ârsha marriage, seven;

32. A son procreated in a Prâgâpatya marriage, four.

33. He who gives a damsel in marriage according to the Brâhma rite, brings her into the world of Brahman (after her death, and enters that world himself).

34. (He who gives her in marriage) according to the Daiva rite, (brings her) into Svarga (or heaven, and enters Svarga himself).

35. (He who gives her in marriage) according to the Ârsha rite, (brings her) into the world of Vishnu (and enters that world himself).

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36. (He who gives her in marriage) according to the Prâgâpatya rite, (brings her) into the world of the gods (and enters that world himself).

37. (He who gives her in marriage) according to the Gândharva rite, will go to the world of Gandharvas.

38. A father, a paternal grandfather, a brother, a kinsman, a maternal grandfather, and the mother (are the persons) by whom a girl may be given in marriage.

39. On failure of the preceding one (it devolves upon) the next in order (to give her in marriage), in case he is able.

40. When she has allowed three monthly periods to pass (without being married), let her choose a husband for herself; three monthly periods having passed, she has in every case full power to dispose of herself (as she thinks best).

41. A damsel whose menses begin to appear (while she is living) at her father's house, before she has been betrothed to a man, has to be considered as a degraded woman: by taking her (without the consent of her kinsmen) a man commits no wrong.

[39. Regarding the causes effecting legal disability, such as love, anger, &c., see Nârada 3, 43.

40. Nand., arguing from a passage of Baudhâyana (see also M. IX, 90), takes ritu, 'monthly period,' as synonymous with varsha, 'year.' But ritu, which occurs in two other analogous passages also (Gaut. XVIII, 20, and Nârada XII, 24), never has that meaning.

41. Nand. observes, that the rules laid down in this and the preceding Sloka refer to young women of the lower castes only. Nowadays the custom of outcasting young women, who have not been married in the proper time, appears to be in vogue in Brahmanical families particularly. Smriti passages regarding the illegality of marriages concluded with such women have been collected by me, Über die rechtl. Stellung der Frauen, p. 9, note 17. The {footnote p. 110} custom of Svayamvara or 'self-choice,' judging from the epics, was confined to females of the kingly caste, and in reality was no doubt of very rare occurrence.]

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