165 The Abbe Cruice refers to Censorinus ( De Die Natali, cap. vii. et xiv.), who mentions that two numbers were held in veneration, the seventh (hebdomad) and ninth (ennead). The former was of use in curing corporeal disease, and ascribed to Apollo; the latter healed the diseases of the mind, and was attributed to the Muses.

166 At foot of MS. occur the words, "Fourth Book of Philosophumena."

167 "Pierced it through," i.e., bored the holes for the strings, or, in other words, constructed the instrument. The Latin version in Buhle's edition of Aratus is ad cunam (cunabulam) compegit, i.e., he fastened the strings into the shell of the tortoise near his bed. The tortoise is mentioned by Aratus in the first part of the line, which fact removes the obscurity of the passage as quoted by Hippolytus. The general tradition corresponds with this, in representing Mercury on the shores of the Nile forming a lyre out of a dried tortoise. The word translated bed might be also rendered fan, which was used as a cradle, its size and construction being suitable. [See note, p. 46, infra.]

1 [Consult Bunsen, vol. i. p. 35, always interesting and ingeniously critical; nobody should neglect his work. But for a judicial mind, compare Dr. Wordsworth, p. 182.]

2 The MS. employs the form Sithians, which is obviously not the correct one.

3 This term kleyilogoj is frequently applied by Hippolytus to the heretics.

4 Miller has apokaluyaj for paraleiyaj. This, however, can bear no intelligible meaning, except we add some other word, as thus: "not even have I failed to disclose." Schneidewin's correction of apoxaluyaj into paraleiyaj is obviously an improvement.

5 Metalabontej; some read metasxontej, which it is presumed might be rendered, "sharing in the opinions which gave occasion to these heterodox doctrines."

6 i.e., ofij. This term has created the title "Ophites," which may be regarded as the generic denomination for all the advocates of this phase of Gnosticism.

7 The heresy of the Naasseni is adverted to by the other leading writers on heresy in the early age of the Church. See St. Irenaeus, i, 34: Origen, Contr. Cels., vi 28 (p. 291 et seq. ed. Spenc.); Tertullian, Proeser., c. 47 Theodoret, Haeretic. Fabul, i. 14; Epiphanius, Advers. Haereses., xxv. and xxxvii.: St. Augustine, De Haeres., xvii.; Jerome, Comment. Epist. ad Galat., lib. ii. The Abbe Cruice reminds his readers that the Naasseni carried their doctrines into India, and refers to the Asiatic Researches (vol. x. p. 39).

8 The Hebrew word is h@n

( nachash).

9 paraton autwn logon. Bernaysius suggests for these words, patera tw autw logw. Schneidewin regards the emendation as an error, and Bunsen partly so. The latter would read, patera ton autwn Logon, i.e., "The Naasseni honour the Father of all existent things, the Logos, as man and the Son of Man."

10 See Irenaeus, Haer., i. 1.

11 Geryon (see note, chap. iii.) is afterwards mentioned as a synonyme with Jordan, i.e., "flowing from earth" ( gh ruwn).

12 gnwsij,-a term often alluded to by St. John, and which gives its name "Gnosticism" to the various forms of the Ophitic heresy. The aphorism in the text is one that embodies a grand principle which lies at the root of all correct philosophy. In this and other instances it will be found that the system, however wild and incoherent in its theology, of the Naaseni and of some of the other Gnostic sects, was one which was constructed by a subtle analysis of thought, an by observation of nature.

13 The Abbe Cruice remarks on this passage, that, as the statement here as regards Jesus Christ does not correspond with Origen's remarks on the opininns of the Naasseni in reference to our Lord, the Philosophumena cannot be the work of Origen.

14 The Abbe Cruice observes that we have here another proof that the Philosophumena is not the work of Origen, who in his Contra Celsum mentions Mariamne, but professes not to have met with any of his followers (see Contr. Cels., lib. v. p. 272, ed. Spenc.). This confirms the opinion mostly entertained of Origen, that neither the bent of his mind nor the direction of his studies justify the supposition that he would write a detailed history of heresy.

15 Isa. liii. 8.

16 Or adiaf oon, equivocal.

17 This has been by the best critics regarded as a fragment of a hymn of Pindar's on Jupiter Ammon. Schneidewin furnishes a restored poetic version of it by Bergk. This hymn, we believe, first suggested to M. Miller an idea of the possible value and importance of the MS. of The Refutation brought by Minoides Mynas from Greece.

18 The usual form is Alalcomenes. He was a Baeotian Autocthon.

19 Or, "lannes." The Abbe Cruice refers to Berosus, Chald. Hist., pp, 48, 49, and to his own dissertation (Paris, 1844) on the authority to be attached to Josephus, as regards the writers adduced by him in his treatise Contr. Apoin.

20 The Rabbins, probably deriving their notions from the Chaldeans, entertained the most exaggerated ideas respecting the perfection of Adam. Thus Gerson, in his Commentary on Abardanel, says that "Adam was endued with the very perfection of wisdom, and was cheif of philosophers, that he was an immediate disciple of the Deity, also a physician and astrologer, and the originator of all the arts and sciences." This spirit of exaggeration passed from the Jews to the Christians (see Clementine Homilies,ii). Aquinas (Sum. Theol. pars i 94)says of Adam, "Since the first man was appointed perfect, he ought to have posessed a knowledge of everything capable of being ascertained by natural means."

21 Or, "vanquishing him" (Roeper).

22 This is known to us only by some ancient quotations. The Naasseni had another work of repute among them, the "Gospel according to Thomas." Bunsen conjectures that the two "Gospels" may be the same.

23 autogenouj. Miller has auou genouj, which Bunsen rejects in favour of the reading "self-begotten."

24 Schneidewin considers that there have been left out in the MS. the words" or Attis" after Endymion. Attis is subsequently mentioned with some degree of particularity.

25 Or, "creation."

26 Or, "Apis." See Diodorus Siculus, iii. 58, 59. Pausanias, vii. 2O, writes the word Attes. See also Minucius Felix, Octav., cap. xxi.

27 Or, "forbidden."

28 Gal. iii. 28, and Clement's Epist. ad Rom., ii. 12. [This is the apocryphal Clement reserved for vol. viii. of this series. See also same text, Ignatius, vol. i. p. 81.]

29 See 2 Cor. v. 17, Gal. vi 15.

30 Rom. i. 20-27.

31 alalw; some read allw.

32 Luke xvii. 21.

33 These words do not occur in the "Gospel of Thomas concerning the Saviour's infancy," as given by Fabricius and Thilo.

34 The Abbe Cruice mentions the following works as of authority among the Naasseni, and from whence they derived their system: The Gospel of Perfection, Gospel of Eve, The Questions of Mary, Concerning the Offspring of Mary, The Gospel of Philip, The Gospel according to (1) Thomas, (2) the Egyptians. (See Epiphanius, Haeres., c. xxvi., and Origen, Contr. Cels., vi. 30, p. 296, ed. Spenc.) These heretics likewise make use of the Old Testament, St. John's Gospel, and some of the Pauline epistles.

35 Miller refers to Littre, Traduct. des Aeuvres d'Hippocrate, t. i. p. 396.

36 See Herodotus, ii. 2, 5.

37 See Origen, Contr. Cels., v. 38 (p. 257, ed. Spenc.).

38 Or, "brilliant."

39 Or, "untraceable."

40 Prov. xxiv. 16; Luke xvii. 4.

41 Or, "spirit."

42 See Epiphanius, Haeres., xxvi. 8.

43 Matt. xix. 17; Mark x. 18; Luke xviii. 19.

44 Matt. v. 45.

45 Miller has oudeij. See Plutarch, De Isid. et Osirid., c. li. p. 371.

46 Or, eisodou, i.e., entrance.

47 Matt. v. 15, 27.

48 Odyssey, xxiv. r.

49 Empedocles, v. 390, Stein.

50 Esaldaius, Miller (see Origen, Const. Cels., v. 76, p. 297, ed. Spenc.).

51 Odyssey, xxiv. 2.

52 Ps. ii. 9.

53 Eph. v. 14.

54 See Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride, c. xxxiv.

55 Rom. x. 18.

56 Odyssey, xxiv. 5.