1 Hippol., vol. i. p. 7. Ed. London, 1851.

2 See this series, vol. iii. Elucid. II. p. 630.

3 See this series, vol. i. pp. 309, 360; also vol. ii. p. 166, and Milman (vol. i. pp. 28, 29), Latin Christianity.

1 I venture to state this to encourage young students to keep pen in hand in all their researches, and always to make notes.

2 Pompey and others were called imperatoresbefore the Caesars, but who includes them with the Roman emperors?

3 How St. Peter would regard it, see 1 Pet. v. 1-3. I am sorry to find Dr. Schaff, in his useful compilation, History of the Christian Church, vol. ii. p 166, dropping, into the old ruts of fable, after sufficiently proving just before, what I have maintained. He speaks of "the insignificance of the first Popes,"-meaning the early Bishops of Rome, men who minded their own business, but could not have been "insignificant" had they even imagined themselves "Popes."

4 See Bossuet, passim, and all the Callican doctors down to our own times. In England the "supremacy" was never acknowledged nor in France, until now.

5 See his Hippol., vol. i. pp. 209, 311.

6 See vol. ii. p. 298, this series.

7 p. 207.

8 Vol. iv p 114, Elucidation II., this series.

9 Even Quinet notes this. See his Ultamontanism, p. 40, ed. 1845.

10 Bunsen gives it as the thirty-fifth, vol. i. p. 311.

11 Of which we shall learn in vol. viii., this series.

12 See Bingham, book ix. cap. i. sec. 9.

13 Wordsworth, chap. viii. p, 93.

14 See vol. I, pp. 415, 460, this series.

15 Introduction to Greek Classics, p.228.

16 See vol. ii. p. 12, also iv. 210.

1 The four of the MSS. of the first book extant prior to the recent discovery of seven out of the remaining nine books of The Refutation, concur in ascribing it to Origen. These inscriptions run thus: 1. "Refutation by Orison of all Heresies;" 2. "Of Origen's Philosophumena... these are the contents;" 3. "Being estimable (Dissertations) by Origen, a man of the greatest wisdom." The recently discovered MS. itself in the margin has the words, "Origen, and Origen's opinion." The title, as agreed upon by modern commentators, is: 1. "Book I. of Origen's Refutation of all Heresies" (Wolf and Gronovius); 2. "A Refutation of all Heresies; " 3. "Origen's Philosophumena, or the Refutation of all Heresies." The last is Stiller's in his Oxford edition, 1851. The title might have been, "Philosophumena, and the Refutation (therefrom) of all Heresies." There were obviously two divisions of the work: (1) A resume of the tenets of the philosophers (books i., ii., iii., iv.), preparatory to (2) the refutation of heresies, on the ground of their derivative character from Greek and Egyptian speculation. Bunsen would denominate the work "St. Hippolytus' (Bishop and Martyr) Refutation of all Heresies; what remains of the ten books."

2 Most of what follows in book i. is a compilation from ancient sources. The ablest resume followed by Cicero in the De Nat. Deor., of the tenets of the ancient philosophers, is to be found in Aristotle's Metaphysics. The English reader is referred to the Metaphysics, book i. pp. 13-46 (Bohn's Classical Library), also to the translator's analysis prefixed to this work, pp, 17-25 See also Diogenes' Lives of the Philosophers, and Tenneman's Manual of Philosophy (translated in Bohn's Library); Plutarch, De Placitis Philosophorum; Lewes' Biographical History of (Ancient) Philolophy; and Rev. Dr. F. D. Maurice's History of (Ancient) Metaphysical and Moral Philosophy. The same subject is discussed in Ritter's History of Philosophy (translated by Morrison).

3 This word is variously given thus: Academian, Academeian, Academaic, Academe, Cademian, and Cadimian. The two last would seem to indicate the character rather than the philosophy of Pyrrho. To favour this view, the text should be altered into kai adhmoj, i.e., apodhmoj = from home, not domestic.

4 Some hiatus at the beginning of this sentence is apparent.

5 An elaborate defence of this position forms the subject of Cudworth's great work, The True Intellectual System of the Universe.

6 This statement has been urged against Origen's authorship, in favour of Epiphinius, who wrote an extended treatise on the Heresies, with an abridgment.

7 That is, their esoteric mysteries, intended only for a favoured few, as contrasted with the exoteric. designed for more general diffusion.

8 One ms. has-"the profane opinion and unreasonable attempt."

9 "To learn" (Roeper).

10 "And those that are irrational animals do not attempt," (or) "because irrational," etc. The last is Sancroft's reading; that in the text, Roeper's.

11 "Ascend up to" (Roeper).

12 This passage is quoted by those who impugn the authorship of Origen on the ground of his never having been a bishop of the Church. It is not, however, quite certain that the words refer to the episcopal office exclusively.

13 The common reading is in the future, but the present tense is adopted by Richter in his Critical Observations, p. 77.

14 It might be, "any opinion that may be subservient to the subject taken in hand." This is Cruice's rendering in his Latin version. A different reading is, "we must not be silent as regards reasons that hold good," or, "as regards rational distinctions," or, "refrain from utterances through the instrument of reasoning." The last is Roeper's.

15 Another reading is, "bringing into a collection."

16 Or, "the Spirit."

17 Or, "indicating a witness; " or, "having adduced testimony,"

18 Or, "a starting-point."

19 Or:, "devoting his attention to; " or, "having lighted upon."

20 The chief writers on the early heresies are: Irenaeus, of the second century; Hippolytus, his pupil, of the third; Philastrius, Epiphanius, and St. Augustine, of the fourth century. The learncd need scarcely be reminded of the comprehensive digest furnished by Ittigius in the preface to his dissertation on the heresies of the apostolic and post-apostolic ages. A book more within the reach of the general reader is Dr. Burton's Inquiry into the Heresies of the Apostolic Age.

21 [These were: Periander of Corinth, B.C. 585; Pittacus of Mitylene, B.C. 570; Thales of Miletus, B.C. 548: Solon of Athens, B.C.540; Chilo of Sparta, B.C. 597; Bias of Priene; Cleobulus of Lindus, B.C. 564 ]

22 Or, "motions of the stars" (Roeper).