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Chapter 32.—Manichæus Got the Arrangement of His Fanciful Notions from Visible Objects.

35.  For in giving to these natures which he has learned from visible things, an arrangep. 145 ment according to his fanciful ideas, to represent the race of darkness, Manichæus is clearly in error.  First of all, he makes darkness productive, which is impossible.  But, he replies, this darkness was unlike what you are familiar with.  How, then, can you make me understand about it?  After so many promises to give knowledge, will you force me to take your word for it?  Suppose I believe you, this at least is certain, that if the darkness had no form, as darkness usually has not, it could produce nothing; if it had form, it was better than ordinary darkness:  whereas, when you call it different from the ordinary kind, you wish us to believe that it is worse.  You might as well say that silence, which is the same to the ear as darkness to the eyes, produced some deaf or dumb animals in that region; and then, in reply to the objection that silence is not a nature, you might say that it was different silence from ordinary silence; in a word, you might say what you pleased to those whom you have once misled into believing you.  No doubt, the obvious facts relating to the origin of animal life led Manichæus to say that serpents were produced in darkness.  However, there are serpents which have such sharp sight, and such pleasure in light, that they seem to give evidence of the most weighty kind against this idea.  Then the idea of swimming things in the water might easily be got here, and applied to the fanciful objects in that region; and so of flying things in the winds, for the motion of the lower air in this world, where birds fly, is called wind.  Where he got the idea of the quadrupeds in fire, no one can tell.  Still he said this deliberately, though without sufficient thought, and from great misconception.  The reason usually given is, that quadrupeds are voracious and salacious.  But many men surpass any quadruped in voracity, though they are bipeds, and are called children of the smoke, and not of fire.  Geese, too, are as voracious as any animal; and though he might place them in fire as bipeds, or in the water because they love to swim, or in the winds because they have wings and sometimes fly, they certainly have nothing to do with fire in this classification.  As regards salaciousness, I suppose he was thinking of neighing horses, which sometimes bite through the bridle and rush at the mares; and writing hastily, with this in his mind, he forgot the common sparrow, in comparison of which the hottest stallion is cold.  The reason they give for assigning bipeds to the smoke is, that bipeds are conceited and proud, for men are derived from this class; and the idea, which is a plausible one, is that smoke resembles proud people in rising up into the air, round and swelling.  This idea might warrant a figurative description of proud men, or an allegorical expression or explanation, but not the belief that bipeds are born in smoke and of smoke.  They might with equal reason be said to be born in dust, for it often rises up to the heaven with a similar circling and lofty motion; or in the clouds, for they are often drawn up from the earth in such a way, that those looking from a distance are uncertain whether they are clouds or smoke.  Once more, why, in the case of the waters and the winds, does he suit the inhabitants to the character of the place, as we see swimming things in water, and flying things in the wind; whereas, in the face of fire and smoke, this bold liar is not ashamed to assign to these places the most unlikely inhabitants?  For fire burns quadrupeds, and consumes them, and smoke suffocates and kills bipeds.  At least he must acknowledge that he has made these natures better in the race of darkness than they are here, though he wishes us to think everything to be worse.  For, according to this, the fire there produced and nourished quadrupeds, and gave them a lodging not only harmless, but most convenient.  The smoke, too, provided room for the offspring of its own benign bosom, and cherished them up to the rank of prince.  Thus we see that these lies, which have added to the number of heretics, arose from the perception by carnal sense, only without care or discernment, of visible objects in this world, and when thus conceived, were brought forth by fancy, and then presumptuously written and published.

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