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Pilgrim's Progress, by John Bunyan, [1678], at

 Section VI.
      This Fair is no new-erected business, but a thing of antient standing;
 I will shew you the original of it.
      Almost five thousand years agone, there were Pilgrims walking to the
 Coelestial City, as these two honest persons are; and Beelzebub, Apollyon, and
 Legion, with their Companions, perceiving by the path that the Pilgrims made,
 that their way to the City lay through this Town of Vanity, they contrived
 here to set up a Fair; a Fair wherein should be sold all sorts of Vanity, and
 that it should last all the year long: therefore at this Fair are all such
 Merchandize sold, as Houses, Lands, Trades, Places, Honours, Preferments,
 Titles, Countries, Kingdoms, Lusts, Pleasures, and Delights of all sorts, as
 Whores, Bawds, Wives, Husbands, Children, Masters, Servants, Lives, Blood,
 Bodies, Souls, Silver, Gold, Pearls, Precious Stones, and what not?
      And moreover, at this Fair there is at all times to be seen Jugglings,
 Cheats, Games, Plays, Fools, Apes, Knaves, and Rogues, and that of every kind.
      Here are to be seen too, and that for nothing, Thefts, Murders,
 Adulteries, false-swearers, and that of a blood-red colour.
      And as in other Fairs of less moment, there are the several Rows and
 Streets under their proper names, where such and such Wares are vended; so
 here likewise you have the proper places, Rows, Streets, (viz. Countries and
 Kingdoms) where the Wares of this Fair are soonest to be found: Here is the
 Britain Row, the French Row, the Italian Row, the Spanish Row, the German Row,
 where several sorts of Vanities are to be sold. But as in other Fairs, some
 one commodity is as the chief of all the Fair, so the ware of Rome and her
 Merchandize is greatly promoted in this Fair; only our English nation, with
 some others, have taken a dislike thereat.
      Now, as I said, the way to the Coelestial City lies just through this
 Town where this lusty Fair is kept; and he that will go to City, and yet not
 go through this Town, must needs go out of the world. The Prince of Princes
 himself, when here, went through this Town to his own Country, and that upon a
 Fair-day too; yea, and as I think, it was Beelzebub, the chief Lord of this
 Fair, that invited him to buy of his Vanities: yea, would have made him Lord
 of the Fair, would he but have done him reverence as he went through the Town.
 Yea, because he was such a person of honour, Beelzebub had him from Street to
 Street, and shewed him all the Kingdoms of the World in a little time, that he
 might, (if possible) allure that Blessed One to cheapen and buy some of his
 Vanities; but he had no mind to the Merchandize, and therefore left the Town,
 without laying out so much as one Farthing upon these Vanities. This Fair
 therefore is an antient thing, of long standing, and a very great Fair.
      Now these Pilgrims, as I said, must needs go through this Fair. Well, so
 they did; but behold, even as they entered into the Fair, all the people in
 the Fair were moved, and the Town itself as it were in a hubbub about them;
 and that for several reasons: for
      First, The Pilgrims were cloathed with such kind of Raiment as was
 diverse from the Raiment of any that traded in that Fair. The people therefore
 of the Fair made a great gazing upon them: some said they were Fools, some
 they were Bedlams, and some they are Outlandishmen.
      Secondly, And as they wondered at their Apparel, so they did likewise at
 their Speech; for few could understand what they said: they naturally spoke
 the language of Canaan, but they that kept the Fair were the men of this
 World; so that, from one end of the Fair to the other, they seemed Barbarians
 each to the other.
      Thirdly, But that which did not a little amuse the Merchandizers was,
 that these Pilgrims set very light by all their Wares, they cared not so much
 as to look upon them; and if they called upon them to buy, they would put
 their fingers in their ears, and cry, Turn away mine eyes from beholding
 Vanity, and look upwards, signifying that their trade and traffic was in
      One chanced mockingly, beholding the carriages of the men, to say unto
 them, What will ye buy? But they, looking gravely upon him, answered, We buy
 the Truth. At that there was an occasion taken to despise the men the more;
 some mocking, some taunting, some speaking reproachfully, and some calling
 upon others to smite them. At last things came to a hubbub and great stir in
 the Fair, insomuch that all order was confounded. Now was word presently
 brought to the Great One of the Fair, who quickly came down and deputed some
 of his most trusty friends to take those men into examination, about whom the
 Fair was almost overturned. So the men were brought to examination; and they
 that sat upon them, asked them whence they came, whither they went, and what
 they did there in such an unusual Garb? The men told them that they were
 Pilgrims and Strangers in the World, and that they were going to their own
 Country, which was the Heavenly Jerusalem; and that they had given no occasion
 to the men of the Town, nor yet to the Merchandizers, thus to abuse them, and
 to let them in their Journey, except it was for that, when one asked them what
 they would buy, they said they would buy the Truth. But they that were
 appointed to examine them did not believe them to be any other than Bedlams
 and Mad, or else such as came to put all things into a confusion in the Fair.
 Therefore they took them and beat them, and besmeared them with dirt, and then
 put them into the Cage, that they might be made a spectacle to all the men of
 the Fair.
 Behold Vanity Fair, the Pilgrims there
 Are chained and stand beside:
 Even so it was our Lord passed here,
 And on Mount Calvary died.
      There therefore they lay for some time, and were made the objects of any
 man's sport, or malice, or revenge, the Great One of the Fair laughing still
 at all that befell them. But the men being patient, and not rendering railing
 for railing, but contrariwise blessing, and giving good words for bad, and
 kindness for injuries done, some men in the Fair that were more observing, and
 less prejudiced than the rest, began to check and blame the baser sort for
 their continual abuses done by them to the men; they therefore in angry manner
 let fly at them again, counting them as bad as the men in the Cage, and
 telling them that they seemed confederates, and should be made partakers of
 their misfortunes. The other replied, that for ought they could see, the men
 were quiet, and sober, and intended nobody any harm; and that there were many
 that traded in their Fair that were more worthy to be put into the Cage yea,
 and Pillory too, than were the men that they had abused. Thus, after divers
 words had passed on both sides, (the men behaving themselves all the while
 very wisely and soberly before them) they fell to some blows among themselves,
 and did harm to one another. Then were these two poor men brought before their
 examiners again, and there charged as being guilty of the late hubbub that had
 been in the Fair. So they beat them pitifully and hanged irons upon them, and
 led them in chains up and down the Fair, for an example and a terror to
 others, lest any should speak in their behalf, or join themselves unto them.
 But Christian and Faithful behaved themselves yet more wisely, and received
 the ignominy and shame that was cast upon them, with so much meekness and
 patience, that it won to their side (though but few in comparison of the rest)
 several of the men in the Fair. This put the other party yet into a greater
 rage, insomuch that they concluded the death of these two men. Wherefore they
 threatened, that the Cage, nor irons should serve their turn, but that they
 should die, for the abuse they had done, and for deluding the men of the Fair.
      Then were they re-manded to the Cage again, until further order should
 be taken with them. So they put them in, and made their feet fast in the
      Here also they called again to mind what they had heard from their
 faithful friend Evangelist, and were the more confirmed in their way and
 sufferings, by what he told them would happen to them. They also now comforted
 each other, that whose lot it was to suffer, even he should have the best
 on't; therefore each man secretly wished that he might have that preferment:
 but committing themselves to the All-wise dispose of Him that ruleth all
 things, with much content they abode in the condition in which they were,
 until they should be otherwise disposed of.
      Then a convenient time being appointed, they brought them forth to their
 Tryal, in order to their condemnation. When the time was come, they were
 brought before their enemies, and arraigned. The Judge's name was Lord
 Hategood. Their Indictment was one and the same in substance, though somewhat
 varying in form, the contents whereof was this:
      That they were enemies to and disturbers of their Trade; that they had
 made Commotions and Divisions in the Town, and had won a party to their own
 most dangerous Opinions in contempt of the Law of their Prince.
 Now Faithful play the Man, speak for thy God:
 Fear not the wicked's malice, nor their rod:
 Speak boldly man, the Truth is on thy side;
 Die for it, and to Life in triumph ride.
      Then Faithful began to answer, that he had only set himself against that
 which had set itself against Him that is higher than the highest. And said he,
 as for Disturbance, I make none, being myself a man of Peace; the parties that
 were won to us, were won by beholding our Truth and Innocence, and they are
 only turned from the worse to the better. And as to the King you talk of,
 since he is Beelzebub, the enemy of Our Lord, I defy him and all his Angels.
      Then Proclamation was made, that they that had ought to say for their
 Lord the King against the Prisoner at the Bar, should forthwith appear and
 give in their evidence. So there came in three witnesses, to wit, Envy,
 Superstition, and Pickthank. They were then asked if they knew the Prisoner at
 the Bar; and what they had to say for their Lord the King against him.
      Then stood forth Envy, and said to this effect: My lord, I have known
 this man a long time, and will attest upon my Oath before this honourable
 Bench, that he is -
      Judge. Hold! Give him his Oath.
      So they sware him. Then he said, My Lord, this man, notwithstanding his
 plausible name, is one of the vilest men in our Country. He neither regardeth
 Prince nor People, Law nor Custom; but doth all that he can to possess all men
 with certain of his disloyal notions, which he in the general calls Principles
 of Faith and Holiness. And in particular, I heard him once myself affirm That
 Christianity and the Customs of our Town of Vanity were diametrically
 opposite, and could not be reconciled. By which saying, my Lord, he doth at
 once not only condemn all our laudable doings, but us in the doing of them.
      Judge. Then did the Judge say to him, Hast thou any more to say?
      Envy. My Lord, I could say much more, only I would not be tedious to the
 Court. Yet if need be, when the other Gentlemen have given in their Evidence,
 rather than anything shall be wanting that will dispatch him, I will enlarge
 my Testimony against him. So he was bid stand by.
      Then they called Superstition, and bid him look upon the Prisoner. They
 also asked, what he could say for their Lord the King against him? Then they
 sware him; so he began:
      Super. My Lord, I have no great acquaintance with this man, nor do I
 desire to have further knowledge of him; however, this I know, that he is a
 very pestilent fellow, from some discourse that the other day I had with him
 in this Town; for then talking with him, I heard him say, That our Religion
 was naught, and such by which a man could by no means please God. Which
 sayings of his, my Lord, your Lordship very well knows, what necessarily
 thence will follow, to wit, That we still do worship in vain, are yet in our
 sins, and finally shall be damned; and this is that which I have to say.
      Then was Pickthank sworn, and bid say what he knew, in behalf of their
 Lord the King, against the Prisoner at the Bar.
      Pick. My Lord, and you Gentlemen all, This fellow I have known of a long
 time, and have heard him speak things that ought not to be spoke; for he hath
 railed on our noble Prince Beelzebub, and hath spoken contemptibly of his
 honourable Friends, whose names are the Lord Old Man, the Lord Carnal Delight,
 the Lord Luxurious, the Lord Desire of Vain Glory, my old Lord Lechery, Sir
 Having Greedy, with all the rest of our Nobility; and he hath said moreover,
 That if all men were of his mind, if possible, there is not one of these Noble
 men should have any longer a being in this Town; besides, he hath not been
 afraid to rail on you, my Lord, who are now appointed to be his Judge, calling
 you an ungodly villain, with many other such-like valifying terms, with
 which he hath bespattered most of the Gentry of our Town.
      When this Pickthank had told his tale, the Judge directed his speech to
 the Prisoner at the Bar, saying, Thou Runagate, Heretick, and Traitor, hast
 thou heard what these honest Gentlemen have witnessed against thee?
      Faith. May I speak a few words in my own defence?
      Judge. Sirrah, sirrah, thou deservedst to live no longer, but to be slain
 immediately upon the place; yet that all men may see our gentleness towards
 thee, let us see what thou hast to say.
      Faith. 1. I say then, in answer to what Mr Envy hath spoken, I never said
 ought but this, That what Rule, or Laws, or Customs, or People, were flat
 against the Word of God, are diametrically opposite to Christianity. If I have
 said amiss in this, convince me of my error, and I am ready here before you to
 make my recantation.
      2. As to the second, to wit, Mr Superstition, and his charge against me,
 I said only this, That in the worship of God there is required a Divine Faith;
 but there can be no Divine Faith without a Divine Revelation of the will of
 God: therefore whatever is thrust into the Worship of God that is not
 agreeable to Divine Revelation, cannot be done but by a human faith, which
 faith will not be profit to Eternal Life.
      3. As to what Mr Pickthank hath said, I say, (avoiding terms, as that I
 am said to rail, and the like) that the Prince of this Town, with all the
 rabblement his attendants, by this Gentleman named, are more fit for a being
 in Hell, than in his Town and Country: and so, the Lord have mercy upon me.
      Then the Judge called to the Jury (who all this while stood by, to hear
 and observe) Gentlemen of the Jury, you see this man about whom so great an
 uproar hath been made in this Town: you have also heard what these worthy
 Gentlemen have witnessed against him: also you have heard his reply and
 confession: It lieth now in your breasts to hang him, or save his life; but
 yet I think meet to instruct you into our Law.
      There was an Act made in the days of Pharaoh the Great, Servant to our
 Prince, that lest those of a contrary Religion should multiply and grow too
 strong for him, their Males should be thrown into the river. There was also an
 Act made in the days of Nebuchadnezzar the Great, another of his Servants,
 that whoever would not fall down and worship his Golden Image, should be
 thrown into a Fiery Furnace. There was also an Act made in the days of Darius,
 that whoso, for some time, called upon any God but him, should be cast into
 the Lion's Den. Now the substance of these Laws this Rebel has broken, not
 only in thought (which is not to be borne) but also in word and deed; which
 must therefore needs be intolerable.
      For that of Pharaoh, his Law was made upon a supposition, to prevent
 mischief, na Crime being yet apparent; but here is a Crime apparent. For the
 second and third, you see he disputeth against our Religion; and for the
 Treason he hath confessed, he deserveth to die the death.
      Then went the Jury out, whose names were, Mr Blindman, Mr No-good, Mr
 Malice, Mr Love-lust, Mr Live-loose, Mr Heady, Mr High-mind, Mr Enmity,
 Mr Lyar, Mr Cruelty, Mr Hate-light, and Mr Implacable; who every one gave in
 his private Verdict against him among themselves, and afterwards unanimously
 concluded to bring him in guilty before the Judge. And first among themselves,
 Mr Blind-man the Foreman, said, I see clearly that this man is an Heretick.
 Then said Mr Nogood, Away with such a fellow from the earth. Ay, said Mr
 Malice, for I hate the very looks of him. Then said Mr Love-lust, I could
 never endure him. Nor I, said Mr Live-loose, for he would always be
 condemning my way. Hang him, hang him, said Mr Heady. A sorry Scrub, said Mr
 High-mind. My heart riseth against him, said Mr Enmity. He is a Rogue, said
 Mr Lyar. Hanging is too good for him, said Mr Cruelty. Let us dispatch him out
 of the way, said Mr Hate-light. Then said Mr Implacable, Might I have all
 the world given me, I could not be reconciled to him; therefore let us
 forthwith bring him in guilty of death. And so they did; therefore he was
 presently condemned to be had from the place where he was, to the place from
 whence he came, and there to be put to the most cruel death that could be
      They therefore brought him out, to do with him according to their Law;
 and first they Scourged him, then they Buffeted him, then they Lanced his
 flesh with Knives; after that they Stoned him with stones, then pricked him
 with their Swords; and last of all they burned him to ashes at the Stake. Thus
 came Faithful to his end.
      Now I saw that there stood behind the multitude a Chariot and a couple of
 Horses, waiting for Faithful, who (so soon as his adversaries had dispatched
 him) was taken up into it, and straitway was carried up through the Clouds,
 with sound of Trumpet, the nearest way to the Coelestial Gate.
 Brave Faithful, bravely done in word and deed;
 Judge, Witnesses, and Jury have, instead
 Of overcoming thee, but shewn their rage:
 When they are Dead, thou'lt Live from age to age.
      But as for Christian, he had some respite, and was remanded back to
 prison; so he there remained for a space: But he that over-rules all things,
 having the power of their rage in his own hand, so wrought it about, that
 Christian for that time escaped them, and went his way. And as he went he
 sang, saying,
 Well Faithful, thou hast faithfully profest
 Unto thy Lord; with whom thou shalt be blest,
 When faithless ones, with all their vain delights,
 Are crying out under their hellish plights:
 Sing, Faithful, sing, and let thy name survive;
 For though they kill'd thee, thou art yet alive.
      Now I saw in my Dream, that Christian went not forth alone, for there was
 one whose name was Hopeful, (being made so by the beholding of Christian and
 Faithful in their words and behaviour, in their sufferings at the Fair) who
 joined himself unto him, and entering into a brotherly covenant, told him that
 he would be his Companion. Thus one died to make Testimony to the Truth, and
 another rises out of his ashes to be a Companion with Christian in his
 Pilgrimage. This Hopeful also told Christian, that there were many more of the
 men in the Fair that would take their time and follow after.
      So I saw that quickly after they were go out of the Fair, they overtook
 one that was going before them, whose name was By-ends: so they said to him,
 What Country-man, Sir? and how far go you this way? He told them that he
 came from the Town of Fair-speech, and he was going to the Coelestial City,
 (but told them not his name.)
      From Fair-speech, said Christian. Is there any good that lives there?
      By-ends. Yes, said By-ends, I hope.
      Chr. Pray Sir, what may I call you?
      By-ends. I am a Stranger to you, and you to me: if you be going this
 way, I shall be glad of your company; if not, I must be content.
      Chr. This Town of Fair-speech, said Christian, I have heard of it, and,
 as I remember, they say it's a wealthy place.
      By-ends. Yes, I will assure you that it is; and I have very many rich
 Kindred there.
      Chr. Pray, who are your Kindred there? if a man may be so bold.
      By-ends. Almost the whole Town; and in particular, my Lord Turn -
 about, my Lord Time-server, my Lord Fair-speech, (from whose ancestors
 that Town first took its name) also Mr Smooth-man, Mr Facing-both-ways,
 Mr Anything; and the Parson of our Parish, Mr Two-tongues, was my Mother's
 own Brother by Father's side; and to tell you the truth, I am become a
 Gentleman of good Quality, yet my Great Grandfather was but a waterman,
 looking one way and rowing another; and I got most of my estate by the same
      Chr. Are you a married man?
      By-ends. Yes, and my Wife is a very virtuous woman, the Daughter of a
 virtuous woman; she was my Lady Feigning's Daughter, therefore she came of a
 very honourable Family, and is arrived to such a pitch of breeding, that she
 knows how to carry it to all, even to Prince and Peasant. 'Tis true we
 somewhat differ in Religion from those of the stricter sort, yet but in two
 small points: First, we never strive against Wind and Tide: Secondly, we are
 always most zealous when Religion goes in his Silver Slippers; we love much to
 walk with him in the Street, if the Sun shines, and the people applaud him.
      Then Christian stepped a little aside to his fellow Hopeful, saying, It
 runs in my mind that this is one By-ends of Fair-speech, and if it be he, we
 have as very a Knave in our company as dwelleth in all these parts. Then said
 Hopeful, Ask him; methinks he should not be ashamed of his name. So Christian
 came up with him again, and said, Sir, you talk as if you knew something more
 than all the world doth; and if I take not my mark amiss, I deem I have half a
 guess of you: Is not your name Mr. By-ends of Fair-speech?
      By-ends. This is not my name, but indeed it is a nickname that is given
 me by some that cannot abide me; and I must be content to bear it as a
 reproach, as other good men have borne theirs before me.
      Chr. But did you never give an occasion to men to call you by this name?
      By-ends. Never, never! The worst that ever I did to give them an
 occasion to give me this name, was, that I had always the luck to jump in my
 Judgment with the present way of the times whatever it was, and my chance was
 to get thereby; but if things are thus cast upon me, let me count them a
 blessing, but let not the malicious load me therefore with reproach.
      Chr. I thought indeed that you were the man that I heard of, and to tell
 you what I think, I fear this name belongs to you more properly than you are
 willing we should think it doth.
      By-ends. Well, if you will thus imagine, I cannot help it; you shall
 find me a fair company-keeper, if you will still admit me your associate.
      Chr. If you will go with us, you must go against Wind and Tide, the
 which, I perceive, is against your opinion; you must also own Religion in his
 Rags, as well as when in his Silver Slippers, and stand by him too, when bound
 in Irons, as well as when he walketh the Streets with applause.
      By ends. You must not impose, nor lord it over my Faith; leave me to my
 liberty, and let me go with you.
      Chr. Not a step further, unless you will do in what I propound, as we.
      Then said by-ends, I shall never desert my old Principles, since they
 are harmless and profitable. If I may not go with you, I must do as I did
 before you overtook me, even go by myself, until some overtake me that will be
 glad of my company.
      Now I saw in my Dream that Christian and Hopeful forsook him, and kept
 their distance before him; but one of them looking back, saw three men
 following Mr By-ends, and behold, as they came-up with him, he made them a
 very low congee, and they also gave him a compliment. The men's names were Mr
 Hold-the-world, Mr Money-love, and Mr Save-all; men that Mr By-ends had
 formerly been acquainted with; for in their minority they were School-fellows,
 and were taught by one Mr Gripe-man, a School-master in Love-gain, which is a
 Market-town in the County of Coveting, in the North. This School-master
 taught them the Art of Getting, either by violence, cousenage, flattery,
 lying, or by putting on a guise of Religion; and these four Gentlemen had
 attained much of the Art of their Master, so that they could each of them have
 kept such a School themselves.
      Well when they had, as I said, thus saluted each other, Mr Money-love
 said to Mr By-ends, Who are they upon the Road before us? For Christian and
 Hopeful were yet within view.
      By ends. They are a couple of far country-men, that after their mode
 are going on Pilgrimage.
      Money-love. Alas! Why did they not stay, that we might have had their
 good company? for they, and we, and you Sir, I hope are all going on a
      By-ends. We are so indeed; but the men before us are so rigid, and love
 so much their own notions, and do also so lightly esteem the opinions of
 others, that let a man be never so godly, yet if he jumps not with them in all
 things, they thrust him quite out of their company.
      Save-all. That's bad; but we read of some that are righteous overmuch;
 and such men's rigidness prevails with them to judge and condemn all but
 themselves. But I pray what, and how many, were the things wherein you
      By-ends. Why they after their head-strong manner, conclude that it is
 duty to rush on their Journey all weathers, and I am for waiting for Wind and
 Tide. They are for hazarding all for God at a clap, and I am for taking all
 advantages to secure my Life and Estate. They are for holding their notions,
 though all other men are against them; but I am for Religion in what, and so
 far as the times and my safety will bear it. They are for Religion when in
 Rags and Contempt; but I am for him when he walks in his Golden Slippers in
 the Sunshine, and with applause.
      Hold-the-world. Ay, and hold you there still, good Mr By-ends; for
 for my part I can count him but a Fool, that having the liberty to keep what
 he has, shall be so unwise as to lose it. Let us be wise as Serpents; 'tis
 best to make hay when the Sun shines; you see how the Bee lieth still all
 winter, and bestirs her only when she can have Profit with Pleasure. God sends
 sometimes Rain, and sometimes Sun-shine; if they be such fools to go through
 the first, yet let us be content to take fair weather along with us. For my
 part I like that Religion best that will stand with the security of God's good
 blessings unto us; for who can imagine that is ruled by his Reason, since God
 has bestowed upon us the good things of this Life, but that he would have us
 keep them for his sake! Abraham and Solomon grew rich in Religion. And Job
 says, that a good man shall lay up Gold as Dust. But he must not be such as
 the men before us, if they be as you have described them.
      Save-all. I think that we are all agreed in this matter, and therefore
 there needs no more words about it.
      Money-love. No, there needs no more words about this matter indeed; for
 he that believes neither Scripture nor Reason (and you see we have both on our
 side) neither knows his own liberty, nor seeks his own safety.
      By-ends. My Brethren, we are, as you see, going all on Pilgrimage; and
 for our better diversion from things that are bad, give me leave to propound
 unto you this question:

Next: Pilgrim's Progress: Part One, Section VII.