122 A city of Zeugitana, sometimes written "Assapha."

123 A city of Byzacene.

124 "Lambesa," a city of Numidia.

125 A city of Numidia, otherwise Gausafna (Ptol.) and Gazofula(Procop.)

126 There are four cities in Africa of this name.

127 A city of Numidia, otherwise called "Octabum."

128 [Noteworthy examples of episcopal modesty. In the colleges of bishops, however, it is now usual to call upon juniors first, that, if they should think differently from older brethren, their free opinion need not be restrained by deference.]

129 A city oF Numidia.

130 [This is Cyprian's theory of the origin of the episcopate. Elucidation infra.]

131 A city of Byzacena.

132 This is otherwise called "Cululi," a city of Bytacena.

133 2 John 10, 11.

134 This Litteus is mentioned in Ep. lxxvi. p. 402, supra.

135 A city of Numidia. A Roman colony was planted there under the Emperor Hadrian.

136 A city of Tripolis.

137 Probably the same to whom 1xxiii. (p. 386, supra) was written.

138 A city of Tripolis.

139 A city of Tripolis, thus distinguished from Leptis parva.

140 A city of Tripolis.

141 [Here Cyprian sums up, and gives the sentence of the council, after the example of St. James, who presided in the Council of Jerusalem, Acts xv. 13, 199.]

142 See p. 522, sec. 16 supra. All this interprets the Petra, not "Petrus."

143 [A strong testimony in its favour. It is quite possible that the less worthy portions are corrupt interpolations.]

1 [See Ben Jonson, Volpone, Ep. Dedicatory.]

2 Obviously imitating Tertullian's treatise De Spectaculis. [See vol. iii. p. 79.]

3 He then prosecutes the subject, by going through the several kinds of public exhibitions, and sets forth, a limit more diffusely than in the Epistle to Donatus, what risks are incurred by the spectators, and especially in respect of those exhibitions wherein, as he says, "representations of lust convey instruction in obscenity." Finally, he briefly enumerates such exhibitions as are worthy of the interest of a Christian man, and in which he ought rightfully to find pleasure. [For Epistle to Donates, see p. 275, supra.]

4 "In sacramento."

5 Elucidation I.

6 "Nabla."

7 [In Edin. trans. needlessly "the writings of the Scriptures."]

8 " Cum persona professionis suae loquatur."

9 Baluzius reads with less probability "indecorum," "anything unbecoming." The reading adopted in the text is, according to Fell, "nde eorum."

10 Vid. Ovid's Fasti, lib. v.

11 The Oxford text here has the reading, "Why does he speak of it? why does he," etc.

12 [It is painfnl to recognise, in the general licence of the press in our country, this very feature of a corrupt civilization,-a delight in scandal, and in the invasion of homes and private affairs, for the gratification of the popular appetite.]

13 [Compare Clement, vol. ii. p. 248, note 5, and p. 249, notes 2, 11.]

14 [This touches a point important to the modern question. It is said, "Oh! but these Fathers denounced only those heathen spectacles of which idolatry was part," etc. The reply is sufficiently made by our author.]

15 There is much confusion in the reading of this passage, which in the original runs, according to Baluzius: "Nam cum mens hominis advitia ipsa ducatur, quid faciet, si habuerit exempla naturae corporis lubrica quae sparta cornuit? Quid faciet si fuerit impulsa?"

16 [Compare Clement, vol. p. 256, and note 1.

17 [De Maistre, who is a Christian, with all his hereditary prejudice and enslavement, has a fine passage in the opening of his Soirees de St. Petersbourg, which the reader will enjoy. It concludes with this saying: "Les coeurs pervers n'ont jamais de belles nuits ni de beaux jours." P. 7. vol. i. See vol. iv. p. 173, this series.]

18 [Always the sacred Scriptures are held up as capable of yielding delight as well as profit to the believer. The works of God and His word go together. Col. iii. 16.]

19 [There is much in the above treatise which is not unworthy of Cyprian. As to questions of authenticity, however, experts alone should venture upon an opinion. Non nobis tantas componere lites.]

1 [Erasmus doubts as to the authorship, judging from the style. Pamelius is sure it is Cyprian's.]

2 In place of reward, he sets before them not only security from the fear of Gehenna, but also the attainment of everlasting life, describing both alternatives briefly in a poetical manner. He points out, that to some, martyrdom serves as a crown, while to others who are baptized in their own blood, it serves as redemption. Finally, when from the Scriptures he has stirred up his readers to confession of the name of Christ, he asks them to remember him when the Lord begins to honour martyrdom in them, since the Lord is known not to deny such as they when they ask Him for anything.

3 "Habena;" but according to Baluzius "avena," "an oatstraw."