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1. Brâhmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sûdras are the four castes.

2. The first three of these are (called) twice-born.

3. For them the whole number of ceremonies, which begin with the impregnation and end with the ceremony of burning the dead body, have to be performed with (the recitation of) Mantras.

4. Their duties are.

5. For a Brâhmana, to teach (the Veda);

6. For a Kshatriya, constant practice in arms;

7. For a Vaisya, the tending of cattle;

8. For a Sûdra, to serve the twice-born;

[II. 1. Âpast. I, 1, 1, 3.--1, 2. M. X, 4; Y. I, 10,--3. M. II, 26; Y. I, 10.--4-9. M. I, 88-91; VIII, 410; IX, 326-335; X, 75-79; X. I, 118-120; Âpast. I, 1, 1, 5, 6; II, 5, 10, 4-7; Gaut. X, 2, 7, 49, 56.-15. M. X. 81; Y. III, 35; Gaut. VII, 6.--16, 17. Gaut. VIII, 23; X, 51. 'This chapter treats of the four castes.' (Nand.)]

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9. For all the twice-born, to sacrifice and to study (the Veda).

10. Again, their modes of livelihood are:

11. For a Brâhmana, to sacrifice for others and to receive alms;

12. For a Kshatriya, to protect the world (and receive due reward, in form of taxes);

13. For a Vaisya, tillage, keeping cows (and other cattle), traffic, lending money upon interest, and growing seeds;

14. For a Sûdra, all branches of art (such as painting and the other fine arts);

15. In times of distress, each caste may follow the occupation of that next (below) to it in rank.

16. Forbearance, veracity, restraint, purity, liberality, self-control, not to kill (any living obedience towards one's Gurus, visiting places of pilgrimage, sympathy (with the afflicted),

17. Straightforwardness, freedom from covetousness, reverence towards gods and Brâhmanas, and freedom from anger are duties common (to all castes).

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