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p. 66


1. On women equal in caste (to their husbands) sons are begotten, who are equal in caste (to their fathers).

2. On women of lower caste than their husbands sons are begotten, who follow the caste of their mothers.

3. On women of higher caste than their husbands sons are begotten, who are despised by the twice-born.

4. Among these, the son of a Sûdra with a Vaisya woman is called Âyogava.

5. The Pukkasa and Mâgadha are sons of a Vaisya and Sûdra respectively with a Kshatriya woman.

6. The Kandâla, Vaidehaka, and Sûta are the sons of a Sûdra, Vaisya, and Kshatriya respectively with a Brâhmana woman.

7. Besides these, there are innumerable other mixed castes produced by further intermixture between those that have been mentioned.

8. Âyogavas must live by artistic performances (such as public wrestling, dancing, and the like).

9. Pukkasas must live by hunting.

10. Mâgadhas must live by calling out in public the good qualities (of saleable commodities).

11. Kandâlas must live by executing criminals sentenced to death.

[XVI. Y. M. X, 5; Y. I, 90; Âpast. II, 6, 13, 1.--4-6. M. X, 11, 12; Y. I, 93, 94; Gaut. IV, 17.--7. M. X, 31.--8-15. M. X, 47-53.--17. M. X, 57.--18. M. X, 62.

10. According to Manu (X, 47) the Mâgadhas are to live by traffic.]

p. 67

12. Vaidehakas must live by keeping (dancing girls and other public) women and profiting by what they earn.

13. Sûtas must live by managing horses.

14. Kandâlas must live out of the town, and their clothes must be the mantles of the deceased. In this their condition is different (from, and lower than that of the other mixed castes).

15. All (members of mixed castes) should have intercourse (of marriage, and other community) only between themselves.

16. (In the lower castes also) the son inherits the property of his father.

17. All members of those mixed castes, whether their descent has been kept secret or is generally known, may be found out by their acts.

18. Desertion of life, regardless of reward, in order to save a Brâhmana, or a cow, or for the sake of a woman or child, may confer heavenly bliss even upon (members of those) base castes.

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