Reference numbers, e.g. [6.001] are those found in the The Constitution
 of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), Part I, _The Book of Confessions_.
 Presbyterian Church                     The United Presbyterian Church
 in the United States                   in the United States of America
 		   Of the Holy Scripture
 1. Although the light of nature, and the works of creation and
 providence, do so far manifest the goodness, wisdom, and power of God,
 as to leave men inexcusable; yet [PCUS are they] [UPCUSA they are] not
 sufficient to give that knowledge of God, and of his will, which is
 necessary unto salvation; therefore it pleased the Lord, at sundry
 times, and in divers manners, to reveal himself, and to declare that
 his will unto his Church; and afterwards for the better preserving and
 propagating of the truth, and for the more sure establishment and
 comfort of the Church against the corruption of the flesh, and the
 malice of Satan and of the world, to commit the same wholly unto
 writing; which maketh the Holy Scripture to be most necessary; those
 former ways of God's revealing his will unto his people being now
 2. Under the name of Holy Scripture, or the Word of God written, are
 now contained all the books of the Old and New Testaments, which are
 		    Of the Old Testament
 Genesis			II Chronicles		Daniel
 Exodus			Ezra		     	Hosea
 Leviticus		Nehemiah		Joel
 Numbers			Esther			Amos
 Deuteronomy		Job			Obadiah
 Joshua			Psalms			Jonah
 Judges			Proverbs		Micah
 Ruth			Ecclesiastes		Nahum
 I Samuel		The Song of Songs	Habakkuk
 II Samuel		Isaiah			Zephaniah
 I Kings			Jeremiah		Haggai
 II Kings		Lamentations		Zechariah
 I Chronicles		Ezekiel			Malachi
 		   Of the New Testament
 Matthew			Ephesians		Hebrews
 Mark			Philippians		James
 Luke			Colossians		I Peter
 John			I Thessalonians		II Peter
 Acts of the Apostles	II Thessalonians	I John
 Romans			I Timothy		II John
 I Corinthians		II Timothy		III John
 II Corinthians		Titus			Jude
 Galatians		Philemon		Revelation
 All which are given by inspiration of God, to be the rule of faith and
 3.The books commonly called Apocrypha, not being of divine
 inspiration, are no part of the canon of Scripture; and therefore are
 of no authority in the Church of God, nor to be any otherwise
 approved, or made use of, than other human writings.
 4. The authority of the Holy Scripture, for which it ought to be
 believed and obeyed, dependeth not upon the testimony of any man or
 church, but wholly upon God (who is truth itself), the author thereof;
 and therefore it is to be received, because it is the Word of God.
 5. We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the Church to an
 high and reverent esteem [PCUS for] [UPCUSA of] the Holy Scripture;
 and the heavenliness of the matter, the efficacy of the doctrine, the
 majesty of the style, the consent of all the parts, the scope of the
 whole (which is to give all glory to God), the full discovery it makes
 of the only way of man's salvation, the many other incomparable
 excellencies, and the entire perfection thereof, are arguments whereby
 it doth abundantly evidence itself to be the Word of God; yet,
 notwithstanding, our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible
 truth and divine authority thereof, is from the inward work of the
 Holy Spirit, bearing witness by and with the Word in our hearts.
 6. The whole counsel of God, concerning all things necessary for his
 own glory, man's salvation, faith, and life, is either expressly set
 down in Scripture, or by good and necessary consequence may be deduced
 from Scripture: unto which nothing at any time is to be added, whether
 by new revelations of the Spirit, or traditions of men.  Nevertheless
 we acknowledge the inward illumination of the Spirit of God to be
 necessary for the saving understanding of such things as are revealed
 in the Word; and [PCUS that] there are some circumstances concerning
 the worship of God, and the government of the Church, common to human
 actions and societies, which are to be ordered by the light of nature
 and Christian prudence, according to the general rules of the Word,
 which are always to be observed.
 7. All things in Scripture are not alike plain in themselves, nor
 alike clear unto all; yet those things which are necessary to be
 known, believed, and observed, for salvation, are so clearly
 propounded and opened in some place of Scripture or other, that not
 only the learned, but the unlearned, in a due use of the ordinary
 means, may attain unto a sufficient understanding of them.
 8. The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the
 people of God of old), and the New Testament in Greek (which at the
 time of the writing of it was most generally known to the nations),
 being immediately inspired by God, and by his singular care and
 providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical; so as in
 all controversies of religion the Church is finally to appeal unto
 them.  But because these original tongues are not known to all the
 people of God who have right unto, and interest in, the Scriptures,
 and are commanded, in the fear of God, to read and search them,
 therefore they are to be translated into the language of every people
 unto which they come, that the Word of God dwelling plentifully in
 all, they may worship him in an acceptable manner, and, through
 patience and comfort of the Scriptures, may have hope.
 9. The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture, is the
 Scripture itself; and therefore, when there is a question about the
 true and full sense of any scripture (which is not manifold, but one),
 it may be searched and known by other places that speak more clearly.
 10. The Supreme Judge, by [PCUS which] [UPCUSA whom] all controversies
 of religion are to be determined, and all decress of councils,
 opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, and private spirits,
 are to be examined, and in whose sentence we are to rest, can be no
 other but the Holy Spirit speaking in the Scripture.
 		Of God, and of the Holy Trinity
 1. There is but one only living ahd true God, who is infinite in being
 and perfection, a most pure spirit, invisible, without body, parts, or
 passions, immutable, immense, eternal, incomprehensible, almighty,
 most wise, most holy, most free, most absolute, working all things
 according to the counsel of his own immutable and most righteous will,
 for his won glory, most loving, gracious, merciful, long-suffering,
 abundant in goodness and truth, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and
 sin; the rewarder of them that diligently seek him; and withal most
 just and terrible in his judgments; hating all sin; and who will by no
 means clear the guilty.
 2. God hath all life, glory, goodness, blessedness, in and of himself;
 and is alone in and unto himself all-sufficient, not standing in need
 of any creatures which he hath made, nor deriving any glory from them,
 but only manifesting his own glory in, by, unto, and upon them; he is
 the alone foundation of all being, of whom, through whom, and to whom,
 are all things; and hath most sovereign dominion over them, to do by
 them, for them, or upon them, whatsoever himself pleaseth.  In his
 sight all things are open and manifest; his knowledge is infinite,
 infallible, and independent upon the creature; so as nothing is to him
 contingent or uncertain.  He is most holy in all his counsels, in all
 his works, and in all his commands.  To him is due from angels and
 men, and every other creature, whatsoever worship, service, or
 obedience he is pleased to require of them.
 3. In the unity of the Godhead there be three Persons of one
 substance, power, and eternity: God the Father, God the Son, and God
 the Holy Ghost.  The Father is of none, neither begotten nor
 proceeding; the Son is eternall begotten of the Father; the Holy Ghost
 eternally proceeding from the Father and the Son.
 	Of God's Eternal [PCUS Decrees] [UPCUSA Decree]
 1. God from all eternity did by the most wise and holy counsel of his own
 will, freely and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass; yet so
 as thereby neither is God the author of sin; nor is violence offered
 to the will of the creatures, nor is the liberty or contingency of
 second causes taken away, but rather established.
 2. Although God knows whatsoever may or can come to pass, upon all
 supposed conditions; yet hath he not decreed anything because he
 foresaw it as future, as that which would come to pass, upon such
 3. By the decree of God, for the manifestation of his glory, some men
 and angels are predestinated unto everlasting life, and others
 fore-ordained to everlasting death.
 4. These angels and men, thus predestinated and fore-ordained, are
 particularly and unchangeably designed; and their number is so certain
 and definite that it cannot be either increased or diminished.
 5. Those of mankind that are predestinated unto life, God, before the
 foundation of the world was laid, according to his eternal and
 immutable purpose, and the secret counsel and good pleasure of his
 will, hath chosen in Christ, unto everlasting glory, out of his free
 grace and love alone, without any foresight of faith or good works, or
 perseverance in either of them, or any other thing in the creature, as
 conditions, or causes moving him thereunto; and all to the praise of
 his glorious grace.
 6. As God hath appointed the elect unto glory, so hath he, by the
 eternal and most free purpose of his will, fore-ordained all the means
 thereunto.  Wherefore they who are elected being fallen in Adam are
 redeemed by Christ, are effectually called unto faith in Christ by his
 Spirit working in due season; are justified, adopted, sanctified, and
 kept by his power through faith unto salvation.  Neither are any other
 redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted,
 sanctified, and saved, but the elect only.
 7. The rest of mankind, God was pleased, according to the unsearchable
 counsel of his own will, whereby he extendeth or withholdeth mercy as
 he pleaseth, for the glory of his sovereign power over his creatures,
 to pass by, and to ordain them to dishonor and wrath for their sin, to
 the praise of his glorious justice.
 8. The doctrine of this high mystery of predestination is to be
 handled with special prudence and care, that men attending to the will
 og God revealed in his Word, and yielding obedience thereunto, may,
 from the certainty of their effectual vocation, be assured of their
 eternal election.  So shall this doctrine afford matter of praise,
 reverence, and admiration of God; and of humility, diligence, and
 abundant consolation to all that sincerely obey the gospel.
 			Of Creation
 1. It pleased God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, for the
 manifestation of the glory of his eternal power, wisdom, and goodness,
 in the beginning, to create or make of nothing the world, and all
 things therein, whether visible or invisible, in the space of six
 days, and all very good.
 2. After God had made all other creatures, he created man, male and
 female, with reasonable and immortal souls, endued with knowledge,
 righteousness, and true holiness after his own image, having the law
 of God written in their hearts, and power to fulfill it; and yet under
 a possibility of transgressing, being left to the liberty of their own
 will, which was subject unto change.  Besides this law written in
 their hearts, they received a command not to eat of the tree of the
 knowledge of good and evil; which while they kept were happy in their
 communion with God, and had dominion over the creatures.
 			  Of Providence
 1. God, the great Creator of all things, doth uphold, direct dispose,
 and govern all creatures, actions, and things, from the greatest even
 to the least, by his most wise and holy providence, according to his
 infallible foreknowledge, and the free and immutable counsel of his
 own will, to the praise of the glory of his wisdom, power, justice,
 goodness, and mercy.
 2. Although in relation to the foreknowledge and decree of God, the
 first cause, all things come to pass immutably and infallibly, yet, by
 the same providence, he ordereth them to fall out according to the
 nature of second causes, either necessarily, freely, or contingently.
 3. God, in his ordinary providence, maketh use of means, yet is free
 to work without, above, and against them, at his pleasure.
 4. The almighty power, unsearchable wisdom, and infinite goodness of
 God, so far manifest themselves in his providence, that it extendeth
 itself even to the first Fall, and all other sins of angels and men,
 and that not by a bare permission, but such as hath joined with it a
 most wise and powerful bounding, and otherwise ordering and governing
 of them, in a manifold dispensation, to his own holy ends; yet so, as
 the sinfulness thereof proceedeth only from the creature, and not from
 God; who being most holy and righteous, neither is nor can be the
 author or approver of sin.
 5. The most wise, righteous, and gracious God, doth often-times leave
 for a season his own children to manifold temptations and the
 corruption of their own hearts, to chastise them for their former
 sins, or to discover unto them the hidden strength of corruption and
 deceitfulness of their hearts, that they [UPCUSA may] be humbled; and
 to raise them to a more close and constant dependence for their
 support upon himself, and to make them more watchful against all
 future occasions of sin, and for sundry other just and holy ends.
 6. As for those wicked and ungodly men whom God, as a righteous judge,
 for former sins, doth blind and harden; from them he not only
 withholdeth his grace, whereby they might have been enlightened in
 their understandings, and wrought upon their hearts; but sometimes
 also withdraweth the gifts which they had; and exposeth them to such
 objects as their corruption makes occasion of sin; and withal, [PCUS
 giveth] [UPCUSA gives] them over to their own lusts, the temptatoins
 of the world, and the power of Satan; whereby it [PCUS cometh] [PCUSA
 comes] to pass that they harden themselves, even under those means
 which God useth for the softening of others.
 7. As the providence of God doth, in general, reach to all creatures,
 so, after a most special manner, it taketh care of his Church, and
 disposeth all things to the good thereof.
 	    Of the Fall of Man, of Sin, and of the
 		     Punishment Thereof
 1. Our first parents, begin seduced by the subtilty and temptations of
 Satan, sinned in eating the forbidden fruit.  This their sin God was
 pleased, according to his wise and holy counsel, to permit, having
 purposed to order it to his own glory.
 2. By this sin they fell from their original righteousness and
 communion with God, and so became dead in sin, and wholly defiled in
 all the faculties and parts of soul and body.
 3. They being the root of mankind, the guilt of this sin was imputed,
 and the same death in sin and corrupted nature conveyed to all their
 posterity, descending from them by original generation.
 4. From this original corruption, whereby we are utterly indisposed,
 disabled, and made opposite to all good, and wholly inclined to all
 evil, do proceed all actual transgressions.
 5. This corruption of nature, during this life, doth remain in those
 that are regenerated; and although it be through Christ pardoned and
 mortified, yet both itself, and all the motions thereof, are truly and
 properly sin.
 6. Every sin, both original and actual, being a transgression of the
 righteous law of God, and contrary thereunto, doth, in its own nature,
 bring guilt upon the sinner, whereby he is bound over to the wrath of
 God, and curse of the law, and so made subject to death, with all
 miseries spiritual, temporal, and eternal.
 		    Of God's Covenant with Man
 1. The distance between God and the creature is so great, that
 although reasonable creatures do owe obedience unto him as their
 Creator, yet they could never have any fruition of him, as their
 blessedness and reward, but by some voluntary condescencion on God's
 part, which he hath been pleased to express by way of covenant.
 2. The first covenant made with man was a covenant of works, wherein
 life was promised to Adam, and in him to his posterity, upon condition
 of perfect and personal obedience.
 3. Man, by his Fall, having made himself incapable of life by that
 covenant, the Lord was pleased to make a second, commonly called the
 covenant of grace: wherein he freely [PCUS offered] [UPCUSA offereth]
 unto sinners life and salvation by Jesus Christ, requiring of them
 faith in him, that they may be saved, and promising to give unto all
 those that are ordained unto life, his Holy Spirit, to make them
 willing and able to believe.
 4. This covenant of grace is frequently set forth in the Scripture by
 the name of a testament, in reference to the death of Jesus Christ,
 the testator, and to the everlasting inheritance, with all things
 belonging to it, therein bequeathed.
 5. This covenant was differently administered in the time of the law,
 and in the time of the gospel: under the law it was administered by
 promises, prophecies, sacrifices, circumcision, the paschal lamb, and
 other types and ordinances delivered to the people of the Jews, all
 fore-signifying Christ to come, which were for that time sufficient
 and efficacious, through the operation of the Spirit, to instruct and
 build up the elect in faith in the promised Messiah, by whom they had
 full remission of sins, and eternal salvation, and is called the Old
 6. Under the gospel, when Christ the substance was exhibited, the
 ordinances in which this covenant is dispensed, are the preaching of
 the Word, and the administration of the sacraments of Baptism and the
 Lord's Supper; which, though fewer in number, and administered with
 more simplicity and less outward glory, yet in them it is held forth
 in more fulness, evidence, and spiritual efficacy, to all nations,
 both Jews and Gentiles; and is called the New Testament.  There are
 not, therefore, two covenants of grace differing in substance, but one
 and the same under various dispensations.
 		      Of Christ the Mediator
 1. It pleased God, in his eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the
 Lord Jesus, his only begotten Son, to be the Mediator between God and
 men, the prophet, priest, and king; the head and Savior of the Church,
 the heir or all things, and judge of the world; unto whom he did, from
 all eternity, give a people to be his seed, and to be by him in time
 redeemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified.
 2. The Son of God, the second Person in the Trinity, being very and
 eternal God, of one substance, and equal with the Father, did, when
 the fullness of time was come, take upon him man's nature, with all
 the essential properties and common infirmities thereof; yet without
 sin: being conceived by he power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the
 Virgin Mary, of her substance.  So that two whole, perfect, and
 distinct natures, the Godhead and the manhood, were inseparably joined
 together in one person, without conversion, composition, or confusion.
 Which person is very God and very man, yet one Christ, the only
 Mediator between God and man.
 3. The Lord Jesus in his human nature thus united to the divine, was
 sanctified and anointed with the Holy Spirit above measure; having in
 him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, in whom it pleased the
 Father that all fullness should dwell: to the end that being holy,
 harmless, undefiled, and full of grace and truth, he might be
 thoroughly furnished to execute the office of a Mediator and Surety.
 Which office he took not unto himself, but was thereunto called by his
 Father; who put all power and judgment into his hand, and gave him
 commandment to execute the same.
 4. This office the Lord Jesus did most willingly undertake, which,
 that he might discharge, he was made under the law, and did perfectly
 fulfill it; endured most grievous torments immediately in his soul,
 and most painful sufferings in his body; was crucified and died; was
 buried, and remained under the power of death, yet saw no corruption.
 On the third day he arose from the dead, with the same body in which
 he suffered; with which also he ascended into heaven, and there
 sitteth at the right hand of his Father, making intercession; and
 shall return to judge men and angels, at the end of the world.
 5. The Lord Jesus, by his perfect obedience and sacrifice of himself,
 which he through the eternal Spirit once offered up unto God, hath
 fully satisfied the justice of his Father; and purchased not only
 reconciliation, but an everlasting inheritance in the kingdom of
 heaven, for all those whom the Father hath given unto him.
 6. Although the work of redemption was not actually wrought by Christ
 till after his incarnation, yet the virtue, efficacy, and benefits
 thereof were communicated into the elect, in all ages successively
 from the beginning of the world, in and by those promises, types, and
 sacrifices wherein he was revealed, and signified to be the seed of
 the woman, which should bruise the serpant's head, and the Lamb slain
 from the beginning of the world, being yesterday and today the same
 and for ever.
 7. Christ, in the work of mediation, acteth according to both natures;
 by each nature doing that which is proper to itself; yet by reason of
 the unity of the person, that which is proper to one nature is
 sometimes, in Scripture, attributed to the person denominated by the
 other nature.
 8. To all those for whom Christ hath purchased redemption, he doth
 certainly and effectually apply and communicate the same; making
 intercession for them, and revealing unto them, in and by the Word,
 the mysteries of salvation; effectually persuading them by his Spirit
 to believe and obey; and governing their hearts by his Word and
 Spirit; overcoming all their enemies by his almighty power and wisdon,
 in such manner and ways as are most consonant to his wonderful and
 unsearchable dispensation.
 		        Of the Holy Spirit
 [6.051 / 6.183]
 1. The Holy Spirit, the third Person in the Trinity, proceeding from
 the Father and the Son, of the same substance and equal in power and
 glory, is, together with the Father and the Son, to be believed in,
 loved, obeyed, and worshipped throughout all ages.
 [6.052 / 6.184]
 2. He is the Lord and Giver of life, everywhere present, and is the
 source of all good thoughts, pure desires, and holy counsels in men.
 By him the prophets were moved to speak the Word of God, and all the
 writers of the Holy Scriptures inspired to record infallibly the mind
 and will of God.  The dispensation of the gospel is especially
 committed to him.  He prepares the way for it, accompanies it with his
 persuasive power, and urges its message upon the reason and conscience
 of men, so that they who reject its merciful offer are not only
 without excuse, but are also guilty of resisting the Holy Spirit.
 [6.053 / 6.185]
 3. The Holy Spirit, whom the Father is ever willing to give to all who
 ask him, is the only efficient agent in the application of redemption.
 He regenerates men by his grace, convicts them of sin, moves them to
 repentance, and persuades and enables them to embrace Jesus Christ by
 faith.  He unites all believers to Christ, dwells in them as their
 Comforter and Sanctifier, gives to them the spirit of Adoption and
 Prayer, and performs all those gracious offices by which they are
 sanctified and sealed unto the day of redemption.
 [6.054 / 6.186]
 4. By the indwelling of the Holy Spirit all believers being vitally
 united to Christ, who is the Head, are thus united one to another in
 the Church, which is his body.  He calls and anoints ministers for
 their holy office, qualifies all other officers in the Church for
 their special work, and imparts various gifts and graces to its
 members.  He give efficacy to the Word and to the ordinances of the
 gospel.  By him the Church will be preserved, increased, purified, and
 at last made perfectly holy in the presence of God.
 		     [PCUS Of the Gospel] 
 	[UPCUSA Of the Gospel of the Love of God and Missions]
 [6.055 / 6.187]
 1. God in infinite and perfect love, having provided in the covenant
 of grace, through the mediation and sacrifice of the Lord Jesus
 Christ, a way of life and salvation, sufficient for and adapted to the
 wholy lost race of man, doth freely offer this salvation to all men in
 the gospel.
 [6.056 / 6.188]
 2. In the gospel God declares his love for the world and his desire
 that all men should be saved; reveals fully and clearly the only way
 of salvation' promises eternal life to all who truly repent and
 believe in Christ; invites and commands all to embrace the offered
 mercy; and by his Spirit accompanying the Word pleads with men to
 accept his gracious invitation.
 [6.057 / 6.189]
 3. It is the duty and privilege of everyone who hears the gospel
 immediately to accept its merciful provisions; and they who continue
 in impenitence and unbelief incur aggravated guilt and perish by their
 own fault.
 [6.058 / 6.190]
 4. Since there is no other way of salvation than that revealed in the
 gospel, and since in the divinely established and ordinary method of
 grace faith cometh by hearing the Word of God, Christ hath
 commissioned his Church to go into all the world and to make disciples
 of all nations.  All believers are, therefore, under obligation to
 sustain the ordinances of the Christian religion where they are
 already established, and to contribute by their prayers, gifts, and
 personal effects to the extension of the Kingdom of Christ throughout
 the whole earth.
 			  Of Free Will
 1. God hath endued the will of man with that natural liberty, that it
 is neither forced, nor by any absolute necessity of nature determined
 to good or evil.
 2. Man, in his state of innocency, had freedom and power to will and
 to do that which is good and well-pleasing to God; but yet mutably, so
 that he might fall from it.
 3. Man, by his Fall into a state of sin, hath wholly lost all ability
 of will to any spiritual good accompanying salvation; so as a natural
 man, being altogether averse from that good, and dead in sin, is not
 able, by his own strength, to convert himself, or to prepare himself
 4. When God [PCUS converteth] [UPCUSA converts] a sinner and [PCUS
 translateth] [UPCUSA translates] him into the state of grace, he
 freeth him from his natural bondage under sin, and, by his grace
 alone, [PCUS enableth] [UPCUSA enables] him freely to will and to do
 that which is spiritually good; yet so as that, by reason of his
 remaining corruption, he doth not perfectly, nor only, will that which
 is good, but doth also will that which is evil.
 5. The will of man is made perfectly and immutable free to good alone,
 in the state of glory only.
 		       Of Effectual Calling
 1. All those whom God hath predestinated unto life, and those only, he
 is pleased, in his appointed and accepted time, effectually to call,
 by his Word and Spirit, out of that state of sin and death in which
 they are by nature, to grace and salvation by Jesus Christ:
 enlightening their minds, spiritually and savingly, to understand the
 things of God, taking away their heart of stone, and giving unto them
 an heart of flesh; renewing their wills, and by his almighty power
 determining them to that which is good; and effectually drawing them
 to Jesus Christ; yet so as they come most freely, being made willing
 by his grace.
 2. This effectual call is of God's free and special grace alone, not
 from anything at all foreseen in man, who is altogether passive
 therein, until, being quickened and renewed by the Holy Spirit, he is
 thereby enabled to answer this call, and to embrace the grace offered
 and conveyed in it.
 3. Elect infants, dying in infance, are regenerated and saved by
 Christ through the Spirit, who worketh when, and where, and how he
 pleaseth.  So also are all other elect persons who are incapable of
 being outwardly called by the ministry of the Word.
 4. Others, not elected, although they may be called by the ministry of
 the Word, and may have some common operations of the Spirit, yet they
 never truly come to Christ, and therefore cannot be saved: much less
 can men, not professing the Christian religion, be saved in any other
 way [PCUS whatsoever] [UPCUSA than by Christ], be they never so
 diligent to frame their lives according to the light of nature, and
 the law of that religion they do profess; and to assert and maintain
 that they may is without warrant of the Word of God.
 			Of Justification
 1. Those whom God effectually calleth, he also freely justifieth: not
 by infusing righteousness into them, but by pardoning their sins, and
 by accounting and accepting their persons as righteous; not for
 anything wrought in them, or done by them, but for Christ's sake
 alone; not by imputing faith itself, the act of believing, or any
 other evangelical obedience to them, as their righteousness; but by
 imputing the obedience and satisfaction of Christ unto them, they
 receiving and resting on him and his righteousness by faith; which
 faith they have not of themselves, it is the gift of God.
 2. Faith, thus receiving and resting on Christ and his righteousness,
 is the alone instrument of justification; yet is it not alone in the
 person justified, but is ever accompanied with all other saving
 graces, and is no dead faith, but worketh by love.
 3. Christ, by his obedience and death, did fully discharge the debt of
 all those that are thus justified, and did make a proper, real, and
 full satisfaction o his Father's justice in their behalf.  Yet
 inasmuch as he was given by the Father for them, and his obedience and
 satisfaction accepted in their stead, and both freely, not for
 anything in them, their justification is only of free grace, that both
 the exact justice and rich grace of God might be glorified in the
 justification of sinners.
 4. God did, from all eternity, decree to justify the elect; and Christ
 did, in the fullness of time, die for their sins and rise again for
 their justification; nevertheless they are not justified until the
 Holy Spirit doth, in due time, actually apply Christ unto them.
 5. God doth continue to forgive the sins of those that are justified;
 and although they can never fall from the state of justification, yet
 they may by their sins fall under God's Fatherly displeasure, and not
 have the light of his countenance restored unto them, until they
 humble themselves, confess their sins, beg pardon, and renew their
 faith and repentance.
 6. The justification of believers under the Old Testament was, in all
 these respect, one and the same with the justification of believers
 under the New Testament.
 			   Of Adoption
 1. All those that are justified, God vouchsafeth, in and for his only
 Son Jesus Christ, to make partakers of the grace of adoption: by which
 they are taken into the number, and enjoy the liberties and privileges
 of the children of God; have his name put upon them; receive the
 Spirit of adoption; have access to the throne of grace with boldness;
 are enabled to cry, Abba, Father; are pitied, protected, provided for,
 and chastened by his as by a father; yet never cast off, but sealed to
 the day of redemption, and inherit the promises, as heirs of
 everlasting salvation.
 			Of Sanctification
 1. They who are effectually called and regenerated, having a new heart
 and a new spirit created in them, are further sanctified, really and
 personally, through the virtue of Christ's death and resurrection, by
 his Word and Spirit dwelling in them; the dominion of the whole body
 of sin is destroyed, and the several lusts thereof are more and more
 weakened and mortified, and they more and more quickened and
 strengthened, in all saving graces, to the practice of true holiness,
 without which no man shall see the Lord.
 2. This sanctification is throughout in the whole man, yet imperfect
 in this life: there abideth still some remnants of corruption in every
 part, whence ariseth a continual and irreconcilable war, the flesh
 lusting against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh.
 3. In which war, although the remaining corruption for a time may much
 prevail, yet, through the continual supply of strength rom the
 sanctifying Spirit of Christ, the regerate part doth overcome: and so
 the saints grow in grace, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.
 			  Of Saving Faith
 1. The grace of faith, whereby the elect are enabled to believe to the
 saving of their souls, is the work of the Spirit of Christ in their
 hearts; and is ordinarily wrought by the ministry of the Word: by
 which also, and by the administration of the sacraments, and prayer,
 it is increased and strengthened.
 2. By this faith, a Christian believeth to be true whatesoever is
 revealed in the Word, for the authority of god himself speaking
 therein; and acteth differently, upon that which each particular
 passage thereof containeth; yielding obedience to the commands,
 trembling at the threatenings, and embracing the promises of God for
 this life, and that which is to come.  But the principle acts of
 saving faith are, accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ alone
 for justification, sanctification, and eternal life, by virtue of the
 covenant of grace.
 3. This faith is different in degrees, weak or strong; may be often
 and many ways assailed and weakened, but gets the victory; growing up
 in many to the attainment of a full assurance through Christ, who is
 both the author and finisher of our faith.
 		       Of Repentance Unto Life
 1. Repentance unto life is an evangelical grace, the doctrine whereof
 is to be preached by every minister of the gospel, as well as that of
 faith in Christ.
 2. By it a sinner, out of the sight and sense, not only of the danger,
 but also of the filthiness and odiousness of his sins, as contrary to
 the holy nature and righteous law of God, and upon the apprehension of
 his mercy in Christ to such as are penitent, so grieves for, and hates
 his sins, as to turn from them all unto God, purposing and endeavoring
 to walk with him in all the ways of his commandments.
 3. Although repentance be not to be rested in as any satisfaction for
 sin, or any cause of the pardon thereof, which is the act of God's
 free grace in Christ; yet is it of such necessity to all sinners, that
 none may expect pardon without it.
 4. As there is no sin so small but it deserves damnation; so there is
 no sin so great that it can bring damnation upon those who truly
 5. Men ought not to content themselves with a general repentance, but
 it is every man's duty to endeavor to repent of his particular sins,
 6. As every man is bound to make private confession of his sins to
 God, praying for the pardon thereof, upon which, and the forsaking of
 them, he shall find mercy: so he that scandelizeth his brother, or the
 church of Christ, ought to be willing, by a private or public
 confession and sorrow for his sin, to declare his repentance to those
 that are offended; who are thereupon to be reconciled to him, and in
 love to receive him.
 			   Of Good Works
 1. Good works are only such as God hath commanded in his holy Word,
 and not such as, without the warrant thereof, are devised by men out
 of blind zeal, or upon any pretense of good intention.
 2. These good works, done in obedience to God's commandments, are the
 fruits and evidences of a true and lively faith: and by them believers
 manifest their thankfulness, strengthen their assurance, edify their
 brethren, adorn the profession of the gospel, stop the mouths of the
 adversaries, and glorify God, whose workmanship they are, created in
 Christ Jesus thereunto, that, having their fruit unto holiness, they
 may have the end, eternal life.
 3. Their ability to do good works is not at all of themselves, but
 wholly from the Spirit of Christ.  And that they may be enabled
 thereunto, besides the graces they have already received, there is
 required an actual influence of the same Holy Spirit to work in them
 to will and to do of his good pleasure; yet are they not hereupon to
 grow negligent, as if they were not bound to perform any duty unless
 upon a special motion of the Spirit; but they ought to be diligent in
 stirring up the grace of God that is in them.
 4. They, who in their obedience, attain to the greatest height which
 is possible in this life, are so far from being able to supererogate
 and to do more than God requires, that they fall short of much which
 in duty they are bound to do.
 5. We cannot, by our best works, merit pardon of sin, or eternal life,
 at the hand of God, because of the great disproportion that is between
 them and the glory to come, and the infinite distance that is between
 us and God, whom by them we can neither profit, nor satisfy for the
 debt of our former sins; but when we have done all we can, we have
 done but our duty, and are unprofitable servants: and because, as they
 are good, they proceed from his Spirit; and as they are wrought by us,
 they are defiled and mixed with so much weakness and imperfection that
 they cannot endure the severity of God's judgment.
 6. Yet notwithstanding, the persons of believers being accepted
 through Christ, their good works also are accepted in him, not as
 though they were in this life wholly unblamable and unreprovable in
 God's sight; but that he, looking upon them in his Son, is pleased to
 accept and reward that which is sincere, although accompanied with
 many weaknesses and imperfections.
 7. Works done by unregenerate men, although for the matter of them
 they may be things which God commands, [PCUS and of good use both in
 themselves and others;] [UPCUSA and in themselves praiseworthy and
 useful, and although the neglect of such things is sinful and
 displeasing unto God;] yet, because they proceed not from a heart
 purified by faith; nor are done in a right manner, according to the
 Word; nor to a right end, the glory of God; they [PCUS are therefore
 sinful and cannot please God, or make a] [UPCUSA come short of what
 God requires, and do not make any] man meet to receive [PCUS grace
 from] [UPCUSA the grace of] God.  [PCUS And yet their neglect of them
 is more sinful, and displeasing unto God.]
 		Of The Perseverance of the Saints
 1. They whom God hath accepted in his Beloved, effectually called and
 sanctified by his Spirit, can neither totally nor finally fall away
 from the state of grace; but shall certainly persevere therein to the
 end, and be eternally saved.
 2. This perseverance of the saints depends, not upon their own
 free-will, but upon the immutability of the decree of election,
 flowing from the free and unchangeable love of God the Father; upon
 the efficacy of the merit and intercession of Jesus Christ; the
 abiding of the Spirit and of the seed of God within them; and the
 nature of the covenant of grace; from all which ariseth also the
 certainty and infallibility thereof.
 3. Nevertheless they may, through the temptations of Satan and of the
 world, the prevelancy of corruption remaining in them, and the neglect
 of the means of their perseverance, fall into grievous sins; ad for a
 time continue therein: whereby they incur God's displeasure, and
 grieve his Holy Spirit; come to be deprived of some measure of their
 graces and comforts; have their hearts hardened, and their consciences
 wounded; hurt and scandalize others, and bring temporal judgments upon
 	    Of the Assurance of Grace and Salvation
 1. Although hypocrites, and other unregenerate men, may vainly deceive
 themselves with false hopes and carnal presumptions: of being in the
 favor of God and estate of salvation; which hope of theirs shall
 perish: yet such as truly believe in the Lord Jesus, and love him in
 sincerity, endeavoring to walk in all good conscience before him, may
 in this life be certainly assured that they are in a state of grace,
 and may rejoice in the hope of the glory of God: which hope shall
 never make them ashamed.
 2. This certainty is not a bare conjectural and probably persuasion,
 grounded upon a fallible hope; but an infallible assurance of faith,
 founded upon the divine truth of the promises of salvation, the inward
 evidence of those graces unto which these promises are made, the
 testimony of the Spirit of adoption witnessing with our spirits that
 we are the children of God; which Spirit is the earnest of our
 inheritance, whereby we are sealed to the day of redemption.
 3. This infallible assurance doth not so belong to the essence of
 faith but that a true believer may wait long and conflict with many
 difficulties before he be partaker of it: yet, being enabled by the
 Spirit to know the things which are freely given him of God, he may,
 without extraordinary revelation, in the right use of ordinary means,
 attain thereunto.  And therefore it is the duty of everyone to give
 all diligence to make his calling and election sure; that thereby his
 heart may be enlarged in peace and joy in the Holy Ghost, in love and
 thankfulness to God, and in strength and cheerfulness in the duties of
 obedience, the proper fruits of this assurance: so far is it from
 inclining men to looseness.
 4. True believers may have the assurance of their salvation divers
 ways shaken, diminished, and intermitted; as, by negligence in
 preserving of it; by falling into some special sin, which woundeth the
 conscience, and grievth the Spirit; by some sudden or vehement
 temptation; by God's withdrawing the light of his countenance and
 suffering even such as fear him to walk in darkness and to have no
 light: yet are they never utterly destitute of that seed of God, and
 life of faith, that love of Christ and the brethren, that sincerity of
 heart and conscience of duty, out of which, by the operation of the
 Spirit, this assurance may in due time be revived, and by the which,
 in the meantime, they are supported from utter despair.
 			Of the Law of God
 1. God gave to Adam a law, as a covenant of works, by which he bound
 him and all his posterity to personal, entire, exact, and perpetual
 obedience; promised life upon the fulfilling, and threatened death
 upon the breach of it; and endued him with power and ability to keep
 2. This law, after his Fall, continued to be a perfect rule of
 righteousness; and, as such, was delivered by God upon mount Sinai in
 ten commandments, and written in two tables; the first four
 commandments containing our duty toward God, and the other six our
 duty to man.
 3. Besides this law, commonly called moral, God was pleased to give to
 the people of Israel, as a Church under age, ceremonial laws,
 containing several typical ordinances, partly of worship, prefiguring
 Christ, his graces, actions, sufferings, and benefits; and partly
 holding forth divers instructions of moral duties.  All which
 ceremonial laws are now abrogated under the New Testament.
 4. To them also, as a body politic, he gave sundry judicial laws,
 which expired together with the state of that people, not obliging any
 other, now, further than the general equity thereof may require.
 5. The moral law doth forever bind all, as well justified persons as
 others, to the obedience thereof; and that not only in regard of the
 matter contained in it, but also in respect of the authority of God
 the Creator who gave it.  Neither doth Christ in the gospel any way
 dissolve, but much strengthen, this obligation.
 6. Although true believers be not under the law as a covenant of
 works, to be thereby justified or condemned; yet is it of great use to
 them, as well as to others; in that, as a rule of life, informing
 them of the will of God and their duty, it directs and binds them to
 walk accordingly; discovering also the sinful pollutions of their
 nature, hearts, and lives; so as, examining themselves thereby, they
 may come to further conviction of, humiliation for, and hatred against
 sin; together with a clearer sight of the need they have of Christ,
 and the perfection of his obedience.  It is likewise of use to the
 regenerate, to restrain their corruptions, in that it forbids sin, and
 the threatenings of it serve to show what even their sins deserve, and
 what afflictions in this life they may expect for them, although freed
 from the curse thereof threatened in the law.  The promises of it, in
 like manner, show them God's approbation of obedience, and what
 blessings they may expect upon the performance thereof; although not
 as due to them by the law as a covenant of works: so as a man's doing
 good, and refraining from evil, because the law encourageth to the
 one, and deterreth from the other, is no evidence of his being under
 the law, and not under grace.
 6. Neither are the forementioned uses of the law contrary to the grace
 of the gospel, but do sweetly comply with it: the Spirit of Christ
 subduing and enabling the will of man to do that freely and
 cheerfully, which the will of God, revealed in the law, requireth to
 be done.
 			Of Christian Liberty
 		     and Liberty of Conscience
 1. The liberty which Christ hath purchased for believers under the
 gospel consists in their freedom from the guilt of sin, the condemning
 wrath of God, the curse of the moral law; and in their being delivered
 from thos present evil world, bondage to Satan, and dominion of sin,
 from the evil of afflictions, the sting of death, the victory of the
 grave, and everlasting damnation; as also in their free access to God,
 and their yielding obedience unto him, not out of slavish fear, but a
 childlike love, and a willing mind.  All which were common also to
 believers under the law; but under the New Testament, the liberty of
 Christians is further enlarged in their freedom from the yoke of the
 ceremonial law, to which the Jewish church was subjected; and in
 greater boldness of access to the throne of grace, and in [PCUS
 fuller] [UPCUSA full] communications of the free Spirit of God, than
 believers under the law did ordinarily partake of.
 2. God alone is Lord of the conscience, and hath left it free from the
 doctrines and commandments of men which are in anything contrary to
 his Word, or beside it in matters of faith on worship.  So that to
 believe such doctrines, or to obey such commandments out of
 conscience, is ts betray true liberty of conscience; and the requiring
 an implicit faith, and an absolute and blind obedience, is to destroy
 liberty of conscience, and reason also.
 3. They who, upon pretense of Christian liberty, do practice any sin,
 or cherish any lust, do thereby destroy the end of Christian liberty;
 which is, that, being delivered out of the hands of our enemies, we
 might serve the Lord without fear, in holiness and righteousness
 before him, all the days of our life.
 4. And because the powers which God hath ordained, and the liberty
 which Christ hath purchased, are not intended by God to destroy, but
 mutually to uphold and preserve one another; they who, upon pretense
 of Christian liberty, shall oppose any lawful power, or the lawful
 exercise of it, whether it be civil or ecclesiastical, resist the
 ordinance of God.  And for their publishing of such opinions, or
 maintaining of such practices, as are contrary to the light of nature,
 or to the known principles of Christianity, whether concerning faith,
 worship, or conversation; or to the power of godliness; or such
 erroneous opinions or practices as, either in their own nature, or in
 the manner of publishing or maintaining them, are destructive to the
 external peace and order which Christ hath established in the church:
 they may be lawfully called to account, and proceeded against by the
 censures of the Church.
 			Of Religious Worship
 			and the Sabbath Day
 1. The light of nature showeth that there is a God, who hath lordship
 and sovereignty over all; is good, and doeth good unto all; and is
 therefore to be feared, loved, praised, called upon, trusted in, and
 served with all the hearth, and with all the soul, and with all the
 might.  But the acceptable way of worshipping the true God is
 instituted by himself, and so limited by his own revealed will, that
 he may not be worshipped according to the imaginations and devices of
 men, or the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representation or
 any other way not prescribed in the Holy Scripture.
 2. Religious worship is to be given to God, the Father, Son, and Holy
 Ghost; and to him alone: not to angels, saints, or any other creature:
 and since the Fall, not without a Mediator; nor in the mediation of
 any other but of Christ alone.
 3. Prayer with thanksgiving, being one special part of religious
 worship, is by God required of all men; and that it may be accepted,
 it is to be made in the name of the Son, by the help of his Holy
 Spirit, according to his will, with understanding, reverence,
 humility, fervency, faith, love, and perseverance; and, if vocal, in a
 known tongue.
 4. Prayer is to be made for things lawful, and for all sorts of men
 living, or that shall live hereafter, but not for the dead.
 5. The reading of the Scriptures with godly fear; the sound preaching,
 and conscionable hearing of the Word, in obedience unto God with
 understanding, faith, and reverence; singing of psalms with grace in
 the heart; as, also, the due administration and worthy receiving of
 the sacraments instituted by Christ; are all parts of the ordinary
 religious worship of God: besides religious oaths, and vows, solemn
 fastings, and thanksgivings upon special occasion; which are, in their
 several times and seasons, to be used in an holy and religious manner.
 6. Neither prayer, nor any other part of religious worship, is now,
 under the gospel, either tied unto, or made more acceptable to, any
 place in which it is performed, or towards which it is directed: but
 God is to be worshipped everywhere in spirit and in truth; as in
 private families daily, and in secret each one by himself, so more
 solemnly in the public assemblies, which are not carelessly or
 willfully to be neglected or forsaken, when God, by his Word or
 providence, calleth thereunto.
 7. As it is of the law of nature that, in general, a due proportion of
 time be set apart for the worship of God; so, in his Word, by a
 positive, moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men in all
 ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in seven for a Sabbath,
 to be kept holy unto him: which, from the beginning of the world to
 the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from
 the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the
 week, which in Scripture is called the Lord's Day, and is to be
 continued to the end of the world as the Christian Sabbath.
 8. This Sabbath is to be kept holy unto the Lord when men, after a due
 preparing of their hearts, and ordering of their common affairs
 beforehand, do not only observe an holy rest all the day from their
 own works, words, and thoughts about their wordly employments and
 recreations; but also are taken up the whole time in the public and
 private exercises of his worship, and in the duties of necessity and
 		      Of Lawful Oaths and Vows
 1. A lawful oath is a part of religious worship, wherein upon just
 occasion, the person swearing solemnly calleth God to witness what he
 asserteth or promiseth; and to judge him according to the truth or
 falsehood of what he sweareth.
 2. The name of God only is that by which men ought to swear, and
 therein it is to be used with all holy fear and reverence; therefore
 to swear vainly or rashly by that glorious and dreadful name, or to
 swear at all by any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorred.  Yet,
 as, in matters of weight and moment, an oath is warranted by the Word
 of God, under the New Testament, as well as under the Old, so a lawful
 oath, being imposed by lawful authority, in such matters ought to be
 3. Whosoever taketh and oath ought duly to consider the weightiness of
 so solemn an act, and therein to avouch nothing but what he is fully
 persuaded is the truth.  Neither may any man bind himself by oath to
 anything but what is good and just, and what he believeth so to be,
 and what he is able and resolved to perform.  [PCUS Yet is is a sin to
 refuse an oath touching anything that is good and just, being imposed
 by lawful authority.]
 4. An oath is to be taken in the plain and common sense of the words,
 without equivocation or mental reservation.  It cannot oblige to sin;
 but in anything not sinful, being taken, it binds to performance,
 although to a man's own hurt: nor is it to be violated, although made
 to heretics or infidels.
 5. A vow is of the like nature with a promissory oath, and ought to be
 made with the like religious care, and to be performed with the like
 6. It is not to be made to any creature, but to God alone: and that it
 may be accepted, it is to be made voluntarily, out of faith and
 conscience of duty, in way of thankfulness for mercy received, or for
 obtaining of what we want; whereby we more strictly bind ourselves to
 necessary duties, or to other things, so far and so long as they may
 fitly conduce thereto.
 7. No man may vow to do anything forbidden in the Word of God, or what
 would hinder any duty therein commanded, or which is not in his own
 power, and for the performance of which he hath no promise or ability
 from God.  In which respects, monastical vows of perpetual single
 life, professed poverty, and regular obedience, are so far from being
 degrees of higher perfection, that they are superstitious and sinful
 snares, in which no Christian may entangle himself.
 		     Of the Civil Magistrate
 1. God, the Supreme Lord and King of all the world, hath ordained
 civil magistrates to be under him over the people, for his own glory
 and the public good; and to this end, hath armed them with the power
 of the sword, for the defense and encouragement of them that are good,
 and for the punishment of evildoers.
 2. It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute the office of a
 magistrate when called thereunto; in the managing whereof, as they
 ought especially to maintain piety, justice, and peace, according to
 the wholesome laws of each commonwealth, so, for that end, they may
 lawfully, now under the New Testament, wage war upon just and
 necessary occasions.
 3. Civil magistrates may not assume to themselves the administration
 of the Word and Sacraments; or the power of the keys of the kingdom of
 heaven; or, in the least, interfere in matters of faith.  Yet, as
 nursing fathers, it is the duty of civil magistrates to protect the
 church of our common Lord, without giving the preference to any
 denomination of Christians above the rest, in such a manner that all
 ecclesiastical persons whatever shall enjoy the full, free, and
 unquestioned liberty of discharging every aprt of their sacred
 functions, without violence or danger.  And, as Jesus Christ hath
 appointed a regular government and discipline in his church, no law of
 any commonwealth should interfere with, let, or hinder, the due
 exercise thereof, among the voluntary members of any denomination of
 Christians, according to their own profession of belief.  It is the
 duty of civil magistrates to protect the person and good name of all
 their people, in such an effectual manner as that no person be
 suffered, either upon pretense of religion or infidelity, to offer any
 indignity, violence, abuse, or injury to any other person whatsoever:
 and to take order, that all religious and ecclesiastical assemblies be
 held without molestation or disturbance.
 4. It is the duty of the people to pray for magistrates, to honor
 their persons, to pay them tribute and other dues, to obey their
 lawful commands, and to be subject to their authority, for conscience'
 sake.  Infidelity, or difference in religion, doth not make boid the
 magistrate's just and legal authority, nor free the people from their
 obedience to him: from which ecclesiastical persons are not exempted;
 much less hath the Pope any power or jurisdiction over them in their
 dominions, or over any of their people; and least of all to deprive
 them of their dominions or lives, if he shall judge them to be
 heretics, or upon any other pretense whatsoever.
 		     Of Marriage and Divorce
 1. Christian marriage is an institution ordained of God, blessed by
 our Lord Jesus Christ, established and sanctified for the happiness
 and welfare of mankind, into which spiritual and physical union one
 man and one woman enter, cherishing a mutual esteem and love, bearing
 with each other's infirmities and weaknesses, comfortin each other in
 trouble, providing in honesty and industry for each other and for
 their household, praying for each other, and living together the
 length of their days as heirs of the grace of life.
 2. Because the corruption of man is apt unduly to put asunder those
 whom God hath joined together in marriage, and because the Church is
 concerned with the establishment of marriage in the Lord as Scripture
 sets it forth, and with the present penitence as well as with the past
 innocence or guilt of those whose marriage has been broken; therefore
 as a breach of that holy relation may occasion divorce, so remarriage
 after a divorce granted on grounds explicity stated in Scripture or
 implicit in the gospel of Christ may be sanctioned in keeping with his
 redemptive gospel, when sufficient penitence for sin and failure is
 evidence, and a firm purpose of and endeavor after Christian marriage
 is manifest.
 		     Of Marriage and Divorce
 1. Marriage is a union between one man and one woman, designed of God
 to last so long as they both shall live.
 2. Marriage is designed for the mutual help of husband and wife; for
 the safeguarding, undergirding, and development of their moral and
 spiritual character; for the propagation of children and the rearing
 of them in the discipline and instruction of the Lord.
 3. All persons who are able with judgment to give their consent may
 marry, except within the limits of blood relationship forbidden by
 Scripture, and such marriages are valid before God in the eyes of the
 church.  But no marriage can be fully and securely Christian in spirit
 or in purpose unless both partners are committed to a common Christian
 faith and to a deeply shared intention of building a Christian home.
 Evangelical Christians should seek as partners in marriage only
 persons who hold in common a sound basis of evangelical faith.
 4. Marriage for the Christian has religoius as well as civil
 significance.  The distinctive contribution of the church in
 performing the marriage ceremony is to affirm the divine institution
 of marriage; to invoke God's blessing upon those who enter into the
 marital relationship in accordance with his word; to hear the vows of
 those who desire to be married; and to assure the married partners of
 God's grace within their new relationship.
 5. It is the divine intention that persons entering the marriage
 covenant become inseparably united, thus allowing for no dissolution
 save that caused by the death of either husband or wife.  However, the
 weaknesses of one or both partners may lead to gross and persistent
 denial of the marriage vows so that marriage dies at the heart and the
 union become intolerable; yet only in cases of extreme, unrepented-of,
 and irremedial unfaithfulness (physical or spiritual) should
 separation or divorce be considered.  Such separation or divorce is
 accepted as permissable only because of the failure of one or both of
 the partners, and does not lessen in any way the divine intention for
 indissoluble union.
 6. The remarriage of divorced persons may be sanctioned by the church,
 in keeping with the redemptive gospel of Christ, when sufficient
 penitence for sin and failure is evidence, and a firm purpose of and
 endeavor after Christian marriage is manifested.
 7. Divorced persons should give prayerful thought to discover if God's
 vocation for them is to remain unmarried, since one failure in this
 realm raises serious question as to the rightness and wisdom of
 undertaking another union.
 			   Of the Church
 1. The catholic or universal church, which is invisible, consists of
 the whole number of the elect, that have been, are, or shall be
 gathered into one, under Christ the head thereof; and is the spouse,
 the body, the fullness of Him that filleth all in all.
 2. The visible Church, which is also catholic or universal under the
 gospel (not confined to one nation as before under the law), consists
 of all those throughout the world that profess the true religion,
 together with their children; and is the Kingdom of the Lord Jesus
 Christ; the house and family of God, through which men are ordinarily
 saved and union with which is essential to their best growth and
 3. Unto this catholic and visible Church, Christ hath given the
 ministry, oracles, and ordinances of God, for the gathering and
 perfecting of the saints, in this life, to the end of the world; and
 doth by his own presence and Spirit, according to his promise, make
 them effectual thereunto.
 4. This catholic Church hath been sometimes more, sometimes less,
 visible.  And particular churches, which are members thereof, are more
 or less pure, according as the doctrine of the gospel is taught and
 embraced, ordinances administered, and public worship performed more
 or less purely in them.
 5. The purest churches under heaven are subject both to mixture and
 error: and some have so degenerated as to become apparently no
 churches of Christ.  Nevertheless, there shall be always a Church on
 earth, to worship God according to his will.
 6. The Lord Jesus Christ is the only head of the Church, and the claim
 of any man to be the vicar of Christ and the head of the Church is
 [PCUS without warrant in fact or in Scripture, even anti-Christian,]
 [UPCUSA unscriptural, without warrant in fact, and is] a usurpation
 dishonoring to the Lord Jesus Christ.
 		   Of the Communion of the Saints
 1. All saints [PCUS being] [UPCUSA that are] united to Jesus Christ
 their head, by his Spirit and by faith, have fellowship with him in
 his graces, sufferings, death, resurrection, and glory: and, being
 united to one another in love, they have communion in each other's
 gifts and graces, and are obliged to the performance of such duties,
 public and private, as to conduce to their mutual good, both in the
 inward and outward man.
 2. Saints by [PCUS their] profession are bound to maintain an holy
 fellowship and communion in the worship of God, and in performing such
 other spiritual services as tend to their mutual edification; as also
 in relieving each other in outward things, according to their several
 abilities and necesities.  Which communion, as God offereth
 opportunity, is to be extended unto all those who, in every place,
 call upno the name of the Lord Jesus.
 3. This communion which the saints have with Christ, doth not make
 them in any wise partakers of the substance of the Godhead, or to be
 equal with Christ in any respect: either of which to affirm, is
 impious and blasphemous.  Nor doth their communion one with another as
 saints, take away or infringe the title or property which each man
 hath in his goods and possessions.
 			 Of the Sacraments
 1. Sacraments are holy signs and seals of the covenant of grace,
 immediately instituted by God, to represent Christ and his benefits,
 and to confirm our interest in him: as also to put a visible
 difference between those that belong unto the church, and the rest of
 thw world; and solemnly to engage them to the service of God in
 Christ, according to his Word.
 2. There is in every sacrament a spiritual relation, or sacramental
 union, between the sign and the thing signified; whence it comes to
 pass that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the
 3. The grace which is exhibited in or by the sacraments, rightly used,
 is not conferred by any power in them; neither doth the efficacy of a
 sacrament depend upon the piety or intention of him that doth
 administer it, but upon the work of the Spirit, and the word of
 institution, which conatins, together with a precept authorizing the
 use thereof, a promise of benefit to worthy receivers.
 4. There be only two sacraments ordained by Christ our Lord in the
 gospels, that is to say, baptism and the supper of the Lord: neither
 or which may be dispensed by any but a minister of the Word, lawfully
 5. The sacraments of the Old Testament, in regard of the spiritual
 things thereby signified and exhibited, were, for substance, the same
 with those of the New.
 			    Of Baptism
 1. Baptism is a sacrament of the New Testament, ordained by Jesus
 Christ, not only for the solemn admission of the party baptized into
 the visible Church, but also to be unto him a sign and seal of the
 covenant of grace, or his ingrafting into Christ, of regeneration, of
 remission of sins, and of his giving up unto God, through Jesus
 Christ, to walk in newness of life: which sacrament is, by Christ's
 own appointment, to be continued in his churchy until the end of the
 2. The outward element to be used in the sacrament is water, wherewith
 the party is to be baptized in the name of the Father, and of the Son,
 and of the Holy Ghost, by a minister of the gospel, lawfully called
 3. Dipping of the person into the water is not necessary; but baptism
 is rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the
 4. Not only those that do actually profess faith in and obedience unto
 Christ, but also the infants of one or both believing parents are to
 be baptized.
 5. Although it be a great sin to contemn or neglect this ordinance,
 yet grace and salvation are not so inseparably annexed unto it as that
 no person can be regenerated or saved without it, or that all that are
 baptized are undoubtedly regenerated.
 6. The efficacy of Baptism is not tied to that moment of time wherein
 it is administered; yet, notwithstanding, by the right use of this
 ordinancy the grace promised is not only offered, but really exhibited
 and conferred by the Holy Ghost, to such (whether of age or infants)
 as that grace belongeth unto, according to the counsel of God's own
 will, in his appointed time.
 7. The sacrament of Baptism is but once to be administered to any
 		       Of the Lord's Supper
 1. Our Lord Jesus, in the night wherein he was betrayed, instituted
 the sacrament of his body and blood, called the Lord's Supper, to be
 observed in his Church unto the end of the world; for the perpetual
 remembrance of the sacrifice of himself in his death, the sealing all
 benefits thereof unto true believers, their spiritual nourishment and
 growth in him, their further engagement in and to all duties which
 they owe unto him; and to be a bond and pledge of their communion with
 him, and with each other, as members of his mystical body.
 2. In this sacrament Christ is not offered up to his Father, nor any
 real sacrifice made at all for remission of sins of the quick or dead,
 but a commemoration of that [PCUS one] [UPCUSA once] offering up of
 himself, by himself, upon the cross, once and for all, and a spiritual
 oblation of all possible praise unto God for the same; so that the
 so-called sacrifice of the mass is most contradictory to Christ's
 [PCUSA one] [UPCUSA own] sacrifice, the only propitiation for all the
 sins of the elect.
 3. The Lord Jesus hath, in this ordinance, appointed his ministers to
 declare his word of institution to the people, to pray, and bless the
 elements of bread and wine, and thereby to set them apart from a
 common to any holy use; and to take and break the bread, to take the
 cup, and (they communicating also themselves) to give both to the
 communicants; [UPCUSA but to none who are not then present in the
 4. Private masses, or receiving this sacrament by a priest, or any
 other, alone; as likewise the denial of the cup to the people;
 worshipping the elements, the lifting them up, or carrying them about
 for adoration, and the reserving of them for any pretended religious
 use, are all contrary to the nature of this sacrament, and to the
 institution of Christ.
 5. The outward elements in this sacrament, duly set apart to the uses
 ordained by Christ, have such relation to him crucified, as that
 truly, yet sacramentally only, they are sometimes called by the name
 of the thigns they represent, to wit, the body and blood of Christ;
 albeit, in substance and nature, they still remain truly, and only,
 bread and wine, as they were before.
 6. That doctrine which maintains a change of the substance of bread
 and wine, into the substance of Christ's body and blood (commonly
 called transubstantiation) by consecration of a priest, or by any
 other way, is repugnant, not to Scripture alone, but even to common
 sense and reason; overthroweth the nature of the sacrament; and hath
 been, and is, the cause of manifold superstitions, yea, of gross
 7. Worthy receivers, outwardly partaking of the visible elements in
 this sacrament, do then also inwardly by faith, really and indeed, yet
 not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, receive and feed upon
 Christ crucified, and all benefits of his death: the body and blood of
 Christ being then not corporally or carnally in, with, or under the
 bread and wine; yet as really, but spiritually, present to the faith
 of believers in that ordinance, as the elements themselves are to
 their outward senses.
 8. Although ignorant and wicked men receive the outward elements in
 this sacrament, yet they receive not the thing signified thereby; but
 by their unworthy coming thereunto are guilty of the body and blood of
 the Lord, and bring judgment on themselves.  [UPCUSA Wherefore all
 ignorant and ungodly persons, as they are unfit to enjoy communion
 with him, so are they unworthy of the Lord's Table, and cannot,
 without great sin against Christ, while they remain such, partake of
 these holy mysteries, or be admitted thereunto.]
 			 Of Church Censures
 1. The Lord Jesus, as king and head of his Church, hath therein
 appointed a government in the hand of Church officers, distinct from
 the civil magistrate.
 2. To these officers the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven are committed,
 by virtue whereof they have power respectively to retain and remit
 sins, to shut that kingdom against the impenitent, both by the word
 and censures; and to open it unto penitent sinners, by the ministry of
 the gospel, and by absolution from censures, as occasion shall
 3. Church censures are necessary for the reclaiming and gaining of
 offending brethren; for deterring of others from like offenses; for
 purging out of that leaven which might infect the whole lump; for
 vindicating the honor of Christ, and the holy profession of the
 gospel; and for preventing the wrath of God, which might justly fall
 upon the Church, if they should suffer his covenant, and the seals
 thereof, to be profaned by notorious and obstinate offenders.
 4. For the better attaining of these ends, the officers of the church
 are to proceed by admonition, suspension from the sacrament of the
 Lord's Supper for a season, and by excommunication from the Church,
 according to the nature of the crime, and demerit of the person.
 		       Of Synods and Councils
 1. For the better government and further edification of the Church,
 there ought to be such assemblies as are commonly called synods or
 councils and it belongeth to the overseers and other rulers of the
 particular churches, by virtue of their office, and the power which
 Christ hath given them for edification, and not for destruction, to
 appoint such assemblies, and to convene together in them, as often as
 they shall judge it expedient for the good of the Church.
 2. It belongeth to synods and councils, ministerially, to determine
 controversies of faith, and cases of conscience, to set down rules and
 directions for the better ordering of the public worship of God, and
 government of his Church; to receive complaints in cases of
 mal-administration, and authoritatively to determine the same: which
 decrees and determinations, if consonant to the Word of God, are to be
 received with reverence and submission, not only for their agreement
 with the Word, but also for the power whereby they are made, as being
 an ordinance of God, appointed thereunto in his Word.
 3. All synods or councils since the apostles' times, whether general
 or particular, may err, and many have erred; therefore they are not to
 be made the rule of faith or practice, but to be used as a help in
 4. Synods and councils are to handle or conclude nothing but that
 which is ecclesiastical: and are not to intermeddle with civil affairs
 which concern the commonwealth unless by way of humble petition in
 cases extraordinary; or by way of advice for satisfaction of
 conscience, if they be thereunto required by the civil magistrate.
 		   Of the State of Man After Death
 		 and of the Resurrection of the Dead
 1. The bodies of men, after death, return to dust, and see corruption;
 but their souls (which neither die nor sleep), having an immortal
 subsistence, immediately return to God who gave them.  The souls of
 the righteous, being then made perfect in holiness, are received into
 the highest heavens, where they behold the face of God in light and
 glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies; and the souls
 of the wicked are cast into hell, where they remain in torments and
 utter darkness, reserved to the judgment of the great day.  Besides
 these two places for souls separated from their bodies, the Scripture
 acknowledgeth none.
 2. At the last day, such as are found alive shall not die, but be
 changed: and all the dead shall be raised up with the self-same
 bodies, and none other, although with different qualities, which shall
 be united again to their souls forever.
 3. The bodies of the unjust shall, by the power of Christ, be raised
 to dishonor; the bodies of the just, by his Spirit, unto honor, and be
 made conformable to his own glorious body.
 		       Of the Last Judgment
 1. God hath appointed a day, wherein he will judge the world in
 righteousness by Jesus Christ, to whom all power and judgment is given
 of the Father.  In which day, not only the apostate angels shall be
 judged; but likewise all persons, that have lived upon earth, shall
 appear before the tribunal of Christ, to give an account of their
 thoughts, words, and deeds; and to receive according to what they have
 done in the body, whether good or evil.
 2. The end of God's appointing this day, is for the manifestation of
 the glory of his mercy in the eternal salvation of the elect; and of
 his justice in the damnation of the reprobate, who are wicked and
 disobedient.  For then shall the righteous go into everlasting life,
 and receive that fullness of joy and refreshing which shall come from
 the presence of the Lord: but the wicked, who know not God, and obey
 not the gospel of Jesus Christ, shall be cast into eternal torments,
 and punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the
 Lord, and from the glory of his power.
 3. As Christ would have us to be certainly persuaded that there shall
 be a day of judgment, both to deter all men from sin, and for the
 greater consolation of the godly in their adversity: so will he have
 that day unknown to men, that they may shake off all carnal security,
 and be always watchful, because they know not at what hour the Lord
 will come; and may be ever prepared to say, Come, Lord Jesus, come
 quickly.  Amen.
 [Chapters XXXIV and XXXV of the UPCUSA version, (paragraphs 6.183 to
 6.190) are above, as chapters IX and X of the PCUS version (paragraphs
 6.051 to 6.058).]
 		   Declaratory Statement (UPCUSA)
 While the ordination vow of ministers, ruling elders, and deacons, as
 set forth in the Form of Government, requires the reception and
 adoption of the Confession of Faith only as containing the system of
 doctrine taught in the Holy Scriptures, nevertheless, seeing that the
 desire has been formally expressed for a disavowal by the Church of
 certain inferences drawn from statements in the Confession of Faith,
 and also for a declaration of certain aspects of revealed truth which
 appear at the present time to call for more explicit statement,
 therefore The Presbyterian Church in the United States of Americe does
 authoritatively declare as follows:
 First, with reference to Chapter III of the Confession of Faith: that
 concerning those who are saved in Christ, the doctrine of God's
 eternal decree is held in harmooy with the doctrine of his love to all
 mankind, his gift of his Son to be the propitiation for the sins of
 the whole world, and his readiness to bestow his saving grace on all
 who seek it; that concerning those who perish, the doctrine of God's
 eternal decree is held in harmony with the doctrine that God desires
 not the death of any sinner, but has provided in Christ a salvation
 sufficient for all, adapted to all, and freely offered in the gospel
 to all; that men are fully responsible for their treatment of God's
 gracious offer; that his decree hinders no man from accepting that
 offer; and that no man is condemned except on the ground of his sin.
 Second, with reference to Chapter X, Section 3, of the Confession of
 Faith, that it is not to be regarded as teaching that any who die in
 infancy are lost.  We believe that all dying in infancy are included
 in the election of grace, and are regenerated and saved by Christ
 through the Spirit, who works when and where and how he pleases.