Sacred-texts  Buddhism  Zen




Song of Precious Mirror Samadhi

Pao-ching San-mei-ko

By Ch'an Master Tung-shan Liang-chieh



Title of the Text

Author of the Text

The Pao-ching San-mei-ko

The Original Chinese Text

The Chinese Text with Japanese "Current Characters"

Variant Characters in Different Versions of the Text

Translation of the Text

Japanese Transcription of the Text




Title of the Text



Pao-ching San-mei-ko (Wade-Giles)

Baojing Sanmeige (Pinyin) Bao3jing4 San1mei4ge1

Hõkyõ Zanmaika (Japanese)

Literally, Treasure Mirror Samâdhi Song/Poem


The poem is usually known as Hõkyõ Zammai (Precious Mirror Samâdhi 寶鏡三昧、宝鏡三昧).


Various Translations of the Title

1. The Song of the Jeweled Mirror Samadhi (Toshu John Neatrour, Sheng-yen, Kazu Tanahashi)

2. Song of the Jewel Mirror Samadhi

3. Sacred Mirror Samadhi (Daisetsu Teitarõ Suzuki)

4. Samadhi of the Invaluable Mirror

5. Song of the Bright Mirror Samadhi


Author of the Text



Tung-shan Liang-chieh (Wade-Giles)

Dongshan Liangjia (Pinyin) Dong4shan1 Liang2jia4

Tõzan Ryõkai (Japanese)


Tung-shan Liang-chieh (Tõzan Ryõkai, 807-869) is the founder of the Ts'ao-tung (Sõtõ) School of Zen Buddhism. He was a contemporary of Lin-chi I-hsüan (Rinzai Gigen, d.866 臨済義玄).

Tung-shan Liang-chieh is also known as Wu-pen Ta-shih (Gohon Daishi 悟本大).

In Japanese, his name (Tung-shan) is pronounced either as Tõzan or as Tõsan.

His sayings and teaching were compiled in Tung-shan Ch'an-shih Liang-chieh Yü-lu (Tõzan Ryõkai Zenji Goroku 洞山良价禪師語録) (Dainihon Zokuzõkyõ, vol. 2 No. 24 大日本續藏經).


"Tõsan Ryõkai practiced first under Nansen1 and Isan2, but it was from the master Ungan Donjõ3 that he finally received the Seal. His manner of instructing and leading his disciples was mild, without stick or shout. In silent introspection they were to seek the enlightenment which must manifest itself in the activities of daily life."

(The Development of Chinese Zen After the Sixth Patriarch 25)


"While Tung-shan Liang-chih was still a boy a Vinaya teacher made him study the Hridaya Sûtra4, and tried to explain the sentence, 'There is no eye, no nose, . . .' But Liang-chih surveyed his teacher scrutinizingly with his eye, and then touched his own body with his hand, and finally said, 'You have a pair of eyes, and the other sense-organs, and I am also provided with them. Why does the Buddha tell us that there are no such things?' The Vinaya teacher was surprised at his question and told him: 'I am not capable of being your teacher. You be ordained by a Zen master, for you will some day be a great teacher of the Mahâyâna.' "

(Essays in Zen Buddhism – Third Series 237-8)


"Yun-mên5 asked Tung-shan: 'Whence do you come?' 'From Chia-tu.' 'Where did you pass the summer session?' 'At Pao-tzu, in Hu-nan.' 'When did you come here?' 'August the twenty-fifth.' Yun-mên concluded, 'I release you from thirty blows [though you rightly deserve them].'

         On Tung-shan's interview with Mên, Tai-hui comments:

         How simple-hearted Tung-shan was! He answered the master straightforwardly, and so it was natural for him to reflect, 'What fault did I commit for which I was to be given thirty blows when I replied as truthfully as I could?' The day following he appeared again before the master and asked, 'Yesterday you were pleased to release me from thirty blows, but I fail to realize my own fault?' Said Yun-mên, 'Oh you rice-bag, this is the way you wander from the West of the river to the south of the Lake!' This remark all of a sudden opened Tung-shan's eye, and yet he had nothing to communicate, nothing to reason about. He simply bowed, and said, 'After this I shall build my little hut where there is no human habitation; not a grain of rice will be kept in my pantry, not a stalk of vegetable will be growing on my farm; and yet I will abundantly treat all the visitors to my hermitage from all parts of the world; and I will even draw off all the nails and screws [that are holding them to a stake]; I will make them part with their greasy hats and ill-smelling clothes, so that they are thoroughly cleansed of dirt and become worthy monks.' Yun-mên smiled and said, 'What a large mouth you have for a body no larger than a coconut!' " (Essays in Zen Buddhism – Second Series 28)


"While scholars of the Avatamsaka School6 were making use of the intuitions of Zen in their own way, the Zen masters were drawn towards the philosophy of Indentity and Interpenetration advocated by the Avatamsaka, and attempted to incorporate it into their own discourses. For instance, Shih-t'ou7 in his 'Ode on Identity'8 depicts the mutuality of Light and Dark as restricting each other and at the same time being fused in each other; Tung-shan in his metrical composition called 'Sacred Mirror Samadhi' discourses on the mutuality of P'ien9, 'one-sided', and Chêng10, 'correct', much to the same effect as Shih-t'ou in his Ode, for both Shih-t'ou and Tung-shan belong to the school of Hsing-szu known as the Ts'ao-tung11 branch of Zen Buddhism. This idea of Mutuality and Indentity is no doubt derived from Avatamsaka philosophy, so ably formulated by Fa-tsang. As both Shih-t'ou and Tung-shan are Zen masters, their way of presenting it is not at all like that of the metaphysician." (Essays in Zen Buddhism – Third Series 19)


"Tung-shan's poem, which was composed when he saw his reflection in the stream which he was crossing at the time, may give us some glimpse into his inner experience of the Prajñâpâramitâ:


            Beware of seeking [the Truth] by others,

            Further and further he retreats from you;

            Alone I go now all by myself,

            And I meet him everywhere I turn.

            He is no other than myself,

            And yet I am not he.

            When thus understood,

            I am face to face with Tathatâ."

            (Essays in Zen Buddhism – Third Series 238)


            Long seeking it through others,

            I was far from reaching it.

            Now I go by myself;

            I meet it everywhere.

            It is just I myself,

            And I am not itself.

            Understanding this way,

            I can be as I am.

            (Two Zen Classics 267)


            Do not seek from another,

            Or you will be estranged from self.

            I now go on alone,

            Finding I meet It everywhere.

            It now is I,

            I now am not It.

            One should understand in this way

            To merge with suchness as is.

            (Transmission of Light 38)


            Don't seek from others,

            Or you'll be estranged from yourself.

            I now go on alone—

            Everywhere I encounter It.

            It now is me, I now am not It.

            One must understand in this way

            To merge with being as is.

            (Transmission of Light 167)


Wu-men Kuan (Mumonkan) Case 15 Tung-shan's Sixty Blows  十五 洞山三頓


Tung-shan came to study with Yün-men (Unmon). Yün-men asked, "Where are you from?"


"From Cha-tu (Sato)," Tung-shan replied.


"Where were you during the summer?"


"Well, I was at the monastery of Pao-tz'u (Hõzu), south of the lake."


"When did you leave there," Yün-men asked.


"On August 25" was Tung-shan's reply.


"I spare you sixty blows," Yün-men said.


The next day Tung-shan came to Yün-men and said, "Yesterday you said you spared me sixty blows.


I beg to ask you, where was I at fault?"


"Oh, you rice bag!" shouted Yün-men. "What makes you wander about, now west of the river, now south of the lake?"


Tung-shan thereupon came to a mighty enlightenment experience.

Wu-men's Comment


If Yün-men had given Tung-shan the true food of Zen and encouraged him to develop an active Zen spirit, his school would not have declined as it did.


Tung-shan had an agonizing struggle through the whole night, lost in the sea of right and wrong. He reached a complete impasse. After waiting for the dawn, he again went to Yün-men, and Yün-men again made him a picture book of Zen.

(Two Zen Classics 61-2)


Wu-men Kuan (Mumonkan) Case 18 Tung-shan's "Ma san chin"  十八 洞山三斤


A monk asked Tung-shan, "What is Buddha?"


Tung-shan replied, "Ma san chin!" (Masagin) [three pounds of flax].

(Two Zen Classics 71)



1  Nan-ch'üan P'u-yüan (Nansen Fugan, 748-834 南泉普願)

2  Wei-shan Ling-yu (Isan Reiyû 771-853 山靈祐)

3  Yün-yen T'an-cheng (Ungan Donjõ 782-841 雲巖曇晟)

4  The Heart Sûtra (Hannya Shingyõ 般若心經、般若心経)

   Maka Hannya Haramita Shingyõ (摩訶般若波羅蜜多心經、摩訶般若波羅蜜多心経)

   "Heart Sutra (Skt. Mahâprajñapâramitâ-hridaya-sûtra, Jap., Maka hannyaharamita shingyõ, roughly "Heartpiece of the

   'Prajñapâramitâ-sûtra'); shortest of the forty sûtras that constitute the Prajñapâramitâ-sûtra."

   (The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion 128)

5  Yün-men Wen-yen (Unmon Bun'en, 864?-949 雲門文偃)

   Also known as K'uang-chen Ch'an-shih (Kyõshin Zenji 匡眞禪師)

6  Hua-yen-tsung (Kegonshû 華嚴宗)

7  Shih-t'ou Hsi-ch'ien (Sekitõ Kisen, 700-790 石頭希遷)

8  Ts'an-t'ung-ch'i (Sandõkai 參同契)

9  One-sided (p'ien, hen )

10 Correct (cheng, shõ )

11 Ts'ao-tung (Sõtõ 曹洞)



The Pao-ching San-mei-ko


The Pao-ching San-mei-ko is one of the most famous Zen poems. The poem is regarded a sûtra in the Sõtõ Sect, within which it occupies an important position as a scripture. The text is found in Taishõ Daizõkyõ, vol. 47, No. 515 a-b (大正大藏經、大正大蔵経).


"One of the Five Classics, I Jing1 (Book of Changes) is a system of divination based on the permutations of yin and yang, examining present tendencies toward change as represented through the use of six-line combinations of broken and unbroken lines, called hexagrams. Dongshan Liangjie refers expressly to this work in his famous poem, Baojing sanmei ke (Song of the Jewel Mirror Samadhi), a core-text of Cao-Dong2: "It is like the six lines of the double split hexagram; the relative and absolute integrate – piled up, they make the three; the complete transformation makes five."3 Indeed, Dongshan's teaching of the Five Ranks4 can also be understood as a diagrammatic explanation of the interaction between yin and yang, transposed into a Buddhist context."



1  I Ching (Ekikyõ 易經、易経)

2  Ts'ao-tung (Sõtõ 曹洞)

3  重離六爻、偏正回互。疊而成三、變盡爲五。

4  Wu-wei (Goi 五位)



The Original Chinese Text











The Chinese Text with Japanese "Current Characters"


In the following text, the obsolete characters in the original text are replaced with newer, simplified or slightly altered characters used in contemporary Japanese, known as Tõyõ Kanji. These newer characters are indicated with gray color. Also, in the Japanese versions of the text, some Chinese characters are replaced with similar characters. These characters are indicated with blue color.











Variant Characters in Different Versions of the Text


         Line  Japanese Version                  Chinese Version


□□□□ □善□□

X □□ □□□□     Code: &C3-325B

髏之弗齊 □□□□

□□倶□ □□□□

□□□□ □□□

□□□□ □□□

不是□ □□□□

□□□ □□□□

□□□ □□

通宗□□ □□□□

□□□ □□□□

羿□□□ □□□□

□□□ □□□□

□□□□ □□

但□□□ □□□□

         2       汝今得之 宜能保護

         3       銀碗盛雪 明月藏鷺

         4       類而不齊 混則知

         7       共非 如大火聚

         10      爲物作則 用抜諸苦

         12      如臨寶鏡 形影相覩

         13      汝是非渠 渠正是汝

         14      如世嬰児 五相完具

         19      疊而成三 變盡爲五

         30      宗通趣極 眞常流注

         31      外寂内搖 繋駒伏鼠

         40      藝以巧力 射中百歩

         41      箭鋒相値 巧力何預

         46      潛行密用 如愚如魯

         47      只能相 名主中主


Translation of the Text




Song of Precious Mirror Samadhi


如是之法 佛祖密附  The dharma of thusness is intimately transmitted by buddhas and ancestors.

汝今得之 宜能保護  Now you have it; preserve it well.

銀碗盛雪 明月藏鷺  A silver bowl filled with snow, a heron hidden in the moon.

類而不斉 混則知處  Taken as similar, they are not the same; not distinguished, their places are known.

意不在言 來機亦赴  The meaning does not reside in the words, but a pivotal moment brings it forth.

動成臼 差落顧佇  Move and you are trapped, miss and you fall into doubt and vacillation.

背觸共非 如大火聚  Turning away and touching are both wrong, for it is like a massive fire.

但形文彩 即屬染汚  Just to portray it in literary form is to stain it with defilement.

夜半正明 天曉不露  In darkest night it is perfectly clear; in the light of dawn it is hidden.

爲物作則 用抜諸苦  It is a standard for all things; its use removes all suffering.

雖非有爲 不是無語  Although it is not constructed, it is not beyond words.

如臨寶鏡 形影相覩  Like facing a precious mirror; form and reflection behold each other.

汝是非渠 渠正是汝  You are not it, but in truth it is you.

如世嬰児 五相完具  Like a newborn child, it is fully endowed with five aspects:

不去不來 不起不住  No going, no coming, no arising, no abiding;

婆婆和和 有句無句  P'o-p'o han-han – is anything said or not?

終不得物 語未正故  In the end it says nothing, for the words are not yet right.

重離六爻 偏正回互  In the hexagram "double fire," when main and subsidiary lines are transposed,

疊而成三 變盡爲五  Piled up they become three; the permutations make five.

如茎草味 如金剛杵  Like the taste of the five-flavored herb, like the five-pronged vajra.

正中妙挾 敲唱雙舉  Wondrously embraced within the complete, drumming and singing begin together.

通宗通途 挾帯挾路  Penetrate the source and travel the pathways, embrace the territory and treasure the roads.

錯然則吉 不可犯忤  You would do well to respect this; do not neglect it.

天眞而妙 不屬迷悟  Natural and wondrous, it is not a matter of delusion or enlightenment.

因縁時節 寂然昭著  Within causes and conditions, time and season, it is serene and illuminating.

細入無間 大絶方所  So minute it enters where there is no gap, so vast it transcends dimension.

毫忽之差 不應律呂  A hairsbreadth's deviation, and you are out tune.

今有頓漸 縁立宗趣  Now there are sudden and gradual, in which teachings and approaches arise.

宗趣分矣 即是規矩  With teachings and approaches distinguished, each has its standard.

宗通趣極 眞常流注  Whether teachings and approaches are mastered or not, reality constantly flows.

外寂内搖 繋駒伏鼠  Outside still and inside trembling, like tethered colts or cowering rats.

先聖悲之 爲法檀度  The ancient sages grieved for them, and offered them the dharma.

隨其顛倒 以緇爲素  Led by their inverted views, they take black for white.

顛倒想滅 肯心自許  When inverted thinking stops, the affirming mind naturally accords.

要合古轍 請觀前古  If you want to follow in the ancient tracks, please observe the sages of the past.

佛道垂成 十劫觀樹  One on the verge of realizing the Buddha Way contemplated a tree for ten kalpas.

如虎之缺 如馬之   Like a battle-scarred tiger, like a horse with shanks gone grey.

以有下劣 寶几珍御  Because some are vulgar, jeweled tables and ornate robes.

以有驚異 狸奴白   Because others are wide-eyed, cats and white oxen.

藝以巧力 射中百歩  With his archer's skill, Yi hit the mark at a hundred paces.

箭鋒相値 巧力何預  But when arrows meet head-on, how could it be a matter of skill?

木人方歌 石女起舞  The wooden man starts to sing, the stone woman gets up dancing.

非情識到 寧容思慮  It is not reached by feelings or consciousness, how could it involve deliberation?

臣奉於君 子順於父  Ministers serve their lords, children obey their parents.

不順不孝 不奉非輔  Not obeying is not filial, failure to serve is no help.

潛行密用 如愚如魯  With practice hidden, function secretly, like a fool, like an idiot.

只能相續 名主中主  Just to continue in this way is called the host within the host.




The Song of the Jeweled Mirror Samadhi

Translated by Toshu John Neatrour, Sheng-yen, and Kazu Tanahashi


如是之法 佛祖密附   The teaching of suchness, is given directly, through all buddha ancestors,

汝今得之 宜能保護   Now that it's yours, keep it well.

銀碗盛雪 明月藏鷺   A serving of snow in a silver bowl, or herons concealed in the glare of the moon

類而不斉 混則知處   Apart, they seem similar, together, they're different.

意不在言 來機亦赴   Meaning cannot rest in words, it adapts itself to that which arises.

動成臼 差落顧佇   Tremble and you're lost in a trap, miss and there's always regrets.

背觸共非 如大火聚   Neither reject nor cling to words, both are wrong; like a ball of fire,

但形文彩 即屬染汚   Useful but dangerous. Merely expressed in fine language, the mirror will tarnish.

夜半正明 天曉不露   At midnight truly it's most bright, by daylight it cannot still be seen.

爲物作則 用抜諸苦   It is the principle that regulates all, relieving every suffering.

雖非有爲 不是無語   Though it doesn't act it is not without words.

如臨寶鏡 形影相覩   In the most precious mirror form meets reflection:

汝是非渠 渠正是汝   You are not It, but It is all you.

如世嬰児 五相完具   Just as a baby, five senses complete,

不去不來 不起不住   Neither going or coming, nor arising or staying,

婆婆和和 有句無句   Babbles and coos: speech without meaning,

終不得物 語未正故   No understanding, unclearly expressed.

重離六爻 偏正回互   Six lines make the double li trigram, where principle and appearances interact.

疊而成三 變盡爲五   Lines stacked in three pairs yet transform in five ways.

如茎草味 如金剛杵   Like the five flavors of the hyssop plant or the five branches of the diamond scepter,

正中妙挾 敲唱雙舉   Reality harmonizes subtly just as melody and rhythm, together make music.

通宗通途 挾帯挾路   Penetrate the root and you fathom the branches, grasping connections, one then finds the road.

錯然則吉 不可犯忤   To be wrong is auspicious, there's no contradiction.

天眞而妙 不屬迷悟   Naturally pure and profoundly subtle, it touches neither delusion nor awakening,

因縁時節 寂然昭著   At each time and condition it quietly shines.

細入無間 大絶方所   So fine it penetrates no space at all, so large its bounds can never be measured.

毫忽之差 不應律呂   But if you're off by a hair's breadth all harmony's lost in discord.

今有頓漸 縁立宗趣   Now there are sudden and gradual schools with principles, approaches so standards arise.

宗趣分矣 即是規矩    Penetrating the principle,

宗通趣極 眞常流注   Mastering the approach, the genuine constant continues outflowing.

外寂内搖 繋駒伏鼠   A tethered horse, a mouse frozen in fear, outwardly still but inwardly whirling:

先聖悲之 爲法檀度   Compassionate sages freed them with teaching.

隨其顛倒 以緇爲素   In upside down ways folks take black for white.

顛倒想滅 肯心自許   When inverted thinking falls away they realize mind without even trying.

要合古轍 請觀前古   If you want to follow the ancient path then consider the ancients:

佛道垂成 十劫觀樹   The buddha, completing the path, still sat for ten eons.

如虎之缺 如馬之     Like a tiger leaving a trace of the prey, like a horse missing the left hind shoe,

以有下劣 寶几珍御   For those whose ability is under the mark, a jeweled footrest and brocaded robe.

以有驚異 狸奴白     For others who still can manifest wonder there's a house cat and cow.

藝以巧力 射中百歩   Yi the archer shot nine of ten suns from the sky, saving parched crops, another bowman hit targets at hundreds of paces:

箭鋒相値 巧力何預   These skills are small to compare with that in which two arrow points meet head on in mid air.

木人方歌 石女起舞   The wooden man breaks into song, a stone maiden leaps up to dance,

非情識到 寧容思慮   They can't be known by mere thought or feelings, so how can they be analyzed?

臣奉於君 子順於父   The minister still serves his lord, the child obeys his parent.

不順不孝 不奉非輔   Not obeying is unfilial, not serving is a useless waste.

潛行密用 如愚如魯   Practicing inwardly, functioning in secret, playing the fool, seemingly stupid,

只能相續 名主中主   If you can only persist in this way, you will see the lord within the lord.



Japanese Transcription of the Text



Hõkyõ Zanmaika


如是之法 佛祖密附   Nyoze no hõ Busso mitsu ni fusu.

汝今得之 宜能保護   Nanji ima kore o etari, yoroshiku yoku hõgo subeshi.

銀碗盛雪 明月藏鷺   Ginwan ni yuki o mori, meigetsu ni ro o kakusu.

類而不斉 混則知處   Rui shite hitoshikarazu. Konzuru tokinba tokoro o shiru.

意不在言 來機亦赴   Kokoro koto ni arazareba, raiki mata omomuku.

動成臼 差落顧佇   Dõzureba kakyu o nashi, tagaeba kocho ni otsu.

背觸共非 如大火聚   Haisoku tomo ni hi nari. Daijaku no gotoshi.

但形文彩 即屬染汚   Tada monsai ni arawaseba, sunawachi zenna ni zokusu.

夜半正明 天曉不露   Yahan shõmei, tengyõ furo.

爲物作則 用抜諸苦   Mono no tame ni nori to naru. Moichiite shõku o nuku.

雖非有爲 不是無語   Ui ni arazu to iedomo, kore go naki ni arazu.

如臨寶鏡 形影相覩   Hõkyõ ni nozonde, gyõyõ aimiru ga gotoshi.

汝是非渠 渠正是汝   Nanji kore kare ni arazu, kare masa ni kore nanji.

如世嬰児 五相完具   Yo no yõji no gosõ gangu suru ga gotoshi.

不去不來 不起不住   Fukyo, furai, fuku, fujû.

婆婆和和 有句無句   Ba-ba wa-wa, uku, muku,

終不得物 語未正故   Tsui ni mono o ezu, go imada tadashikarazaru ga yue ni.

重離六爻 偏正回互   Juri rikkõ, henshõ ego,

疊而成三 變盡爲五   Tatande san to nari, henji tsukite go to naru.

如茎草味 如金剛杵   Chisõ no ajiwai no gotoku, kongõ no sho no gotoshi.

正中妙挾 敲唱雙舉   Shõchû myõkyõ, kõshõ narabi agu.

通宗通途 挾帯挾路   Shû ni tsûji to ni tsûzu, kyõtai kyõro.

錯然則吉 不可犯忤   Shakunen naru tokinba kitsu nari. Bongo subekarazu.

天眞而妙 不屬迷悟   Tenshin ni shite myõ nari. Meigo ni zoku sezu.

因縁時節 寂然昭著   Innen jisetsu, jakunen to shite shõcho su.

細入無間 大絶方所   Sai ni wa muken ni iri, dai ni wa hõjo o zessu.

毫忽之差 不應律呂   Gõkotsu no tagai, ritsuryo ni õzezu.

今有頓漸 縁立宗趣   Ima tonzen ari, shûshu o rissuru ni yotte.

宗趣分矣 即是規矩   Shûshu wakaru, sunawachi kore kiku nari.

宗通趣極 眞常流注   Shû tsûji shu kiwamaru mo, shinjõ ruchû.

外寂内搖 繋駒伏鼠   Hoka jaku ni uchiogoku wa, tsunageru koma, fukuseru nezumi.

先聖悲之 爲法檀度   Senshõ kore o kanashinde hõ no dando to naru.

隨其顛倒 以緇爲素   Sono tendõ ni shitagatte shi o motte so to nasu.

顛倒想滅 肯心自許   Tendõ sõmetsu sureba kõshin mizukara yurusu.

要合古轍 請觀前古   Kotetsu ni kanawan to yõseba kõ zenko o kanzeyo.

佛道垂成 十劫觀樹   Butsudõ o jõzuru ni nannan to shite jukkõ ju o kanzu.

如虎之缺 如馬之     Tora no kaketaru ga gotoku, uma no yome no gotoshi.

以有下劣 寶几珍御   Geretsu aru o motte hõki chingyo,

以有驚異 狸奴白     Kyõi aru o motte rinu byakko.

藝以巧力 射中百歩   Gei wa gyõriki o motteite hyappo ni atsu,

箭鋒相値 巧力何預   Senpõ aiau, gyõriki nanzo azukaran.

木人方歌 石女起舞   Bokujin masa ni utai, sekijo tatte mau.

非情識到 寧容思慮   Jõshiki no itaru ni arazu, mushiro shiryo o iren ya.

臣奉於君 子順於父   Shin wa kimi ni bushi, ko wa chichi ni junzu.

不順不孝 不奉非輔   Junzezareba kõ ni arazu, busezareba ho ni arazu.

潛行密用 如愚如魯   Senkõ mitsuyõ wa gu no gotoku, ro no gotoshi.

只能相續 名主中主   Tada yoku sõzoku suru o shuchû no shu to nazuku.





The Development of Chinese Zen After the Sixth Patriarch. Heinrich Dumoulin. SMC Publishing, Inc. Taipei, n.d..


The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion. Ingrid Fischer-Schreiber, et al. Shambhala Publications. New York, 1994.


Essays in Zen Buddhism, 3 vols. Daisetsu Teitaro Suzuki. Rider and Company. London, 1949-53.


Two Zen Classics. Katsuki Sekida. Weatherhill. New York, 1995.


Zen Essence: The Science of Freedom. Ed. and trans. by Thomas Cleary. Shambhala Publications. New York, 1989.