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The Gnostics and Their Remains, by Charles William King, [1887], at

p. 449





THE Gnostic heresies play so important a part in the Christianity of the first three centuries that they naturally come up for treatment in all the Church histories for that period, such as those of Gieseler, Neander, Hase, and Schaff, as well as in the histories of Christian doctrine (Hagenbach, F. K. Meier, F. C. Baur, A. Neander, L. Noack, &c.), and even in the histories of philosophy of Ueberweg, Zeller, &c. But the monographic treatment of the subject from the theological standpoint--the Gnostic gems attracted early attention--may be said to have begun with

A. Neander. Die genetische Entwickelung der vornehmsten gnostischen Systeme. Berl. 1818. [Sober and clear.]

C. A. Lewald.--De Doctrina Gnostica. 1818.

J. Matter.--Histoire critique du gnosticisme et de son influence sur les autres sectes religieuses et philosophiques pendant les six premiers siècles. Paris, 2 tomes, 1828. [Second and best edition, Strasbourg, 3 tomes, 1843. Somewhat superficial and viewy, but still useful; giving outlines of whole subject, including iconography.]

E. Burton.--Inquiry into the Heresies of the Apostolic Age. Oxford, 1830. [Bampton lectures for 1829, uncritical; superseded for English readers by Mansel.]

J. A. Moehler.--Versuch über d. Ursprung des Gnosticismus. Tab. 1831.

F. C. Baur. Die Christliche Gnosis. Tübingen, 1835. [The place of publication indicates the tendency of this publication. Baur's views are read to best advantage in his Das Christenthum der 3 ersten Jahrhunderte.]

Norton.--History of the Gnostics. 1845.

H. Rossel.--Geschichte der Untersuchungen über d. Gnosticismus in his Theologische Nachlass. Berl. 1847.

R. A. Lipsius.--Gnosticismus in Ersch and Grüber. Bnd. 71. 1860. [The starting-point of new lines of inquiry rendered necessary by the publication by Miller of the Philosophumena attributed to Hippolytus (Clar. Press, 1851).]

W. Möller.--Geschichte der Cosmologie der griechischen Kirche bis an Origenes. Leipzig, 1862.

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H. L. Mansel.--The Gnostic Heresies of the First and Second Centuries. London, 1875. [Posthumous. Edited by J. B. Lightfoot. Best English work, clear, fair, mainly founded on Lipsius, classification of sects geographical. His arrangement is: Notices of Gnosticism in New Test. (iv. v.)--Precursors, Simon Magus and Menander (vi.)--The Ophite Sects (vii.)--Cerinthus, Carpocrates, Nazarenes and Ebionites (viii.)--Syrian Sects, Saturninus, Tatian, Bardesanes (ix.)--Egyptian, Basilides (x.)--Valentinus and Valentinians (xi. xii.)--Asiatic Gnosticism, Marcion (xiii.)--Judaising Reaction, Clementines, Elkesaites (xiv.).]

A. Hilgenfeld.--Die Ketzergeschichte des Urchristenthums. Leipzig, 1884. [Ill-arranged, but at present the work round which discussion on Gnosticism centres.]

These are the chief monographs on the whole subject. Besides these, several articles in theological reviews may be mentioned, many of them reaching the length of monographs. They were mostly occasioned by the various publications mentioned above, as can be seen by their dates. F. R. Lücke in Berliner theol. Zeitsch. 1819; J. C. L. Gieseler in Hall. lit. Zeit. 1823; and in Studien u. Kritiken, 1830; F. C. Baur. ibid., 1837; H. T. Cheever in Amer. Bibl. Repos. 1840; R. Baxmann, Deutsche Ztst. 1861 [translated Amer. Theol. Rev. 1862]; Hilgenfeld in Ztst. f. wiss. theol. Bd. xiii. Articles in encyclopedias often show original research, or present useful summaries: besides the epoch-making one of Lipsius in Ersch and Gruber, reference may be made to the same writer's article "Gnosis" in Schenkel's Bibel-Lexikon (1868); C. P. Wing in McClintock and Strong, vol. iii. 1873 [useful bibliography]; W. L. Alexander in last edition of Kitto and J. L. Jacobi in Herzog-Plitt.


The SOURCES are scanty and scattered, at any rate as regards independent works by Gnostics. In addition to scattered fragments in Grabe's Spicilegium, there have been published--

Münter.--Odæ gnosticæ. Kopenh. 1812.

Norberg.--Codex Nazareus vel Liber Adami. Leiden, 1815.

[The so-called Bible of Gnosticism, i.e. of the Mendaites; on whom see Christian Review, Jan. 1855, and Petermann in Herzog.]

A. Hahn.--Bardesanes Gnosticus Syrorum primus hymnologus Leipz. 1819.

A. Hahn--Antitheses Marcionis Gnostici. Leipz. 1823.

M. G. Schwartze.--Pistis Sophia, opus gnosticum a codice manuscripto Coptus Londini descripsit et Latine vertit M. G. Schwartze, edidit J. H. Petermann. Berl. 1851-3.

[Now considered to be a production of the later Ophite schools, see R. Köstlin, Die gnostische System des Buches Pistis Sophia in Theol. Jahrb. for 1854.]

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But the real sources of our knowledge of Gnosticism are to be found in the earliest heresiologists, Irenæus (Adv. hæreses), Epiphanius (Adv. hæreses), and Hippolytus (Elenchus and Philosophumena); on the trustworthiness of these a considerable literature exists.

G. Volkmar.--Die Quellen der Ketzergeschichte. I. Bnd. 1855.

R. A. Lipsius.--Zur Quellenkritik des Epiphanios. 1865.
     "          Die Quellen der ältesten Ketzergeschichte. 1875.

A. Harnack.--Zur Quellenkritik d. Gesch. des Gnosticismus. 1873.
      "                                    in Zt. f. lut. Theol. 1874, pp. 143-226.

Hilgenfeld's Ketzergeschichte goes thoroughly into these sources.


P. 3.--Aristobulus. Valckaener's monograph De Aristobulo Judæo, 1806, is still the fullest and best.

P. 4., vide p. 18, note on Enoch.
"Book of Adam"--Codex Nasareus Liber Adami appellatus, syriace transcriptus, latineque redditus a M. Norberg. Berlin, 1815.

P. 7.--Of the large literature on Ephesus it is sufficient to refer to Guhl, Ephesiaca, Berl. 1843; Falkener, Ephesus and the Temple of Diana. 1862.

P. 8.--On traces of Gnosticism in the Gospels. C. C. Tittmann, De vestigiis Gnosticorum in Novo Testamento frustra quæsitis, Leip. 1773; translated Contributions to Foreign Literature. New York, 1827. On Pre-Christian Gnosis, Lightfoot. Colossians, pp. 80 seq.

P. 14.--Title given above, also Köstlin's monograph.

P. 24.--Jews in ancient world form the subject of Prof. Mayor's elaborate notes on Juvenal xiv. 96-106, running over twelve closely printed pages and preceded more suo by an elaborate bibliography of previous treatment. The only thing of importance since is a paper of Heyd's Les juifs devant l’opinion romaine in Rev. des études juives. 1884. The relations of Gnosticism and Judaism formed the subject of the historian Graetz's first work, Gnosticismus und Judenthum. Krotoschin, 1846.

P. 29.--The Zendavesta is now translated in Sacred Books of the East, vols. iv. xxiii. and xxxi. For literature see Tiele, Outlines of the History of Religion, § 100. Chief work, Haug, Essays on the Parsis in Trübner's Oriental Series. On Persian influences on Jewish angelology, Kohut, Angelologie des Talmuds. 1868.

P. 33.--Dr. Ginsburg collected in small compass the modern views on the Kabbala in his monograph The Kabbala. 1866. It has attracted little attention from Jewish scholars since that date. All scientific inquirers place the origin of Kabbala in the twelfth century, though mysticism akin to it appears as early as Bible times. On the great influence of the Kabbala in Middle Ages cf. Stöckl, Gesch. d. Philos. im Mittelalter. Bnd. ii. On the Talmud at the time of writing three monographs are about to appear--Prof. Strack separately; Dr. Ginsburg in Smith-Wace, Dict. of 

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[paragraph continues] Christ. Biog.; and Dr. Schiller-Szinessy in Ency. Brit. Hamburger's Real-Encyclopädie, though unequal, is useful and at present the easiest means of getting second-hand information about Talmudical topics.

P. 40.--Camillo Leonardi, Speculum Lapidum. Ven. 1502.

P. 42.--The earliest monograph dealing with the relations of Gnosticism to the East is J. J. Schmidt, Verwandschaft d. gnostischen Lehre mit den Religionssystemen d. Orients. Leip. 1828. On Manes and Manicheism the great work is still Beausobre, Histoire critique du Manichéisme. 1734. But important additions to our knowledge have come from Oriental sources, which are given in somewhat haphazard fashion but with excellent index in Flügel, Mani, seine Lehre und seine Schriften. Leip. 1862. Early works on Mani are given in Fabricius, Bibl. græc. t. vii. p. 310 seq., ed. Harles. See also Kessler, Untersuchungen z. Genesis d. manichaisch. Religionssystem. 1876.

P. 49.--For bibliography of Buddhism see Tide, Outlines § 82. A good short account by T. Rhys Davids (S.P.C.K.). The best recent books are Oldenburg, Buddha; his Life and Doctrines, 1885; and H. Kern, Der Buddhismus u. seine Geschichte in Indien. Leipz. 1885.

P. 51 n.--See Buddhist Records of the Western World, translated by S. Beal. 2 vols. 1885.

P. 52.--The best account of the Essenes is in the appendices to Lightfoot's Colossians, strangely neglected by German inquirers as Lucius.

P. 58.--The special literature on Simon Magus is rather large.
Mosheim.--De uno Simone Mago in his Dissert. ad hist. eccl. pert. 2nd ed. vol. ii. Alton. 1767.
A. Simson.--Leben und Lehre Simon Magiers in Zt. f. hist. Theol. 1841.
F. Huelsen.--Simonis Magi vita doctrinaque. Berl. 1868. [Progr.]
A. Hilgenfeld.--Der Magier Simon in Zt. f. wiss. Theol. 1868, pp. 357-96.
R. A. Lipsius.--Die Quellen d. romischen Petrussage. Kiel, 1872.
W. Möller in Herzog-Plitt, 1884, t. xii. pp. 246-56.
On the alleged statue of Simon see A. van Dale, De statues Simonis Magi. Amst. 1700; and Corp. Ins. Lat. vi. 1.

P. 70.--On Basilides besides the Disputatio in Zacagni, Collect. monument. veter. see
Uhlhorn.--System des Basilides. 1855.
Baur in his Theol. Jahrb. 1856.
Hofstede de Groot.--Basilides als erste Zeuge f. neutestament Schriften [translated from Dutch]. 1868.
J. L. Jacobi.--Ueber d. ursprungl. Basilid. System in Zt. f. Kirchengesch. 1877; p. 493 ff.

P. 82.--Besides the Ophite Textbook 'Pistis Sophia' mentioned above, the special treatments are to be found in

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Mosheim.--Gesch. d. Schlangenbrüder. Helmst. 1746-8.
A. Fuldner.--De Ophitis. Rint. 1834.
Lipsius.--Ueber de ophit. System in Zt. f. wiss. Theol. 1863-4.
F. Giraud.--Ophitæ, dissertatio historico-theologica de eorum origine placitis ac fatis. Paris, 1884 [best modern work].

P. 104.--On the Egyptian Pantheon see Lipsius, Der Götterkreis d. alten Aegypter. Berlin Academy, 1851, and Tiele l.c., § 29. Their representation in art best given in Perrot-Chipiez, Histoire de l’Art dans l’Antiquité--Egypte (also English translation, 1884). Maspero, Archéologie égyptienne. 1887.


THE interesting problems that have collected about the worship of Mithras have been dealt with in the following special works:--

Sainte-Croix.--Recherches critiques sur les mystéres du paganisme. Paris, 1817.

Seel.--Die Mithras Geheimnisse. 1823.

Hammer.--Mithriaka. Vienna, 1834.

Creuzer.--Das Mithreum. Heidelb. 1838.

Lajard.--Recherches sur le culte public et les mystéres de Mithra. Paris, 1847-8.

Windischmann.--Mithra. 1857.

Shrines of Mithras are described by J. Hodgson in Eliena Archeologie i. 274-320, who gives the earlier literature, and by Stark, Zwei Mithræen d. grossherzogl. Alterthümsersammlung in Karlsruhe. 1864. P. 116.--On the Persian relations of Mithraicism see Burnouf, Sur le Yaçna.

P. 117.--For another etymology see G. Barzilai, Gli Abraxas, studeo archeologico. Trieste, 1873.

P. 119.--This view of the origin of Christmas was first enunciated by Wernsdorf, De origine solemnium Natalis Christi ex festivitate Natalis Invicti, Wittenb. 1757; he is followed by Jablonsky in his Opuscula, Amst. 1809, vol. iii. p. 351 seq., who argues that the Basilidans caused the adoption (p. 361).

P. 120.--The latest monograph on the Sadducees and Pharisees is that of E. Montet, Essai sur les origines des partis sadducéens et phariséens. Paris, 1883. A full bibliography at end of Seiffert's article Sadducäer in Herzog-Plitt.

P. 129.--Flam. Vacca in Nordini, Roma Antiqua, pt. iv. 1771.

P. 137.--On contemporary Parsees, T. D. F. Karaka, History of the Parsis, 2 vols. 1885.

P. 139.--Caste-marks of modern Hindoos are given in Sir G. Birdwood's Industrial Arts of India. 1880 (plate M).

P. 153.--On penances in general, the exhaustive work of F. W. H.

p. 454

[paragraph continues] Wassersehleben, Die Bussordnungen der abendländischen Kirche. Halle, 1851. On those of the Brahmins, Sir M. Williams, Modern India.

PP. 158 seq.--See bibliog. note on p. 104.

P. 174.--The mitre is unknown in the Eastern Church; v. Hefele, Beiträge z. Kirchengeschichte, t. ii.

P. 179.--Reference may be made here to Lessing's well-known essay.

P. 195.--The latest study of the jettatura is, I am informed by Mr. Nutt, a series of articles, La Fascination, by Tuchmann in Melusine. 1885-7.


P. 217.--On serpent worship comp. introductory essay to Ferguson, Tree and Serpent Worship, second ed. 1873. Among Semites, Baudissin, Studien zur semit. Religionsgeschichte I. § iv.

P. 226.--J. Bellermaun, Ueber die Gemmen der Alten mit dem Abraxasbilde. Stuck 1-3. Berl. 1818, 19, 20.

P. 230.--This formed the subject of a monograph by F. X. Kraus, Das Spottcrucifix. Freib. 1872. V. cut on p. 279 here.

P. 251.--Vide Barzilai's tract quoted in bibliog. note on p. 117.

P. 254.--On the age of this "Gematria" see J. Gow, Hist. of Greek Mathematics, p. 44.

P. 259.--For bibliography of Basilides see note on p. 70.

P. 263.--On Valentinus, G. Henrici, Die Valentinische Gnosis und die Heilige Schrift. Berl. 1871.

P. 279.--On the fig. see monograph referred to in bibliog. note on p. 230.

P. 281.--The 99 epithets of God in Islam form the subject of E. Arnold's poem, Pearls of the Faith. 1882.

P. 281 n.--Levy, Gemmen und Siegel. 1869, p. 47-9 and Taf. iii.

P. 284. Die Seherin von Prevorst was published 1866, and translated into almost all European languages.


GNOSTIC gems have long attracted the attention of antiquarians, their separate investigation beginning with

Macarius.--[Heureux] Abraxas seu Apistopistis. Ant. 1657; with appendix by Chifflet. [Plates included in Gorlæaus, Dactyliotheca, 3rd edit. Leyd. 1695.]

Kirchmann.--De annulis. 1657, c. xxi.

Montfaucon.--L’Antiquité expliquée. Paris, 1722; vol. ii. livre iii. Les Abraxas, pp. 353 seq. Supp. vol. ii. 1724, pp. 209 seq.

p. 455

Gori.--Thesaurus gemmarum astriferarum. Florence, 1750, fol. [includes essay by Passeri, De gemmis Basilidianis].

Marrette.--Traité des pierres gravées. 1750. II. 68-73.

F. Münter.--Versuch über d. Kirchlichen Alterthümer der Gnostiker. 1790.

Bellerman.--Vide bibliog. note to p. 226 [only vignettes on title pages].

Kopp.--Palæographia critica. 1819-29; 4 vols. [third and fourth on Abraxas].

Matter.--Histoire du gnosticisme. 1828. [2nd edition, 1843.]

Hammer.--Deux coffrets gnostiques du moyen âge. 1832.

Stickel.--De gemma Abraxea nondum edita. 1842.

Matter.--Voyage gnostique en Italie. 1852.

King.--The Gnostics and their remains, ancient and mediæval. London, 1864. [First edition of present work including all the gems in the preceding and more also: 13 plates and 27 woodcuts.]
No collection of consequence has been made or published since 1864 till the present volume.

P. 309.--On ΙΑΩ see Graf v. Baudissin's elaborate essay "Der Ursprung des Gottesnamens Ἰάω" in his Studien zur semitischen Religionsgeschichte, 1873, pp. 181-254. On the name itself cf. S. R. Driver, Recent Theories on the Origin and Nature of the Tetragrammaton in Studia Biblica. 1885, pp. 1-20.

P. 370.--On the apices of Boethius considerable discussion has arisen. Woepcke, in Jour. Asiat. 1863, p. 54, traces them from India; T. H. Martin, Annali di matem. 1863, p. 350, from Egypt; while Friedlein, Zahlzeichen, pp. 15-19, &c., and Weissenborn in Zt. Math. Phys., 1879, declare the passage in Boethius to be a forgery. See Gow, Hist. Greek Math., p. 38.

P. 372.--On magic squares treated mathematically, see De Morgan in English Cyclopædia, sub. voce. sect. Arts and Sciences, vol. v. col. 415.


ON the TEMPLARS the most complete history is still that of Dupin, histoire de l’ordre militaire des Templiers. Bruxelles, 1751. On their mysteries, Loiseleur, La doctrine secrète des Templiers. Orleans, 1872. And the trials, Michelet, Procès des Templiers. 1871. The statutes contained in Merzdorf, Geheimstatuten des Ordens der Tempelherren, Halle, 1877, have been shown to be fictitious by H. G. Prutz, Geheimlehre und Geheimstatuten des Tempelherren Ordens. Berl. 1879. See also F. Schottmüller, Der Untergang des Templer-Ordens, mit urkundlichen Beiträgen. 2 vols. 1887.

On the ROSICRUCIANS the earlier literature is given in W. v. Murr, Ueber d. wahren Ursprung d. Rosenkreuzer. See also Buhle, Ursprung und vornehmste Schicksale d. Orden d. Freimaurer und Rosenkreuzer, 1810; and Klüpfel, sub voc. in Herzog-Plitt. On the origin of Freemasonry,

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full references in R. F. Gould's huge and uncritical History of Freemasonry, vol. i. 1884.

P. 393n.--A third edition in two vols. appeared in 1887.

P. 409.--On the influence of these Manichæan sects in spreading Eastern folklore through Europe, see M. Gaster, Greeko-Slavonic literature. 1887.

P. 416. Assemblies of Al Hariri, translated by T. Chenery, vol. i. 1867; and Rückert's remarkable translation, Dei Verwandlungen des Abu Seid.

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