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Mazes and Labyriths, by W. H. Matthews, [1922], at

p. 214




NOTE.—Names of Authors are also arranged alphabetically in the Index, which contains detailed references to the sections of the Bibliography.


TROLLOPE, E. "Ancient and Mediaeval Labyrinths," with notes by ALBERT WAY, in Archaeological Journal, Vol. XV, 1858. Also in Reports of the Associated Architectural Societies in 1858, and appended to a paper on the Caerleon mosaic in the Proc. Monmouth and Caerleon Antiquarian Association, 1866.

(Mainly concerned with church labyrinths and British turf mazes.)

DE LAUNAY, R. "Les Fallacieux Détours du Labyrinthe" in Révue Archéologique, Series V, 1915-16.

(A bold and striking essay, chiefly concerned with the labyrinth as the architectural expression of a sun-myth.)

FRAZER, Sir J. G. "The Golden Bough," Pt. III, "The Dying God," 1911.

(In the section dealing with the octennial tenure of the kingship the labyrinth is treated from the point of view of the anthropologist and folk-lorist.)

p. 215

COOK, A. B. "Zeus. A Study in Ancient Religions," 1914.

(The labyrinth, particularly that of Crete, is studied from the point of view of the classical archaeologist.)

KRAUSE, ERNST. "Die Trojaburgen Nordeuropas" and "Die Nordische Herkunft der Trojasage," Glogau, 1893. Also "Tuiskoland der Arischen Stämme and Götter Urheimat," 1891.

(A study of classic and northern mythologies with special reference to solar rites. The labyrinth is held to be distinctively northern, the classic legends being derivative.)

MASSMANN, H. F. "Wunderkreise and Irrgarten," Leipzig Basse, 1844.

(This work is mentioned in a German encyclopaedia, but the writer has not been able to obtain access to a copy. Written by a mathematician, it probably deals with the subject from a corresponding aspect.)

DAREMBERG, SAGLIO & POTTIER. "Dictionnaire des Antiquités," 1904, Vol. III.

(The article "Labyrinthe" gives very full references to the occurrence of labyrinth figures on ancient monuments.)

Dictionary of Architecture (1867). Arts. "Maze" and "Meander."

Encyclopaedia Britannica. Art. "Labyrinth." By THOS. MOORE, F.L.S. (1821-87) (with especial reference to hedge mazes).

(Several other encyclopaedias, American, French, German and Italian, also contain good articles on the subject, notably Larousse, La Grande Encyclopédie, The New International Encyclopaedia, and Roscher's Lexikon de Mythologie, Vol. II, 1894-7.)

"Country Life." Two well-illustrated anonymous articles in issues of January 24 and March 14, 1903.

There is a popular article on Mazes by G. S. TYACK in W. ANDREWS'S "Ecclesiastical Curiosities," 1897; and a chapter of E. O. GORDON'S "Prehistoric London," 1914, treats of the matter in so far as it supports the theory of the Trojan origin of London (Troy-Novant).

p. 216


BALL, W. W. R. "Mathematical Recreations and Essays," 1905, pp. 174-80.

TARRY, G. "Le Problème des Labyrinthes," in Nouvelles Annales de Mathématiques, Vol. XIV, 1895, pp. 187-90.

LUCAS, E. "Récréations Mathématiques," 1882-94.

WOLTERS, P. "Darstellungen des Labyrinths," in Sitzungsberichte der phil., &c., Classe der k.b. Akademie zu München, 1907.

MEYER, W. "Ein Labyrinth mit Versen" in Sitz. der phil., &c., Classe der k.b. Ak. zu München, 1882, Bd. II, Heft. I, pp. 267-300, and Nachtrag on p. 400.

KRAUSE, E. "Die nordische Herkunft der Trojasage," 1893.

(Shows how typical labyrinth figures may be derived from Northumbrian rock engravings.)

REINACH, S. "Cultes, Mythes, et Religions," 1906, Vol. II, pp. 234, etc.

(Derivation of swastika, triskelion, etc.)

DUDENEY, H. E. "Amusements in Mathematics," 1917, pp. 127-37.

INWARDS, R., on the Labyrinth on the Coins of Knossos in Knowledge, October 1892.



HERODOTUS. ii. 148-9.

DIODORUS SICULUS. I. iv. 61, 66.

STRABO. XVII. 1. 37.

POMPONIUS MELA. "De situ orbis."

PLINY. "Hist. Nat." xxxvi. 19.

PETRIE, W. M. FLINDERS. "The Labyrinth, Gerzeh, and Mazghuneh" (London School of Archaeology in Egypt, University College, Gower St.), 1912. Also "Kahun, Garob, and Hawara," 1890, and "Hawara, Biahmu, and Arsinoë," 1889.

p. 217

HOW, W. W., and WELLS, J. "A Commentary on Herodotus," 1912, Vol. I. p. 240, etc.

MYRES, J. L., in Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, III. P. 134.

PERROT & CHIPIEZ. "Histoire de l’Art dans l’Antiquité" I. ("Egypte").

FERGUSSON'S "History of Architecture," 1893, Vol. I. pp. 110-12.

LEPSIUS, K. R. "Denkmäler," 1859, Vol. I. pl. 46-8.

EBERS, G. M. "L’Egypte, du Caire à Philae," 1868, p. 174.

WIEDEMANN, A. "Herodots Zweite Buch," 1890, p. 522, etc.

CANINA, L. "L’Architettura Antica," 1839-44, Sec. I. (Egiziana), Tav. 122.

JOMARD, E. F. "Description de l’Egypte," 1807. Vol. IV. P. 478.

(Embodies results of Napoleon's expedition.)

POCOCKE, R. "A Description of the East," 1743, p. 61, etc.

LUCAS, P. "Voiage de la Haute Egypte," 1705. Vol. II. p. 261, etc.

CARERI, J. F. GEMELLI. "A Voyage round the World," 1699. Bk. I. Ch. vi. (in Churchill's Collection, 1732, Vol. VI).

p. 218


VIRGIL. "Aeneid," V. v. 588.

PLINY. "Hist. Nat." xxxvi. 19.

OVID. "Metamorphoses," VIII. v. 159.


APOLLODORUS. III. i. 3, xv. 8.

PLUTARCH. "Life of Theseus."

MEURSIUS, J. (GRAEVIUS, J. G.). "Creta, Cyprus et Rhodus." Amsterdam, 1675.

(Gives very comprehensive references to the Cretan Labyrinth in classical and mediaeval literature.)

EVANS, Sir A. J. "Excavations at Knossos," in Annals of the British School at Athens, Vol. VIII, 1902. "Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult" in Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. XXI, 1901. "The Tomb of the Double Axes at Knossos" in Archaeologia, Vol. LXV, 1914. "The Palace

p. 219

of Minos at Knossos," Vol. I, 1921. Article in The Times of July 14, 1922, p. 11.

ROUSE, W. H. D. "The Double Axe and the Labyrinth" in Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. XXI, 1901.

HALL, H. R. "The Two Labyrinths" in Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. XXV, 1905. "Aegean Archaeology," 1912.

BURROWS, R. M. "Discoveries in Crete," 1907.

GLASGOW, G. "The Discoveries in Crete" in "Discovery," Vol. I, 1920.

(A general review to date.)

Mosso, A. "The Palaces of Crete," 1907.

HAWES, C. H. and H. B. "Crete the Forerunner of Greece," 1909.

COOK, A. B. Op. cit., 1914.

BAIKIE, J. "The Sea-Kings of Crete," 1920.

FRAZER, Sir J. G. Op. cit., 1911.

SPRATT, T. A. B. "Travels in Crete," 1865.

SIEBER, F. W. "Reise nach der Insel Kreta in 1817," 1823.

HOECK, C. "Kreta," 1823-29.

COCKERELL, C. R., R.A. "Travels in Southern Europe," 1810-17. Edited by his son, S. P. COCKERELL, 1903. Ch. xi.

(Cavern of Gortyna.)

SAVARY, C. E. "Lettres sur la Grèce," 1788 (Trans. in Annual Register, 1789, Pt. II. pp. 90-98).

TOURNEFORT, G. P. DE. "Voyage du Levant," 1717 (Trans. by J. OZELL, 1718).

CAUMONT, LE SEIGNEUR DE ("Nompar II"). "Voyage d’oultremer en Jhérusalem," 1418, Brit. Mus. Egerton MSS. 890, fol. 2, ed. by MARQUIS DE LA GRANGE and printed Paris, 1858, p. 42.

Florentine Picture Chronicle, XV. Century. Brit. Mus. Prints 197d 3 fol. 50-51.

Italian Engraving, School of Maso Finiguerra. Brit. Mus. A. II. rob.


STRABO. VIII. vi. 369.

(Labyrinth of the Cyclops, Nauplia.)

PLINY. "Hist. Nat." xxxvi. 19, 4.

DENNIS, G. "The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria," 1848.

p. 220

CANINA, L. "L'Architettura Antica," 1839-44, Sec. II. Tav. 159.

QUATREMÈRE DE QUINCY, A. C. "Restitution du Tombeau de Porsenna," 1826.

MULLER, K. O. "Die Etrusker," 1828, Vol. IV. 2, I.



WROTH, W. W. "Catalogue of Greek Coins," 1886, Pl. IV., V., VI.

HEAD, B. V. "Historia Nummorum," 1887, pp. 389-91.


DEECKE, W., in Annali dell’ Instituto di Correspondenza Archeologica, 1881.

(Tragliatella Vase.)

REINACH, S. "Vases Peints," 1899, p. 345.

PERROT ET CHIPIEZ. "Histoire de l’Art dans l’Antiquité," Vol. VII. p. 118.

WALTERS, H. B. "History of Ancient Pottery," 1905, Vol. I.

(Frontispiece shows Theseus kylix, by DURIS.)

ELDERKIN, G. W. "Meander or Labyrinth" in Journ. Amer. Arch. XIV, 1910, pp. 185-190.

(Meander figures on Theseus Vases.)


ARNETH, J. C. VON. "Archäologische Analekten," 1851-3, Tafel V. (Salzburg mosaic.)

Archäologische Zeitung, 1848, p. 99.

(Mosaics at Orbe and Bosséaz, Switzerland.)

MILLIN, A. L. "Voyage dans le Midi de la France," 1807, Pl. 34.

(Mosaic at Aix, near Marseilles.)

Mittheilungen der Antiquarischen Gesellschaft zu Zurich. Bd. XVI, 18+1, etc., Pl. 29.

(Mosaic at Cormerod, Switzerland.)

CREUZER, G. F. "Abbildungen zu Symbolik und Mythologie der älter Volker," 1819, Taf. LV, No. 1 (Salzburg).

p. 221

CAUMONT, A. DE. "Abécédaire d'Archéologie." 1886 Ed. Vol. III. (Mosaic at Verdes, Loir-et-Cher.)

ZAHN, W. "Schönsten Ornamente aus Pompeji, etc.," 1828, Vol. II, Taf. 50.

(Mosaic in Casa del Labirinto, Pompeii.)

COMARMOND, A. "Description du Musée Lapidaire de la Ville de Lyons," No. 273.

(Inscription relating to a labyrinth.)

GUÉRIN, V. "Voyage Archéologique dans la Régence de Tunis," 1862, Vol. I, p. 109.

(Mosaic at Susa.)

DOUBLET, G., in Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Inscriptions, 1892, pp. 318-329. (Mosaic at Susa.)

Révue Archéologique, 1884, p. 107. (Mosaic at Brindisi.)

CAETANI-LOVATELLI, E. "Miscellanea Archeologia," 1891, and in Nuova Antologia, Vol. XXVIII, 1890.

(General review.)

COLLIER, C. V., in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, Vol. XX, No. II, February 9, 1905, pp. 215-19.

(Mosaic at Harpham, Yorks, and mention of one in Northants.)

MORGAN, O., in Proceedings of Monmouth and Caerleon Antiquarian Association, 1866.

(Mosaic at Caerleon.)

RICH, A. "A Dictionary of Roman and Greek Antiquities," 1893, pp. 481-2.


EVANS, Sir A. J. "The Palace of Minos," 1921, Vol. I, pp. 121 et seq. and p. 357.

(Origin of Labyrinth Figure.)

PETRIE, W. M. F. "Egyptian Decorative Art," pp. 42, 43. (Meanders.)

Real Museo Borbonico, XIV, 1852, Tav. a.

(Labyrinth graffito on pillar of house at Pompeii. This figure is reproduced in E. Breton's "Pompeia," and elsewhere.)

OZANAM, A. F. "Documents inédits," 1850, Section "Graphia aurae urbis Romae."

(Labyrinth embroidered on emperor's robes.)

p. 222

DE LAUNAY, R. Op. cit.

(Interpretation of tholos of Epidauros, etc.)

KABBADIAS, P. "Fouilles d’Epidaure," 1893.

(Tholos of Temple of Aesculapius.)

MÜLLER, K. "Tiryns Vorbericht über die Gräbungen, 1905-1912," in Athen. Mittheilungen, XXXVIII, 1913, p. 78, etc. (Labyrinth-like structure in masonry.)

MAFFEI, P. A. "Gemmae Antiche," 1709, Pt. IV, pl. 31.

(Labyrinth engraved on a gem.)



AMÉ, E. "Les Carrelages Émaillés du Moyen Age," 1859.

(Has a good chapter on the French church labyrinths, with coloured plates.)

GAILHABAUD, J. "L'Architecture du Vme au XVIIme siècle," 1858.

DURAND, J. "Les Pavés Mosaïques en Italie et en France," in Annales Archéologiques, XIV-XVII, 1855-7.

DESCHAMPS DES PAS, L. "Le Pavage des Églises," in Ann. Arch. XII, p. 147.

VIOLLET-LE-DUC, E. E. "Dictionnaire Raisonné de l’Architecture Française du XIe au XVIe siècle," Art. "Labyrinthe."

WALCOTT, M. E. C. "Sacred Archaeology," 1868.

MÜNTZ, E. "Etudes Iconographiques," 1887, p. 15 et seq.

(Italian examples.)


CAMPI, P. M. "Dell’ Hist. Eccles. di Piacenza," 1651-62.

(S. Savino, Placentia.)

CIAMPINI, G. G. "Vetera Monimenta," 1690-9, Vol. II, pl. 2.

(S. Michele Maggiore, Pavia.)

GÉRUZEZ, J. B. F. "Descrip. Hist. et Stat. de la Ville de Rheims," 1817, Vol. I, p. 316.

(Rheims Cathedral. "Penitential" theory of church labyrinths.)

DEBRAY, M. "Notice sur la Cathédrale d’Arras," 1829.

p. 223

WALLET, E. "Descrip. d’une Crypte et d’un Pavé mosaïque de l’Église Saint Bertin à St. Omer," 1834.

DAIRE, L. F. "Histoire de la Ville d’Amiens," 1782, Vol. II, p. 92.

(Amiens Cathedral.)

TURNER, DAWSON. "Tour in Normandy," 1820, Vol. II, pp. 206-7.

(Caen. Guard-Chamber of Abbey.)

AUBER, C. A. "Histoire de la Cathédrale de Poitiers," 1849, Vol. I, Pl. I, Fig. 6.

(Poitiers Cathedral. Mural sketch.)

DIDRON, A. N. "Voyage Archéologique dans la Grèce chrétienne," in Annales Archéologiques, Vol. I, 1844, P. 177.

(Labyrinth figure in Convent of St. Barlaam.)

ROBOLOTTI, F. "Dei Documenti Storiei Litterarj di Cremona," 1857, Tav. II.

(Cremona Cathedral.)

PREVOST, M., in Révue Archéologique IV, 1848, and VIII, 1851-2, pp. 566-7.

(Church of Reparatus, Orléansville, Algeria.)

DOUBLET DE BOISTHIBAULT, in Révue Archéologique, VIII, 1851-2, pp. 437-47.

(Chartres Cathedral.)

AUS’M WEERTH, E. "Mosaikboden in St. Gereon zu Cöln," 1874.

(Churches in Cologne and Pavia.)

RUSKIN, J. "Fors Clavigera," Fors 23. (Lucca.)

Proceedings of Architectural Societies of Northampton, York, etc. Vols. XIX—XX, 1887—8.

(Church at Alkborough.)

The Builder, Vol. XVI, 1855, p. 90.

(Notre Dame de la Treille, Lille.)

Annales Archéologiques, Vol. XVI, 1855, p. 211.

(Notre Dame de la Treille, Lille.)

Manuscript. Bibliothèque Barberini, XLIV, p. 35.


Manuscript. Villard de Honnecourt. "Album," ed. by J. B. A. LASSUS, 1858, Plate XIII.


p. 224



(Roman Topiary Work and Ornamental Gardening)

PLINY. "Hist. Nat.," XV. 30; XVI. 33; XXXVI. 13.



HYLL, T. (Didymus Mountayne.) "The Profitable Art of Gardening," 3rd edition, 1579, pp. 9, 15.

ISLIP, A. "The Orchard and the Garden," 1602, p. 48.

(Gathered from Dutch and French sources.)

LAWSON, W. "A New Orchard and Garden," 1631.

(Afterwards embodied in K. MARKHAM'S "A New Way to Get Wealth," 1648, etc.)

PARKINSON, J. "Paradisus in soli," 1629, Ch. II.

MEAGER, L. "The Compleat English Gardener," circ. 1685. Harley Manuscripts. Brit. Mus. Harl. 5308 (71, a, 12).

(A seventeenth-century gardener's manuscript book, with two mazes.)

LONDON, G., and WISE, H. "The Compleat Florist," 1706

(afterwards published by J. CARPENTER as "The Retir’d Gardener." (Primarily a translation of French works by L. LIGER and F. GENTIL.)

LANGLEY, BATTY. "New Principles of Gardening," 1728.

(Numerous maze designs.)

SWITZER, S. "Ichnographia Rustica," 1742, Vol. II, p. 218.

FULLMER, S. "Gardener's Companion," 1781, p. 105.

HOME, H. (Lord KAMES.) "Elements of Criticism," 1796, Vol. II, p. 348.

(Criticism of mazes in gardens.)

WALPOLE, H. "Essay on Modern Gardening," 1785.

ROBINSON, W. "The English Flower Garden," 1921.

MACARTNEY, MERVYN. "English Houses and Gardens of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," 1908.

(Article on hedges and mazes.)

BROWN, A. J., in American Homes and Gardens, VII, November 1910, pp. 423-5.

p. 225


LAW, E. "History of Hampton Court Palace," 1900, Vol. III, pp. 74-7.

ROCQUE, J. "Engraving of Hampton Court," 1736.

(Shows the "Troy-town," as well as the Maze and a spiral garden.)

DEFOE, D. "Tour through Great Britain," 1738.

(Hampton Court "Wilderness.")

Daily Chronicle, February 22, 1921.

(Revenue from Hampton Court Maze.)

Parliamentary Surveys. Survey No. 72, 1649. Transcribed by John Caley, F.R.S., in Archaeologia, Vol. X, 1792.

(Maze at Wimbledon.)

KIP, J. "Britannia Illustrata," 1720.

(Mazes at Wrest House and Badminton.)

WILLIAMS, W. "Oxonia depicta," 1732.

(Trinity College labyrinth.)

VALLANCE, AYMER. "The Old Colleges of Oxford," 1913, p. 77.

(Trinity College labyrinth.)

AUBREY, J. "Remaines of Gentilisme and Judaisme," 1686-7.

(Mazes in Southwark and Tothill Fields, Westminster. The 1881 edition has an editor's note re maze on Putney Heath.)

Churchwardens' Accounts, St. Margaret, Westminster, 1672.

(Tothill Maze.)

Collectanea Topographica, Vol. VIII, 1843, pp. 253-62.

(Maze in Southwark.)

STRICKLAND, A. "Lives of the Queens of England," 1851, Vol. I, p. 264.


WROTH, W., and A. E. "The London Pleasure Gardens of the Eighteenth Century," 1896.

CRISP, Sir F. "Guide for the use of visitors to Friar Park," 1914.

(Maze and Dial Garden at Henley-on-Thames.)

NESFIELD, W. H. "Estimate and Plan for R.H.S. Gardens," 1860 (S. Kensington). Also plan in R.H.S. "Official Guide," 1864.

p. 226

HUTCHISON, A. F. "The Lake of Menteith," 1899.

(Queen Mary's Bower.)

TRIGGS, H. INIGO. "Formal Gardens in England and Scotland," 1902.

(Mazes at Arley Hall and Belton House figured.)

ELGOOD, G. S., and JEKYLL, G. "Some English Gardens," 1904, p. 127.

(Maze at Arley Hall.)


ANDROUET DU CERCEAU, J. "Les Plus Excellents Bastiments de France," 1576, and other architectural works.

(Mazes at Charleval, Gaillon, etc.)

ESTIENNE, C. "La Maison Rustique," 1573, Vol. II, ch. vi, p. 68.

(Translated by R. SURFLET as "The Country Farme," 1600.)

BETIN, P. "Le Fidelle Jardinier," 1636, p. 24.

PERRAULT, C. "Labyrinte de Versailles," 1677.

(With plan and many illustrations by S. LE CLERC.)

PANSERON, S. "Receuil des Jardins Français," 1723.

(With many plates.)

BLONDEL, J. F. "Cours d’Architecture," 1771-7, Vol. I, p. 17; Vol. IV, p. 72; Vol. VIII, Plates 18, 19.

(Mazes at Choisy and Chantilly.)

HAVARD, H. "Dictionnaire de l’Ameublement," etc., 1887-90. Art. "Labyrinthe."

(Mazes at Baugé and Les Rochers.)

STEIN, H. "Les Jardins de France," 1913, Plates 88, 89. TRIGGS, H. INIGO. "Garden Craft in Europe," 1913, pp. 21, 81, 141.

(Mazes at the Tuileries, Hôtel St. Paul, and Sceaux.)


SERLIO, S. "Libri Cinque d’Architettura," 1537; English edition, 1611.

DUPÉRAC, S. "Vues et Perspectives des Jardins de Tivoli," 1573

(Labyrinths at Villa d'Este.)

p. 227

EVELYN, J. "Memoirs," s.a. 1646.

(Labyrinth at Vicenza.)

TRIGGS, H. INIGO. "The Art of Garden Design in Italy," 1906, p. 51.

(Mazes at Castellezo dei Arconati, Milan.)

SKIPPON, Sir PHILIP. "A Journey through part of the Low Countries, Germany, Italy, and France," 1663.

(Labyrinth at Vicenza.)


DE VRIES, J. V. "Hortorum Viridariorumque Formae," 1583, Plates 14-16, 22-7.

COMMELYN, C. "Nederlantze Hesperides," 1676.

(Several designs for mazes.)

HARRIS, W. "A Description of the King's Royal Palace and Gardens at Loo," 1699.

VISSCHER, N. "De Zegepraalende Vecht," 1719.

(Maze at Gunterstein.)

TRIGGS, H. INIGO. "Garden Craft in Europe," 1913, PP. 173, 192.

(Mazes at Sorgvliet and Enghien.)

FOUQUIER, M. "L'Art des Jardins," 1911, p. 120.

(Maze at Enghien.)


BOECKLER, G. A. "Architectura Curiosa," 1664, Pt. IV.

(Numerous plates contain labyrinth designs.)

LAUREMBERG, P. "Horticultura," 1632, Plates 15-22.

Daily Mail, September 23, 1899.

(Art. on "Puzzle Gardens" gives account of curious allegorical labyrinth at Anhalt; also describes mazes at Barcelona.)

MOLLET, A. "Le Jardin de Plaisir," 1651.


TRIGGS, H. INIGO. "Garden Craft in Europe," 1913, p. 280.

(Maze at the Alcazar, Seville.)

SKIPPON, Sir P. "A Journey through part of the Low Countries," etc., 1663.


p. 228

MOULTON, R. H., in Architectural Record (New York), October 1917, p. 400.

(American replica of the Maze at Hampton Court.)

WARREN, C., in Country Life (Garden City), VIII, September 1905, pp. 527-8.

(Cedar Hill Maze, U.S.A.)

The following kindly furnished the writer with recent information regarding the mazes at the localities indicated:

H. COLLAR, Esq., Curator, Museum, Saffron Walden (Saffron Walden); H. WALLIS CHAPMAN, Esq., Jordans, Bucks (Sudeley Castle); W. EMERTON, Esq., Grant-ham (Belton House); E. M. JACKSON, Esq., M.A., Manningtree (Mistley Place); G. KERRY RIX, Esq., Somerleyton (Somerleyton Hall); R. POGMORE, Esq., Mansfield (Debdale Hall).



TROLLOPE, E. Op. cit. 1858.

AUBREY, J. "Remaines of Gentilisme and Judaisme," 1686-7. Ed. by J. BRITTEN, F.L.S., 1881.

(Mazes at Pimperne, West Ashton, Cotswold Downs, Southwark, and Tothill Fields. Editor adds note re maze on Putney Heath.)

AUBREY, J. "History of Surrey," Ed. 1719, Vol. V, p. 80.

(Suggestion of Scandinavian origin of mazes.)

STUKELEY, W. "Itinerarium Curiosum," 1776, pp. 31, 97.

(Discussion of origin of mazes.)

ROBERTS, P. "Cambrian Popular Antiquities," 1815, p. 212. ("City of Troy" in Wales.)

Cymmrodorion Society, Transactions of, 1822, pp. 67-9.

("Idrison" on Caer Troiau. Refers to solar theory.)

TYACK, G. S. Art. "Mazes" in W. ANDREWS' "Ecclesiastical Curiosities," 1897.

JOHNSON, W. "Folk-Memory," 1908.

p. 229


DE LA PRYME, A. (161-1704). "Diary." Ed. Surtees Society, 1870.

(Alkborough and Appleby.)

Churchwardens' Accounts, Louth, 1544.


HUTCHINS, J. "History and Antiq. of the County of Dorset," 1774, Vol. I, p. 101 (Pimperne); Vol. II, p. 468 (Leigh).

HUTCHINS, J. 3rd ed., 1861, pp. 292-3.

(Saffron Walden, Somerton, Tadmarton Heath, Hereford Beacon, Hilton, and Breamore. Figs. of mazes at Pimperne, Sneinton, and Clifton, Notts.)

"Annalia Dubrensia," 1636, reprinted by A. B. Grosart, 1877.

(Cotswold Hills, near Chipping Campden.)

CAMDEN, W. "Britannia." Ed. by GOUGH, 1789. Plate opposite p. 288.

(Saffron Walden, Sneinton, and Clifton.)

HOARE, Sir R. C. "Ancient Wilts," 1812-21, Vol. I, p. 238.


WILLIAMS-FREEMAN, J. P. "Field Archaeology, Hants."


ACKERMANN'S "Repository of Arts," Vol. XIII, 1815, p. 193.


HATFIELD, S. "Terra incognita of Lincolnshire," 1816.


ALLEN, T. "History of Lincolnshire," 1834, Vol. II, p. 21


WRIGHT, T. "Hist. and Topog. of the County of Essex," 1835, Vol. II, p. 124.


BRAYBROOKE, Lord. "Audley End and Saffron Walden," 1836, esp. MS. insertion of 1859 in Saffron Walden Museum.

(Saffron Walden.)

p. 230

TROLLOPE, E. Op. cit. '858.

(Sneinton, Wing, Ripon, Boughton Green, and many others.)

GORDON, E. O. "Prehistoric London," 1914.

(Greenwich, or Blackheath.)

Notes and Queries.

3 ser., X, 1866, p. 283. BARKLEY, C. W. (Comberton and Leigh.) Also in 4 ser., II, 1868.

3 ser., X, 1866, p. 283. J. F.

(Alkborough, Holderness, and Sneinton.)

8 ser., IV, 1893, p. 96. VENABLES, E., and others.


9 ser., V, 1900, p. 445. PAGE, J. T.

(Boughton Green.)

10 ser., X, 1908, p. 96. HARLAND-OXLEY, W. E.

(Tothill Fields.)

12 ser., IV, 1918, p. 160. AUSTIN, G.

(Egton and Goathland.)

The Times, April 18, 1870.

(St. Martha's Hill, Guildford.)

The Times, April 5, 1920.

(Juliberry's Grave, Godmersham.)

BARNES, W., in Dorset Nat. Hist. and Antiq’n. Field Club Proceedings, Vol. IV, 1882.

(Leigh, Dorset.)

FERGUSON, R. S. "A Labyrinth on Rockliffe Marsh," in Cumberland and West’d Antiq’n and Arch’l. Society Transactions, Vol. VIII, 1883-4, p. 69.

(Burgh and Rockcliffe.)

Assoc’d Arch’l. Societies of Northampton, York, etc., Proceedings, Vols. XIX—XX, 1887—8.


MAYNARD, G. N. "The Labyrinths or Mazes at Saffron Walden," in Essex Field Club Proceedings, 1889.

SHORE, T. W., and NISBETT, H. C. "Ancient Hampshire Mazes," in Hampshire Field Club Proceedings, Vol. III, Pt. III, 1896, p. 257.

(Breamore and Winchester.)

HILL, A. D., in Wilts Arch’l. and Nat. Hist. Magazine, 1897, p.98.

(Breamore and West Ashton.)

p. 231

TREVES, Sir F. "Highways and Byways in Dorset," 1906.


ALLCROFT, A. H. "Earthwork of England," 1908, p. 602.


Cambs and Hunts Arch’l. Society Proceedings, Vol. III, 1914, p. 224.


IRONS, E. A. "The Turf Maze at Wing," in Rutland Arch’l. and Nat. Hist. Society Transactions, Vol. XIII, 1915.


The following kindly supplied the writer with recent information regarding the mazes at the localities indicated:

E. J. BULL, Esq., Carlisle (Rockcliffe Marshes); J. C. DENTON, Esq., Cambridge (Comberton); D. H. GEDDIE, Esq., F.R.Hist.S., Borough Librarian, Grimsby (Horncastle); O. W. GODWIN, Esq., Troy Farm, Somerton, Banbury (Somerton); Rev. F. J. W. TAVERNER, M.A., Wing, Oakham (Wing); Rev. J. J. WALKER, B.A., Boughton, Northants (Boughton Green); Rev. GEO. YORKE, Alkborough, Lincs (Alkborough).


(For Rock Engravings, see "Miscellaneous")

WORM, O. "Danicorum Monumentorum Libri Sex," 1651, p. 213.


RUDBECK, O. "Atlantica," 1695-8, Tab. 35, Fig. 134.


VON BAER, C. E., in Bull. Hist. Phil. de l’Acad. de St. Petersbourg, Vol. I.

ASPELIN, J. R. "Steinlabyrinthe in Finnland," in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, Vol. IX, 1877, p. 439. (Also Virchow, p. 441, and Friedel, p. 470.)

KRAUSE, E. "Die Trojaburgen Nordeuropas," 1893.

p. 232



COTTON, H. S. "Is the House of Tchuhu the Minoan Labyrinth?" in Science (New York), N.S. XLV, June 29, 1917, p. 667.

FEWKES, J. W. "A Fictitious Ruin in the Gila Valley, Arizona," in American Anthropologist, N.S. IX, 1907, p. 510.

FEWKES, J. W., in Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 1920, Vol. 72, No. 1, pp. 47-64.

(Pictograph from Mesa Verde.)

(ii) INDIA

BELLEW, H. W. "From the Indus to the Tigris," 1873-4.

(Circular figures on ground, which may be allied to labyrinth designs.)

(iii) ZULUS

Folk Lore, Vol. 23, 1912. Review of "Some Zulu Customs and Folk-lore," by L. H. SAMUELSON.

(Reference to maze figures on the ground.)


HOMER. "Iliad," xviii. 590, etc.

(Ariadne's Dance.)

PLINY. "Hist. Nat.," xxxvi. 85.

(Maze Games.)

VIRGIL. "Aeneid," v. 545-603.

(Troy Game.)

SUETONIUS. "Nero," vii.

(Troy Game.)

p. 233

PALLAS, P. S. "Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen Reichs," 1778, Vol. III.

(Siberian Crane Dance.)

STRUTT, J. "Sports and Pastimes of the People of England," 1830, p. 317.


(Troy-Aldei and Troyerlais.)

BENNDORF, O. "Das Alter des Trojaspiels," in W. REICHEL'S "Über Homerische Waffen," 1894, pp. 133-9.

(Troy Game.)

Folk Lore, Vol. 24, 1913. Presidential Address of W. CROOKE, p. 34.

(Magic Ceremonies.)

Folk Lore, Vol. 29, 1918. "Collectanea," pp. 238-47.

(Serbian Troy Dances.)

Notes and Queries.

4 ser., V, 1870.

(Troy Game in England.)

5 ser., I, 1874, p. 104.

("Labyrinth of St. Bernard," Mt. Carmel.)

8 ser., IV, 1893, p. 96, and V, 1894, pp. 37, 96, 351.

("Troy-town" place-names and Troia Nova.)

GORDON, E. O. "Prehistoric London," 1914.

(London as New Troy.)

LAMBERTUS ARDENSIS. "Historia Comitum Ardensium et Guisnensium, A.D. 800-1200," in "Reliquiae Manuscriptorum" of Petrus de Ludewig, 1727, Bk. IV, ch. 127, p. 549.

(Labyrinthine building in French Flanders.)

Fonds Latin. MS. No. 13013. Ninth-century "Comput" of St. Germain.

(Labyrinth figure.)

HENRY OF CLAIRVAUX, in Hoveden's Chronicle, under year 1178.

(Reference to Labyrinth. ?Metaphorical.)

BROMPTON, J. "Chronicon," under year 1151, in Sir R. TWYSDEN'S "Historiae Anglicanae Scriptores X," 1652.

(Rosamond's Bower.)

p. 234

HIGDEN, R. "Polychronicon," 1381-94. Ed. C. BABINGTON, 1886. Bk. VIII, ch. 26.

(Rosamond's Coffer.)

LANG, A. "Magic and Religion," 1901.

(Prehistoric Rock Engravings.)

TATE, G. "The Ancient British Sculptured Rocks of Northumberland, etc.," in Berwickshire Naturalists' Club Proceedings, Vol. V, 1864, p. 137, etc.

(Labyrinthoid figures on rocks.)

LUKIS, F. C., in Journal of British Arch’l. Assn., Vol. III, 1848, pp. 269-79.

(Engraved stones on Gav’r Innis, Brittany.)

BICKNELL, C. "A Guide to the Prehistoric Rock Engravings in the Italian Maritime Alps." See figure reproduced in C. BUCKNALL'S paper in Bristol Nat. Society Proceedings, 1912, Plate II, Fig. 3.

(Labyrinthoid figure.)

LAW, E. "Masterpieces of the Royal Gallery of Hampton Court," 1904.

(Maze by TINTORETTO and alleged portrait of "Fair Rosamond.")

EARP, F. R. "Descriptive Catalogue of Pictures in the Fitzwilliam Museum," 1902, p. 14, Fig. 133.

(Painting of man with labyrinth.)

DUNBAR, E. D. "Social Life in Former Days," 1865, 1st series.

(Labyrinth design on Towels.)

BERTHE LOT, M., in La Grande Encyclopédie, Art. "Labyrinthe," final section.

(Labyrinth figure used by Alchemists.)

DURAND, J. Op. Cit. 1857, p. 127.

(Labyrinth painted on wood.)

ALCIATI, A. "Emblemata," 1531, etc.

(Labyrinth Emblems.)

CATS, J. "Emblèmes touchant les Amours et les Mœurs," 1618, etc.

(Labyrinth Emblems.)

PARADIN, C. "Devises Héroïques et Emblèmes," 1621, etc.

(Labyrinth Emblems.)

p. 235

QUARLES, F. "Emblems," 1635, etc.

(Labyrinth Emblems.)

Also many other Emblem books.

MOLLET, J. W. "Dictionary of Words used in Art and Archaeology," 1883. Art. "Minotaur."

(Labyrinth as heraldic crest.)

NORDSTROM, S., in Svenska Fornminnes föreningens Tidskrift, Vol. III, 1887, p. 227.

(Labyrinth designs on bells.)

MASON, G. "An Essay on Design in Gardening," 1795.

(Appendix on Bowers.)

BRAND'S "Popular Antiquities." Ed. W. C. HAZLITT, 1905.

(Art. on "St. Julian.")

WRIGHT, J. "The English Dialect Dictionary," 1902. Vol. III, p. 389.

("Julian's Bower" variants.)

MEILLET, A., in French Quarterly, Vol. II, No. 1, 1920.

(Etymology of "Labyrinth.")

HAVARD, H. "Dictionnaire de l’Ameublement," etc., 1887-90. Art. "Labyrinthe."

(Game of "Labyrinthe.")

German Engraving, with verses, circ. 1630. Brit. Mus. 1750, C. 1/28.

Belgian Lithographs of Toy Mazes. "Les Labyrinthes" and "Jardin Chinois," circ. 1872. Brit. Mus. "Misc. Collections," 1881, c. 3, 69-71.

Patent Specifications. (Toy Mazes.)

ARNOT, J. M. No. 14764, August 1, 1894.

BRENTANO, A. No. 6204, April 11, 1889.

BRIDGE, H. No. 2613, February 2, 1906.

CUTHBERT, R. A., and BEVITT, W. No. 7381, March 26, 1898.

NIX, S. D. No. 16092, September 22, 1891.

PROCTOR, J. No. 9428, April 23, 1898.