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Chapter XVII


On the description of Sandhyâ and other daily practices


p. 1106


1-5. Nârâyana said :-- If one divides or separates the pâdas while reciting or making Japam of the Gâyatrî, one is freed from the Brâhminicide, the sin of Brahmahatyâ. But if one does so without breaking the pâdas, i.e., repeats at one breath, then one incurs the sin of Brahmahatyâ. Those Brâhmanas who do the Japam of the Gâyatrî without giving due pause to the pâdas, suffer pains in hells with their heads downwards for one hundred Kalpas. O Gâyatrî! Thou art of one foot, of two feet, of three feet and of four feet. Thou art without foot, because Thou art not obtained. Salutation to Thy Fourth Foot beautiful and which is above the Trilokî (Râjas). This cannot obtain that. Firstly, Gâyatrî is of three kinds :-- “Samputâ,”  “Ekomkârâ,” and “Sadomkârâ.” There is also the Gâyatrî, with five Pranavas, according to the Dharma S’âstras and Purânas. There is something to be noted while muttering or making the japam of the Gâyatrî :-- Note how many lettered Gâyatrî you are going to repeat (make japam). When you have repeated one-eighth of that, repeat (make japam) the Turîya pâda of Gâyatrî (i.e., the fourth Pâda, the mantram parorajase Sâvadomâ prâpat) etc., (see the daily practices, page 107) once and then complete repeating the Gâyatrî. If the Brâhmana makes the Japam (the silent muttering) in the above way he gets himself united with Brahmâ. Other modes of making the Japam do not bear any fruit. Om Gâyatryasye kapadî dvîpapî Tripadî chatus pâdasi nahi padyase namaste Tûryâya dars’atâyapadâya paro Rajase Sâbado mâ prâpat. Gâyatrî is one-footed in the form of Trilokî, two-footed, the Trayî Vidyâ from thy second foot; tripadî (all Prânas are thy third foot, chatuspadi, as the Purusa apadi without any foot, Parorajase above the Râjas, the dust; asau-that; adah this not prâpat may obtain. The Yogis who are Ûrdharetâs (hold Brahmâ charyam, continence) are to make Japam of the Samputâ Gâyatrî (i.e., with Om). Gâyatrî with one pranava and as well the Gâyatrî with six pranavas. The householder Brahmachârî or those who want moksa are to make Japam of Gâyatrî with Om prefixed.


6. Those householders who affix Om to the Gâyatrî do not get the increase of their families.


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7-8. The Turîya pâda (foot) of Gâyatrî is the mantra “Parorajase Sâvodomâ prâpat.” (Brihad. up. v.14.7). Salutation to Thy beautiful Fourth Foot which is above the Trilokî (Râjas). This cannot obtain that. The presiding deity of this mantra is Brahmâ. I am now speaking of the full Dhyânam (meditation) of this Brahmâ so that the full fruit of the Japam (recitation) may be obtained. There is a full blown lotus in the heart; its form is like the Moon, Sun, and the Spark of Fire; i.e., of the nature of pranava and nothing else. This is the seat of the inconceivable Brahmâ. Think thus. Now on that seat is seated well the steady constant subtle Light, the essence of Akâs’a, the everlasting existence, intelligence and bliss, the Brahmâ. May He increase my happiness (see page 107 the daily practice of the Hindus by R. B. Sris Chandra Basu, on the Invocation of the Gâyatrî).


Note :-- Aum! Gâyatryasyekapadî dvîpadî, tripadî, chatuspadasi, nahi padyase namaste turyâya dars’ atâya padâya parorajase, sâvado mâprâpat O Gâyatrî! Thou art of one foot (in the farm of Trilokî), of two feet (the Trayî vidyâ from Thy second foot) of three feet all Prâna, etc., are Thy third foot and of four feet (as the Purusa). Thou art without foot because Thou art not obtained. Salutation to Thy beautiful fourth foot which is above the Trilokî (Râjas). This cannot obtain that.


9. Now I am speaking of the Mudrâ of the Turîyâ Gâyatrî :-- (1) Tris’ûla, (2) Yoni, (3) Surabhi, (4) Aksamâlâ, (5) Linga, (6) Padma and (7) Mahâmudrâ. These seven Mudrâs are to be shewn.


10-14. What is Sandhyâ, that is Gâyatrî; there is no difference whatsoever between the two. The two are one and the same. Both are of the nature of Existence, Intelligence and Bliss. The Brâhmanas would daily worship Her and bow down before Her with greatest devotion and reverence. After the Dhyânam, first worship Her with five upachâras or offerings. Thus :--


Om lam prithivyâtmane gandham, arpayâmi namo namah.  Om Ham âkâs’âtmane puspam arpayâmi namo namah.  Om ram Vahnyâtmane dîpam arpayâmi namo namah.  Aum vam amritâtmane naivedyam arpayâmi namo namah. Om yam ram lam vam ham puspânjalim arpayâmi namo namah. Thus worshipping with five upachâras, you must shew Mudrâs to the Devî.


15-16. Then meditate on the Form of the Gâyatrî mentally and slowly repeat the Gâyatrî. Do not shake head, neck and while making japam, do not show your teeth. According to due rules repeat the Gâyatrî one hundred and eight times, or twenty-eight times. When unable, repeat ten times; not less than that.


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17-20. Then raise the Gâyatrî placed before on the heart (seat) by the mantra “Gâyatrasyai kapadî Dvîpadî, etc., and then bid farewell to Her after bowing down to Her and repeating the mantra “Omuttame S’ikhare Devî bhûmyâm parvata mûrdhani Brâhmana ebhyobhya anujñâtâ Gachcha Devî yathâsukham” on the highest top of the mountain summit in earth (i.e., on the Meru mountain) dwells the goddess Gâyatrî. Being pleased with Thy worshippers go back, O Devî! to Thy abode as it pleaseth Thee.” (See page 110, The Daily Practices of the Hindus.)


The wise men never mutter nor recite the Gâyatrî mantra within the water. For the Maharsis say that the Gâyatrî is fire-faced (agnimukhî). After the farewell shew again the following mudrâs :-- Surabhi Jñân, Sûrpa, Kûrma, Yoni, Padma, Linga and Nirvâna Mudrâs.


Then address thus :-- “O Devî! O Thou who speakest pleasant to Kas’yapa! O Gâyatrî! Whatever syllables I have missed to utter in making Japam, whatever vowels and consonants are incorrectly pronounced, I ask Thy pardon for all my above faults.” O Nârada! Next one ought to give peace offerings to the Gâyatrî Devî.


21-33. The Chchhanda of Gâyatrî Tarpanam (peace offerings to Gâyatrî) is Gâyatrî; the Risi is Vis’vâmitra; Savitâ is the Devatâ; its application (Niyoga) is in the peace offerings.


“Om Bhûhrigvedapurusam tarpayâmi.”

“Om Bhuvah Yajurvedapurusam tarpayâmi.”

“Om Svah Sâmaveda purusam tarpayâmi.”

“Om Mahah Atharvaveda purusam tarpayâmi.”

“Om Janah Itihâsapurâna purusam tarpayâmi.”

“Om Tapah Sarvâgama purusam tarpayâmi.”

“Om Satyam Satyaloka purusam tarpayâmi.”

“Om Bhûh bhûrloka purusam tarpayâmi.”

“Om Bhuvah bhuvoloka purusam tarpayâmi.”

“Om Svah svarloka purusam tarpayâmi.”

“Om Bhûh rekapadâm Gâyatrîm tarpayâmi.”

“Om Bhuvo dvîtîyapadâm Gâyatrîm tarpayâmi.”

“Om Svastripadâm Gâyatrim tarpayâmi.”

“Om Bhûrbhûvah Svas’chatuspadâm Gâyatrîm tarpayâmi.”


Pronouncing these, offer the Tarpanams. Next add the word Tarpayâmi to each of the following words “Ûsasîm, Gâyatrîm, Sâvitrîm, Sarasvatim Vedamâtaram, Prithvîm, Ajâm, Kaus’îkîm, Sâmkritîm, Savajitîm, etc.,” and offer Tarpanams. After the Tarpanam is over, offer the peace-chantings, (S’ântivâri) repeating the following mantras.


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“Om Jâta vedase sunavâma romam, etc.”

“Om Mânastoka, etc.”

“Om Tryamvakam Yajâmahe, etc.”

“Om Tachchhamyoh, etc.”


Then touch all the parts of your bodies, repeating the two mantra, “Om atodeva, etc.” And reciting the mantram “Svonâ Prithivî,” bow down to the earth, after repeating one’s name, Gotra, etc.


34-45. O Nârada! Thus the rules of the morning Sandhyâ are prescribed. Doing works so far, bid farewell to the above-mentioned Gâyatrî. Next finishing the Agnihotra Homa sacrifice, worship the five Devatâs, S’ivâ, S’iva, Ganes’a, Sûrya and Visnu. Worship by the Purusa Sûkta mantra, or by Hrîm mantra, or by Vyahriti mantra or by S’rischate Laksmîs’cha, etc., place Bhavanî in the centre; Visnu in the north east corner, S’iva in the south-east corner; Ganes’a in the south-west corner, and the Sun in the north-west corner; and then worship them. While offering worship with the sixteen offerings, worship by repeating sixteen mantras. As there is no other act more merit-giving than the worship of the Devî, so the Devî should first of all be worshipped. Then worship in due order the five Devatâs placed in five positions. As the worship of the Devî is the chief object, so in the three Sandhyâs, the worship of the Sandhyâ Devî is approved of by the S’rutis. Never worship Visnu with rice; Ganes’a with Tulasî leaves; the Devî Durgâ with Durba grass and S’iva with Ketakî flower. The under-mentioned flowers are pleasing to the Devî :-- Mallikâ, Jâti, Kutaja, Panasa, Palâsa, Vakula, Lodha, Karavîra, S’ins’apa, Aparâjitâ, Bandhûka, Vaka, Madanta, Sindhuvâra, Palâs’a, Durbhâ, S’allakî, Mâdhavî, Arka, Mandâra, Ketakî, Karnikâra, Kadamba, Lotus, Champaka, Yûthikâ, Tagara, etc.


46-47. Offer incenses Guggul, Dhûpa and the light of the Til oil and finish the worship. Then repeat the principal (male) mantra (make Japam). Thus finishing the work, study the Vedas in the second quarter of the next day; and in the third quarter of that day feed father, mother and other dependent relatives, with money earned by one’s own self according to the traditions of one’s family.


Here ends the Seventeenth Chapter of the Eleventh Book on the description of Sandhyâ and other daily practices in the Mahâpurânam S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.



Next: Chapter 18