Editor: W. Y. EVANS-WENTZ
 Pages 60 - 62.
 The Precious Treasury of Elegant Sayings [1270 AD].
   Attributed to the Grand Lama of Saskya Pandita.
   Recognized by Khubilai Khan as the head of the Lamaist Church.
 Stanza 20
  'A hen, when at rest, produceth much fruit;
   A peacock, when it remaineth still, hath a handsome tail;
   A gentle horse hath a swift pace;
   The quiescence of a holy man is the sign of his being a
 Stanza 29
  'Not to be cheered by praise,
   Not to be grieved by blame,
   But to know thoroughly one's own virtues or powers
   Are the characteristics of an excellent man.'
 Stanza 33
  'In the same place where the Great Lord [Buddha] is present
   Who would acknowledge any other man?
   When the Sun hath arisen, though there be many bright
      stars in the sky,
   Not one of them is visible.'
 Stanza 58
  'A foolish man proclaimeth his qualifications;
   A wise man keepeth them secret within himself;
   A straw floateth on the surface of the water,
   But a precious gem placed upon it sinketh.'
 Stanza 59
  'It is only narrow-minded men that make such distinctions
   As "This is our friend, this our enemy";
   A liberal-minded man showeth affection for all.
   For it is uncertain who may yet be of aid to one.'
 Stanza 74
  'An excellent man, like precious metal,
   Is in every way invariable;
   A villain, like the beams of a balance,
   Is always varying, upwards and downwards.'
 Stanza 118
  'Much talking is a source of danger;
   Silence is the means of avoiding misfortune:
   The talkative parrot is shut up in a cage;
   Other birds, which cannot talk, fly about freely.'
 Stanza 134
  'The greatest wealth consisteth in being charitable,
   And the greatest happiness in having tranquility of mind.
   Experience is the most beautiful adornment;
   And the best comrade is one that hath no desires.'
 Stanza 173
  'Men of little ability, too,
   By depending upon the great, may prosper;
   A drop of water is a little thing,
   But when will it dry away if united to a lake?'
 Stanza 182
  'Hurtful expressions should never be used,
   Not even against an enemy;
   For inevitably they will return to one,
   Like an echo from a rock.'
 Stanza 208
  'When about to perform any great work,
   Endeavour to have a trustworthy associate;
   If one would burn down a forest,
   The aid of a wind is, of course, needed.'
 Stanza 228
  'Meditation without Knowledge, [1] though giving results for awhile
   Will, in the end, be devoid of true success;
   One may melt gold and silver completely,
   But once the fire be gone they grow hard again.'
  [1] Or without the guiding teachings of a guru.
 Pages 62 - 63.
 The Staff of Wisdom [2nd or 3rd century AD].
   Attributed to Nagarjuna.
   Recognized as the author of the first systematic exoteric
     exposition of the Doctrine of the Voidness.
 Folio 5
  'To him who knoweth the True Nature of things,
   What need is there of a teacher?
   To him who hath recovered from illness,
   What need is there of a physician?
   To him who has crossed the river,
   What need is there of a boat?'
 Folio 7
  'An astronomer calculations and divinations concerning
      the motion of the Moon and the stars,
   But he doth not divine that in his own household his own
      womenfolk, being a variance, are misbehaving.'
 Folio 8
  'In eating, sleeping, fearing, and copulating, men and beasts
        are alike;
   Man excelleth the beast by engaging in religious practices.
   So why should a man, if he be without religion, not be
        equal to the beast?'
 Folio 13
  'Time is fleeting, learning is vast; no one knoweth the
        duration of one's life:
   Therefore use the swan's art of extracting milk from water,
   And devote thyself to the Most Precious [Path].'
   Although many stars shine, and that ornament of the Earth,
      the Moon also shineth,
   Yet when the Sun setteth, it becometh night.'
 Folio 15
  'The science which teacheth arts and handicrafts
   Is merely science for the gaining of a living;
   But the science which teacheth deliverance from worldly
   Is not that the true science?'
 Folio 20
  'That which one desireth not for oneself,
   Do not do unto others.'
 Folio 22
  'The foolish are like ripples on water,
   For whatsoever they do is quickly effaced;
   But the righteous are like carvings upon stone,
   For their smallest act is durable.'
 Folio 23
  'With the wise and gentle, the contented and the truthful,
   Companionship, even in prison, is better than sovereignty
      with the unruly.'
 Pages 63 - 66.
 The Ocean of Delight for the Wise.
 Verses 25-8
  'The Supreme Path of Altruism is a short-cut,
   Leading to the Realm of the Conquerors,--
   A track more speedy than that of a racing horse;
   The selfish, however, know naught of it.'
 Verses 29-34
  'Charity produceth the harvest in the next birth,
   Chastity is the parents of human happiness.
   Patience is an adornment becoming to all.
   Industry is the conductor of every personal accomplishment.
   Dhyana is the clarifier of a beclouded mind.
   Intellect is the weapon which overcometh every enemy.'
 Verses 41-2
  'Gloat not even though death and misfortune overwhelm
      thine enemies;
   Boast not, even though thou equal Indra [in greatness].'
 Verses 51-2
  'Some there are who turn inside out their whole interior
   By means of over-talkativeness.'
 Verses 66-7
  'Be humble and meek if thou would be exalted;
   Praise every one's good qualities if thou would have friends.'
 Verses 69-72
  'Argue not with the self-conceited;
   Vie not with the fortunate;
   Disparage not the vengeful;
   Have no grudge with the powerful.'
 Verses 73-6
  'Relinquish an evil custom even though it be of thy fathers
      and ancestors;
   Adopt a good custom even though it be established among
      thine enemies:
   Poison is not to be taken even though offered by one's mother;
   But gold is acceptable even from one who is inimical.'
 Verses 77-80
  'Be not to quick to express the desire of thy heart.
   Be not short-tempered when engaged in a great work.
   Be not jealous of a devotee who is truly religious and pious.
   Consult not him who is habituated and hardened to evil-doing.'
 Verses 112-13
  'Rogues there are even in religious orders;
   Poisonous plants grow even on hills of medicinal herbs.'
 Verses 120-1
  'Some there are who marvel not at others removing mountains,
   But who considers it a heavy task when obliged to carry a
      bit of fleece.'
 Verses 140-3
  'He who is ever ready to take the credit for any action when
      it hath proved successful
   And is equally ready to throw the blame on others when it
      goeth wrong in the least,
   And who is ever looking for faults in those who are learned
      and righteous,
   Possesseth the nature of a crow.'
 Verse 146
  'Preaching religious truths to an unbeliever is like feeding a
      venomous serpent with milk.'
 Verses 159-61
  'Although a cloth be washed a hundred times,
   How can it be rendered clean and pure
   If it be washed in water which is dirty?'
 Verse 181
  'The unreasoning zeal and narrow-mindedness of an ignoramus
      merely serveth to lower one's esteem of the person
      he trieth to praise.'
 Verses 186-8
  'The greatest fault to be avoided is Ignorance.
   To overcome the enemy Ignorance, one requireth Wisdom.
   The best method of acquiring Wisdom is unfaltering
 Verses 193-4
  'He who knoweth the Precepts by heart, but faileth to practise
   Is like unto one who lighteth a lamp and then shutteth his
 Verses 204
  'Who can say with certainty that one will live to see the
 Verse 214
  'How can it be just to kill helpless and inoffensive creatures?'
 Page 66.
   Attributed to Kargyutpa Sages.
  'Give up thy life, if thou would'st live.
                          *        *        *
   The Wise Ones tarry not in the pleasure-grounds of senses.
   The Wise Ones heed not the sweet-tounged voices of illusion.
                          *        *        *
   If through the Hall of Wisdom, thou would'st reach the Vale of
 Bliss, Discipline, close fast thy senses against the great dire heresy
 of Separateness that weaneth thee from the rest.
                          *        *        *
   The Pupil must regain the child state he hath lost ere the first
 sound can fall upon his ears.
                          *        *        *
   To live to benefit mankind is the first step.  To practise the six
 glorious virtues is the second.
                          *        *        *
   If Sun thou canst not be, then be the humble planet.
   Be humble, if thou would'st attain to Wisdom.  Be humbler still,
 when Wisdom thou hast mastered.
                          *        *        *
   The Teacher can but point the way.  The Path is one for all; the
 means to reach the Goal must vary with the Pilgrims.
                          *        *        *
   Hast thou attuned thy being to Humanity's great pain, O candidate
 for light?
                          *        *        *
   Compassion speaketh and saith: "Can there be bliss when all
 that live must suffer?  Shalt thou be saved and hear the whole
 world cry?" '
 Page 67-100 [1150 AD].
   Attributed to the Great Guru Gampopa.
   Recognized as the founder of the Monastery of Ts'ur-lka,
     which is now the principal seat of the Kargyutpa Order.
 Let him who desireth deliverance from the fearful and difficult
 -to-traverse Sea of Successive Existences, by means of
 the precepts taught the inspired Kargyutpa Sages, render
 due homage to these Teachers, whose glory is immaculate,
 whose virtues are as inexhaustible as the ocean, and whose
 infinite benevolence embraceth all beings, past, present, and
 future, throughout the Universe.
    For the use of those who share in the quest for Divine
 Wisdom there follow, recorded in writing, the most highly
 esteemed precepts, called 'The Supreme Path, the Rosary of
 Precious Gems', transmitted to Gampopa, either directly or
 indirectly, through that Inspired Dynasty of Gurus, out
 of their love for him.
                    I.  THE TEN CAUSES OF REGRET
   The devotee seeking Liberation and the Omniscience of
 Buddhahood should first meditate upon these ten things which
 are causes of regret:
  (1) Having obtained the difficult-to-obtain, free, and endowed
 human body, it would be a cause of regret to fritter
 life away.
  (2) Having obtained this pure and difficult-to-obtain, free,
 and endowed human body, it would be a cause of regret to
 die an irreligious and worldly man.
  (3) This human life in the Kali-Yuga [or Age of Darkness]
 being so brief and uncertain, it would be a cause of regret to
 spend it in worldly aims and pursuits.
  (4) One's own mind being of the nature of the Dharma-Kaya,
 uncreated, it would be a cause of regret to let it be
 swallowed up in the morass of the world's illusions.
  (5) The holy guru being the guide on the Path, it would
 be a cause of regret to be separated from him before attaining
  (6) Religious faith and vows being the vessel which conveyeth
 one to Emancipation, it would be a cause of regret
 were they to be shattered by the force of uncontrolled passions.
  (7) The perfect Wisdom having been found within oneself
 in virtue of the guru's grace, it would be a cause of regret to
 dissipate it amidst the jungle of worldliness.
  (8) To sell like so much merchandise the Sublime Doctrine
 of the Sages would be a cause of regret.
  (9) Inasmuch as all beings are our kindly parents, [1] it would
 be a cause of regret to have aversion for and thus disown or
 abandon any of them.
  [1] In the Buddhist, as in the Hindu view, so interminably during
  inconceivable aeons have evolution and transition and rebirth been
  going on that all sentient beings have been our parents.  Reference
  should here be made to a parallel passage and its commentary in
  "Tibet's Great Yogi Milarepa", p. 203.
  (10) The prime of youth being the period of development
 of the body, speech, and mind, it would be a cause of regret
 to waste it in vulgar indifference.
  These are The Ten Causes of Regret.
  (1) Having estimated one's own capabilities, one requireth
 a sure line of action.
  (2) To carry out the commands of a religious preceptor, one
 requireth confidence and diligence.
  (3) To avoid error in choosing a guru, the disciple requireth
 knowledge of his own faults and virtues.
  (4) Keenness of intellect and unwavering faith are required
 to tune in with the mind of the spiritual preceptor.
  (5) Unceasing watchfulness and mental alertness, graced
 with humility, are required to keep the body, speech, and
 mind unsullied by evil.
  (6) Spiritual armour and strength of intellect are required
 for the fulfillment of one's heart's vows.
  (7) Habitual freedom from desire and attachment is necessary
 if one would be free from bondage.
  (8) To acquire the Twofold Merit, [1] born of right motives,
 right actions, and the altruistic dedication of their results,
 there is need of unceasing effort.
  [1] The Twofold Merit is expounded in XXVII. (7) {p. 97[2]}
  (9) The mind, imbued with love and compassion in thought
 and deed, ought ever to be directed to the service of all sentient
  (10) Through hearing, understanding, and wisdom, one
 should so comprehend the nature of all things as not to fall
 into the error of regarding matter and phenomena as real.
  These are The Ten Requirements.
                    III. THE TEN THINGS TO BE DONE
  (1) Attach thyself to a religious preceptor endowed with
 spiritual power and complete knowledge.
  (2) Seek a delightful solitude endowed with psychic influences
 as a hermitage.
  (3) Seek friends who have beliefs and habits like thine own
 and in whom thou canst place thy trust.
  (4) Keeping in mind the evils of gluttony, use just enough
 food to keep thee fit during the period of thy retreat.
  (5) Study the teachings of the Great Sages of all sects
  (6) Study the beneficent sciences of medicine and astrology,
 and the profound art of omens.
  (7) Adopt such regimen and manner of living as will keep
 thee in good health.
  (8) Adopt such devotional practices as will conduce to thy
 spiritual development.
  (9) Retain such disciples as are firm in faith, meek in spirit,
 and who appear to be favoured by karma in their quest for
 Divine Wisdom.
  (10) Constantly maintain alertness of consciousness in walking,
 in sitting, in eating, and in sleeping.
  These are The Ten Things To Be Done.
                   IV. THE TEN THINGS TO BE AVOIDED
  (1) Avoid a guru whose heart is set on acquiring worldly
 fame and possessions.
  (2) Avoid friends and followers who are detrimental to thy
 peace of mind and spiritual growth.
  (3) Avoid hermitages and places of abode where there
 happen to be many persons who annoy and distract thee.
  (4) Avoid gaining thy livelihood by means of deceit and
  (5) Avoid such actions as harm thy mind and impede thy
 spiritual development.
  (6) Avoid such acts of levity and thoughtlessness as lower
 thee in another esteem.
  (7) Avoid useless conduct and actions.
  (8) Avoid concealing thine own faults and speaking loudly
 of those of others.
  (9) Avoid such food and habits as disagree with thy health.
  (10) Avoid such attachments as are inspired by avarice.
  These are The Things To Be Avoided.
  (1) Ideas, being the radiance of the mind, are not to be
  (2) Thought-forms, being the revelry of Reality, are not to
 be avoided.
  (3) Obscuring passions, being the means of reminding one
 of Divine Wisdom [which giveth deliverance from them], are
 not to be avoided [if rightly used to enable one to taste life to
 the full and thereby reach disillusionment].
  (4) Affluence, being the manure and water for spiritual
 growth, is not to be avoided.
  (5) Illness and tribulations, being teachers of piety, are not
 to be avoided.
  (6) Enemies and misfortune, being the means of inclining
 one to a religious career, are not to be avoided.
  (7) That which cometh of itself, being a divine gift, is not to
 be avoided.
  (8) Reason, being in every action the best friend, is not to
 be avoided.
  (9) Such devotional exercises of body and mind as one is
 capable of performing are not to be avoided.
  (10) The thought of helping others, however limited one's
 ability to help others may be, is not to be avoided.
  These are The Ten Things Not To Be Avoided.
                   VI. THE TEN THINGS ONE MUST KNOW
  (1) One must know that all visible phenomena, being
 illusory, are unreal.
  (2) One must know that the mind, being without independent
 existence [apart from the One Mind], is impermanent.
  (3) One must know that ideas arise from a concatenation of
  (4) One must know that the body and speech, being compounded
 of the four elements, are transitory.
  (5) One must know that the effects of past actions, whence
 cometh all sorrow, are inevitable.
  (6) One must know that sorrow, being the means of convincing
 one of the need of the religious life, is a guru.
  (7) One must know that attachment to worldly things
 maketh material prosperity inimical to spiritual progress.
  (8) One must know that misfortune, being the means of
 leading one to the Doctrine, is also a guru.
  (9) One must know that no existing thing has an independent
  (10) One must know that all things are interdependent.
  These are The Ten Things One Must Know.
  (1) One should acquire practical knowledge of the Path by
 treading it, and not be as are the multitude [who profess, but
 do not practise, religion].
  (2) By quitting one's own country and dwelling in foreign
 lands one should acquire practical knowledge of non-attachment. [1]
  [1] This implies non-attachment to all worldly possessions, to home
  and kin, as to the tyranny of social intercourse and custom, which
  commonly causes the attached to fritter life away in what Milarepa
  so wisely teaches, 'All worldly pursuits have but the one unavoidable
  and inevitable end, which is sorrow: acquisitions end in dispersion;
  buildings, in destruction; meetings, in separation; births, in
  death.' (See Tibet's Great Yogi Milarepa, p. 259.)  All the Great
  Sages, in every land and generation, have traversed the Garden of
  Human Existence, have plucked and eaten of the glamorous vari-
  coloured fruits of the Tree of Life growing in the midst thereof,
  and, as a result, have attained world-disillusionment, whereby man
  first sees that Divine Vision which alone can give to him
  imperishable contentment both now and in the hour of death.
  Ecclesiastes, the Jewish Sage, who was once 'king over Israel in
  Jerusalem', in language very much like that of Milarepa, tells us,
  'I have seen all the works that are done under the sun; and, behold,
  all is vanity and vexation of spirit.'  (Ecclesiastes i. 14.)
  (3) Having chosen a religious preceptor, separate thyself
 from egotism and follow his teachings implicitly.
  (4) Having acquired mental discipline by hearing and meditating
 upon religious teachings, boast not of thine attainment,
 but apply it to the realization of Truth.
  (5) Spiritual knowledge having dawned in oneself, neglect
 it not through slothfulness, but cultivate it with ceaseless
  (6) Once having experienced spiritual illumination, commune
 with it in solitude, relinquishing the worldly activities of
 the multitude.
  (7) Having acquired practical knowledge of spiritual things
 and made the Great Renunciation, permit not the body, speech,
 or mind to become unruly, but observe the three vows, of
 poverty, chastity, and obedience.
  (8) Having resolved to attain the Highest Goal, abandon
 selfishness and devote thyself to the service of others.
  (9) Having entered upon the mystic Mantrayanic Pathway,
 permit not the body, the speech, or mind to remain
 unsanctified, but practise the threefold mandala. [1]
  [1] A mandala is a symbolical geometrical diagram wherein dieties are
  invoked.  (See Tibet's Great Yogi Milarepa, p. 132.)  The threefold
  mandala is dedicated to the spiritual forces (often personified as
  Tantric deities) presiding over, or manifesting through, the body,
  the speech, and the mind of man, as in Kundalini Yoga.
  (10) During the period of youth, frequent not those who
 cannot direct thee spiritually, but acquire practical knowledge
 painstakingly at the feet of a learned and pious guru.
  These are The Ten Things To Be Practised.
  (1) Novices should persevere in listening to, and meditating
 upon, religious teachings.
  (2) Having had spiritual experience, persevere in meditation
 and mental concentration.
  (3) Persevere in solitude until the mind hath been yogically
  (4) Should thought-processes be difficult to control, persevere
 in thine efforts to dominate them.
  (5) Should there be great drowsiness, persevere in thine
 efforts to invigorate the intellect [or to control the mind].
  (6) Persevere in meditation until thou attainest the
 imperturbable mental tranquility of samadhi.
  (7) Having attained this state of samadhi, persevere in prolonging
 its duration and in causing its recurrence at will.
  (8) Should various misfortunes assail thee, persevere in
 patience of body, speech, and mind.
  (9) Should there be great attachment, hankering, or mental
 weakness, persevere in an effort to eradicate it as soon as it
 manifesteth itself.
  (10) Should benevolence and pity be weak within thee,
 persevere in directing the mind towards Perfection.
  These are The Ten Things To Be Persevered In.
                         XI. THE TEN INCENTIVES
  (1) By reflecting upon the difficulty of obtaining an endowed
 and free human body, mayest thou be incited to adopt the
 religious career.
  (2) By reflecting upon death and the impermanence of life,
 mayest thou be incited to live piously.
  (3) By reflecting upon the irrevocable nature of the results
 which inevitably arise from actions, mayest thou be incited to
 avoid impiety and evil.
  (4) By reflecting upon the evils of life in the round of
 successive existences, mayest thou be incited to seek Emancipation.
  (5) By reflecting upon the miseries which all sentient
 beings suffer, mayest thou be incited to attain deliverance
 therefrom by enlightenment of mind.
  (6) By reflecting upon the perversity and illusory nature of
 the mind of all sentient beings, mayest thou be incited to
 listen to, and meditate upon, the Doctrine.
  (7) By reflecting upon the difficulty of eradicating erroneous
 concepts, mayest thou be constant meditation [which
 overcometh them].
  (8) By reflecting upon the predominance of evil propensities
 in this Kali-Yuga [or Age of Darkness], mayest thou be
 incited to seek their antidote [in the Doctrine].
  (9) By reflecting upon the multiplicity of misfortunes in this
 Age of Darkness, mayest thou be incited to perseverance [in
 the quest for Emancipation].
  (10) By reflecting upon the uselessness of aimlessly frittering
 away thy life, mayest thou be incited to diligence [in the
 treading of the Path].
  These are The Ten Incentives.
                           X. THE TEN ERRORS
  (1) Weakness of faith combined with strength of intellect
 are apt to lead to the error of talkativeness.
  (2) Strength of faith combined with weakness of intellect
 are apt to lead to the error of narrow-minded dogmatism.
  (3) Great zeal without adequate religious instruction is apt
 to lead to the error of going to erroneous extremes {or follow-
 ing misleading paths].
  (4) Meditation without sufficient preparation through having
 heard and pondered the Doctrine is apt to lead to the error
 of losing oneself in the darkness of unconsiousness. [1]
  [1] This refers to that mental chaos or delusion which is the
  antithesis of the mental discipline acquired by right practice
  of yoga under a wise guru's guidance.
  (5) Without practical and adequate understanding of the
 Doctrine, one is apt to lead to the error of religious self-conceit.
  (6) Unless the mind be trained to selflessness and infinite
 compassion, one is apt to lead to the error of seeking liberation
 for self alone.
  (7) Unless the mind be disciplined by knowledge of its
 own immaterial nature, one is apt to lead to the error of
 diverting all activities along the path of worldliness.
  (8) Unless all worldly ambitions be eradicated, one is apt
 to fall into the error of allowing oneself to be dominated by
 worldly motives.
  (9) By permitting credulous and vulgar admirers to congregate
 about thee, there is liability of falling into the error
 of becoming puffed up with worldly pride.
  (10) By boasting of one's occult learning and powers, one
 is liable to fall into the error of proudly exhibiting proficiency
 in worldly rites. [1]
  [1] No true master of the occult sciences ever allows himself to
  boast or make public exhibition of his yogic powers.  It is only
  in secret initiations of disciples, as was the case with Marpa,
  that they are shown, if at all.  (See Milarepa, pp. 132-3, 154-5
  These are The Ten Errors.
  (1) Desire may be taken for faith.
  (2) Attachment may be mistaken for benevolence and compassion.
  (3) Cessation of thought-processes may be mistaken for
 the quiescence of infinite mind, which is the true goal.
  (4) Sense perceptions [or phenomena] may be mistaken
 for revelations [or glimpses] of Reality.
  (5) A mere glimpse of Reality may be mistaken for complete
  (6) Those who outwardly profess, but do not practise,
 religion may be mistaken for true devotees.
  (7) Slaves of passion may be mistaken for masters of yoga
 who have liberated themselves from all conventional laws.
  (8) Actions performed in the interest of self may be
 mistakenly regarded as being altruistic.
  (9) Deceptive methods may be mistakenly regarded as
 being prudent.
  (10) Charlatans may be mistaken for Sages.
  These are The Ten Resemblances Wherein One May Err.
  (1) In being free from attachment to all objects, and being
 ordained a bhikshu [1] into the Holy Order, forsaking home
 and entering upon the homeless state, one doth not err.
  [1] Bhikshu (Skt.) = Bhikkhu (Pali):  a member of the Sangha,
  the Buddhist Order of those vowed to the Path of World
  (2) In revering one's spiritual preceptor one doth not err.
  (3) In thoroughly studying the Doctrine, hearing discourses
 thereon, and reflecting and meditating upon it, one doth
 not err.
  (4) In nourishing lofty aspirations and a lowly demeanour
 one doth not err.
  (5) In entertaining liberal views [as to religion] and yet
 being firm in observing [formal religious] vows one doth
 not err.
  (6) In having greatness of intellect and smallness of pride
 one doth not err.
  (7) In being wealthy in religious doctrines and diligent in
 meditating upon them one doth not err.
  (8) In having profound religious learning, combined with
 knowledge of things spiritual and absence of pride, one doth
 not err.
  (9) By passing one's whole life in solitude [and meditation]
 one doth not err.
  (10) In being unselfishly devoted to doing good to others,
 by means of wise methods, one doth not err.
  These are The Ten Things Wherein One Erreth Not.
  (1) If, after having been born a human being, one give no
 heed to the Holy Doctrine, one resembleth a man who
 returneth empty-handed from a land rich in precious gems;
 and this is a grievous failure.
  (2) If, after having entered the door of the Holy Order,
 one return to the life of the householder, one resembleth
 a moth plunging into the flame of a lamp; and this is a
 grievous failure.
  (3) To dwell with a sage and remain in ignorance is to be
 like a man dying of thirst on the shore of a lake; and this is
 a grievous failure.
  (4) To know the moral precepts and not apply them to
 the cure of obscuring passions is to be like a diseased man
 carrying a bag of medicine which he never useth; and this is
 a grievous failure.
  (5) To preach religion and not practise it is to be like
 a parrot saying a prayer; and this is a grievous failure.
  (6) The giving in alms and charity of things obtained by
 theft, robbery, or deceit, is like lightning striking the surface
 of water; and this is a grievous failure. [1]
  [1] According to this simile, lightning in striking water fails of
  its true purpose, which is to set afire some inflammable object, even
  as does the giving in alms and charity of things dishonestly
  (7) The offering to the dieties of meat obtained by killing
 animate beings is like offering a mother the flesh of her own
 child; [1] and this is a grievous failure.
  [1] All living things are inseparably parts of One Whole, so that
  any injury or suffering inflicted upon the microcosm affects the
  macrocosm.  See {pp. 11 and 90} XXIII (10) [1].  Herein the
  Kargyupta Sages prove themselves to be true to the great
  compassionate doctrine of ahimsa (or 'not hurting') which is
  stressed by Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Taoism, and Sufism.
  (8) To exercise patience for merely selfish ends rather than
 for doing good to others is to be like a cat exercising patience
 in order to kill a rat; and this is a grievous failure.
  (9) Performing meritorious actions in order merely to
 attain fame and praise in this world is like bartering the
 mystic wish-granting gem [1] for a pellet of goat's dung; and
  this is a grievous failure.
  [1] The wish-granting gem of oriental myth, known in Sanskrit as the
  Cintamani, like Aladdin's magic lamp, grants any desire which its
  possessor formulates.
  (10) If, after having heard much of the Doctrine, one's
 nature still be unattuned, one is like a physician with a
 chronic disease; and this is a grievous failure.
  (11) To be clever concerning precepts yet ignorant of the
 spiritual experiences which come from applying them is to
 be like a rich man who hath lost the key of his treasury; and
 this is a grievous failure.
  (12) To attempt to explain to others doctrines which one
 hath not completely mastered oneself is to be like a blind
 man leading the blind; and this is a grievous failure.
  (13) To hold the experiences resulting from the first stage
 of meditation to be those of the final stage is to be like a
 man who mistaketh brass for gold; and this is a grievous
  These are The Thirteen Grievous Failures.
                      XIV. THE FIFTEEN WEAKNESSES
  (1) A religious devotee showeth weakness if he allow his
 mind to be obsessed with worldly thoughts while dwelling in
  (2) A religious devotee who is the head of a monastery
 showeth weakness if he seek his own interests [rather than
 those of the brotherhood].
  (3) A religious devotee showeth weakness if he be careful
 in the observance of moral discipline and lacking in moral
  (4) It showeth weakness in one who hath entered upon the
 Righteous Path to cling to worldly feelings of attraction and
  (5) It showeth weakness in one who hath renounced
 worldliness and entered the Holy Order to hanker after
 acquiring merit.
  (6) It showeth weakness in one who hath caught a glimpse
 of Reality to fail to persevere in sadhana [or yogic meditation]
 till the dawning of Full Enlightenment.
  (7) It showeth weakness in one who is a religious devotee
 to enter upon the Path and then be unable to tread it.
  (8) It showeth weakness in one who hath no other occupation
 than religious devotion to be unable to eradicate from
 himself unworthy actions.
  (9) It showeth weakness in one who hath chosen the
 religious career to have hesitancy in entering into close
 retreat while knowing full well that the food and everything
 needed would be provided unasked.
  (10) A religious devotee who exhibiteth occult powers
 when practising exorcism or in driving away diseases showeth
  (11) A religious devotee showeth weakness if he barter
 sacred truths for food and money.
  (12) One who is vowed to the religious life showeth weakness
 if he cunningly praise himself while disparaging others.
  (13) A man of religion who preacheth loftily to others and
 doth not live loftily himself showeth weakness.
  (14) One who professeth religion and is unable to live in
 solitude in his own company and yet knoweth not how to
 make himself agreeable in the company of others showeth
  (15) The religious devotee showeth weakness if he be not
 indifferent to comfort and to hardship.
  These are The Fifteen Weaknesses.
  (1) It is indispensable to have an intellect endowed with
 the power of comprehending and applying the Doctrine to
 one's own needs.
  (2) At the very beginning [of one's religious career] it is
 indispensably necessary to have the most profound aversion
 for the interminable sequence of repeated deaths and births.
  (3) A guru capable of guiding thee on the Path of Emancipation
 is also indispensable.
  (4) Diligence combined with fortitude and invulnerability
 to temptation are indispensable.
  (5) Unceasing perseverance in neutralizing the results of
 evil deeds, by the performance of good deeds, and the fulfilling
 of the threefold vows, to maintain chastity of body,
 purity of mind, and control of speech, are indispensable.
  (6) A philosophy comprehensive enough to embrace the
 whole of knowledge is indispensable.
  (7) A system of meditation which will produce the power
 of concentrating the mind upon anything whatsoever is indispensable.
  (8) An art of living which will enable one to utilize each
 activity [of body, speech, and mind] as an aid on the Path is
  (9) A method of practising the select teachings which will
 make them more than mere words is indispensable.
  (10) Special instructions [by a wise guru] which will enable
 one to avoids misleading paths, temptations, pitfalls, and
 dangers are indispensable.
  (11) Indomitable faith combined with supreme serenity of
 mind are indispensable at the moment of death.
  (12) As a result of having practically applied the select
 teachings, the attainment of spiritual powers capable of transmuting
 the body, the speech, and the mind into their divine
 essences is indispensable. [1]
  [1] As a direct result of practically applying the Doctrine, the
  devotee should attain that spiritual yogic power whereby the gross
  physical body is transmuted into the radiant body of glory, elsewhere
  in our texts called the 'rainbow body' {see pp. 170, 183, 318,
  346}; and the erring human speech into the infallible divine
  speech, and the unenlightened human mind into the supramundane
  mind, of a Buddha.
  These are The Twelve Indispensable Things.
  (1) To have but little pride and envy is the sign of a
 superior man.
  (2) To have but few desires and satisfaction with simple
 things is the sign of a superior man.
  (3) To be lacking in hypocrisy and deceit is the sign of
 a superior man.
  (4) To regulate one's conduct in accordance with the law
 of cause and effect as carefully as one guardeth the pupils of
 one's eyes is the sign of a superior man.
  (5) To be faithful to one's engagements and obligations is
 the sign of a superior man.
  (6) To be able to keep alive friendships while one [at the
 same time] regardeth all beings with impartiality is the sign
 of a superior man.
  (7) To look with pity and without anger upon those who
 live evilly is the sign of a superior man.
  (8) To allow unto others the victory, taking unto oneself
 the defeat, is the sign of a superior man.
  (9) To differ from the multitude in every thought and
 action is the sign of a superior man.
  (10) To observe faithfully and without pride one's vows of
 chastity and piety is the sign of a superior man.
  These are The Ten Signs Of A Superior Man.  Their
  opposites are The Ten Signs Of An Inferior Man.
                    XVII. THE TEN USELESS THINGS [1]
  [1] They are useless in the sense meant by Milarepa when he came to
  realize that human life ought never to be frittered away in the
  spiritually profitless doings of this world. {See Tibet's Great Yogi
  Milarepa, pp. 176-7, 179-80.}  The tenth aphorism of this series
  having been unintentionally omitted from our Tibetan manuscript
  by the scribe, we have substituted for it an adaptation of our own,
  based upon the doctrine of the worthlessness of worldly actions,
  as thus enunciated by Milarepa, and upon which this category of 'The
  Ten Useless Things' is based.
  (1) Our body being illusory and transitory, it is useless to
 give over-much attention to it.
  (2) Seeing that when we die we must depart empty-handed
 and on the morrow after our death our corpse is expelled
 from our own house, it is useless to labour and to suffer
 privation in order to make for oneself a home in this world.
  (3) Seeing that when we die our descendants [if spiritually
 unenlightened] are unable to render us the least assistance,
 it is useless for us to bequeath to them worldly [rather than
 spiritual] riches, even out of love. [1]
  [1] To fritter away the precious moments of life in heaping up the
  perishable goods of this world, thinking thereby to benefit oneself
  and one's family, is unwise.  One's time on Earth ought to be given
  to the winning of those riches which are imperishable and capable of
  assisting one both in living, and in dying.  It is the science of
  accumulating riches of this character which parents should bequeath
  to their children and not worldly riches merely intensify and prolong
  their possessors' slavery to sangsaric existence.  This precept is
  emphasized by the fifth and sixth precepts which follow.
  (4) Seeing that when we die we must go on our way alone
 and with kinsfolk or friends, it is useless to have devoted
 time [which ought to have been dedicated to the winning of
 Enlightenment] to their humoring and obliging, or in showering
 loving affection upon them. [1]
  [1] Time when devoted to kinsfolk and friends should be employed
  not merely for the sake of showing them proper courtesy and loving
  affection, but chiefly for the purpose of setting them upon the Path
  of the Great Deliverance, whereby each living being is realized to be
  one's relative.  All conventional social relationships on the human
  plane being illusory, it is useless for a yogin to dissipate the
  precious moments of this incarnate existence solely on their account.
  (5) Seeing that our descendants themselves are subject to
 death and that whatever worldly goods we may bequeath to
 them are certain to be lost eventually, it is useless to make
 bequeaths of the things of this world.
  (6) Seeing that when death cometh one must relinquish
 even one's own home, it is useless to devote life to the acquisition
 of worldly things.
  (7) Seeing that unfaithfulness to the religious vows will result
 in one's going to the miserable states of existence, it is
 useless to have entered the Order if one live not a holy life.
  (8) To have heard and thought about the Doctrine and not
 practised it and acquired spiritual powers to assist thee at the
 moments of death is useless.
  (9) It is useless to have lived, even for a very long time,
 with a spiritual preceptor if one be lacking in humility and
 devotion and thus be unable to develop spiritually.
  (10) Seeing that all existing and apparent phenomena are
 ever transient, changing, and unstable, and more especially
 that the worldly life affordeth neither reality nor permanent
 gain, it is useless to have devoted oneself to the profitless
 doings of this world rather than to the seeking of Divine
  These are The Useless Things.
  (1) To enter the state of the householder without means of
 sustenance produceth self-imposed trouble as doth an idiot
 eating aconite. [Aconite is a poisonous plant.]
  (2) To live a thoroughly evil life and disregard the Doctrine
  produceth self-imposed trouble as doth an insane person
 jumping over a precipice.
  (3) To live hypocritically produceth self-imposed trouble
 as doth a person who puteth poison in his own food.
  (4) To be lacking in firmness of mind and yet attempt to
 act as the head of a monastery produceth self-imposed trouble
 as doth a feeble old woman who attempteth to herd cattle.
  (5) To devote oneself wholly to selfish ambitions and not
 to strive for the good of others produceth self-imposed trouble
 as doth a blind man who alloweth himself to become lost in
 a desert.
  (6) To undertake difficult tasks and not have the ability to
 perform them produceth self-imposed trouble as doth a man
 without strength who trieth to carry a heavy load.
  (7) To transgress the commandments of the Buddha or of
 the holy guru through pride and self-conceit produceth self-imposed
 trouble as doth a king who followeth a perverted
  (8) To waste one's time loitering about towns and villages
 instead of devoting it to meditation produceth self-imposed
 trouble as doth a deer that descendeth to the valley instead
 of keeping to the fastnesses of the mountains.
  (9) To be absorbed in the pursuit of worldly things rather
 than in nourishing the growth of Divine Wisdom produceth
 self-imposed trouble as doth an eagle when it breaketh its
  (10) Shamelessly to misappropriate offerings which have
 been dedicated to the guru or to the Trinity [1] produceth
 self-imposed trouble as doth a child swallowing live
 coals. [2]
  [1] The Buddhist Trinity is the Buddha, the Dharma (or scriptures),
  and the Sangha (or Priesthood).  Neither gurus nor priests in a
  Buddhist or Hindu community have the right to demand any form of
  payment in return for their performance of religious duties.  Their
  disciples or laymen, however, being in duty bound to provide for
  their maintenance, make voluntary offerings to them, chiefly in the
  form of food and clothing, and sometimes in the form of property
  endowments to their ashramas, monasteries, or temples.  According to
  the rule of buddhist monasticism, no member of the Sangha should
  touch money, but nowadays this rule is not usually observed; and the
  offerings commonly include money, often for expenditure in some pious
  work, such as building a stupa, making manuscript copies of the
  Scriptures, restoring an image, or to help in the building or repair
  of a shrine.
  [2] The evil karma resulting from the act of impiety is for the
  devotee as painful spiritually as the swallowing of live coals is for
  the child physically.
  These are The Ten Self-Imposed Troubles.
  (1) One doeth good to oneself by abandoning worldly conventions
 and devoting oneself to the Holy Dharma.
  (2) One doeth good to oneself by departing from home
 and kindred and attaching oneself to a guru of saintly
  (3) One doeth good to oneself by relinquishing worldly
 activities and devoting oneself to the three religious
 activities,--hearing, reflecting, and meditating [upon the
 chosen teachings].
  (4) One doeth good to oneself by giving up social intercourse
 and dwelling alone in solitude.
  (5) One doeth good to oneself renouncing desire for
 luxury and ease and enduring hardship.
  (6) One doeth good to oneself by being contented with
 simple things and free from craving for worldly possessions.
  (7) One doeth good to oneself by making and firmly
 adhering to the resolution not to take advantage of others.
  (8) One doeth good to oneself by attaining freedom from
 hankering after the transitory pleasures of this life and
 devoting oneself to the realization of the eternal bliss of
  (9) One doeth good to oneself by abandoning attachment
 to visible material things [which are transitory and unreal]
 and attaining knowledge of Reality.
  (10) One doeth good to oneself by preventing the three
 doors to knowledge [the body, the speech, and the mind]
 from remaining spiritually undisciplined and by acquiring,
 through right use of them, the Twofold Merit.
  These are The Ten Things Wherein One Doeth Good To Oneself.
                        XX. THE TEN BEST THINGS
  (1) For one of little intellect, the best thing is to have faith
 in the law of cause and effect.
  (2) For one of ordinary intellect, the best thing is to
 recognize, both within and without oneself, the workings of
 the law of opposites. [1]
  [1] Another rendering, more literal, but rather unintelligible to the
  reader unaccustomed to the profound thought of Tibetan metaphyicians,
  might be phrased as follows: 'For one of ordinary intellect [or
  spiritual insight] the best thing is to recognize the external and
  internal phenomena [as these are seen] in the four aspects [or
  unions] of phenomena and noumena'.  Such recognition is to be arrived
  at through yogic analysis of phenomena, manifested in or through the
  cosmos.  Such analysis must be based upon the realization that all
  phenomena, visible and invisible, have their noumenal source in the
  Cosmic Mind, the origin of all existing things.  'The four aspects
  [or unions] of phenomena and noumena' are: (1) Phenomena and Voidness
  (Skt. Shunyata); (2) Clearness and Voidness; (3) Bliss and Voidness;
  (4) Consciousness and Voidness.  Upon each of these 'unions' a vast
  treatise could be written.  Here we may briefly state that Phenomena,
  Clearness, Bliss, and Consciousness represent four aspects of
  phenomena in opposition to their corresponding noumena, voidnesses.
  The Shunyata (Tib. Stong-pa-nyid), the Voidness, the Ultimate Source
  of all phenomena, being without attributes, or qualities, is humanly
  inconceivable.  In the Mahayana philosophy it symbolizes the
  Absolute, the Thatness of the Vedantists, the One Reality, which is
  (3) For one of superior intellect, the best thing is to have
 thorough comprehension of the inseparableness of the knower,
 the object of knowledge, and the act of knowing. [1]
  [1] It is usual for the guru, somewhat after the manner of the Zen
  gurus of Japan, to put the problem before the shishya (or disciple)
  in the form of a series of interdependent questions such as the
  following: Is the knower other than the object of knowledge?  Is the
  object of knowledge other than the act of knowing?  Is the act of
  knowing other than the knowledge?  Similar series of questions are
  set forth in The Epitome of the Great Symbol, pp. 78, 80, 98, 102.
  (4) For one of little intellect, the best meditation is complete
 concentration of mind upon a single object.
  (5) For one of ordinary intellect, the best meditation is
 unbroken concentration of mind upon the two dualistic concepts
 [of phenomena and noumena, and consciousness and mind].
  (6) For one of superior intellect, the best meditation is
 remain in mental quiescence, the mind devoid of all thought-
 processes, knowing that the mediator, the object of meditation,
 and the act of meditating constitute an inseparable unity.
  (7) For one of little intellect, the best religious practise is
 to live in strict conformity with the law of cause and effect.
  (8) For one of ordinary intellect, the best religious practise
 is to regard all objective things as though they were images
 seen in a dream or produced by magic.
  (9) For one of superior intellect, the best religious practise
 is to abstain from all worldly desires and actions, [1] [regarding
 all sangsaric things as though they were non-existent].
  (10) For those of all three grades of intellect, the best
 indication of spiritual progress is the gradual diminution of
 obscuring passions and selfishness.
  These are the Ten Best Things.
                     XXI. THE TEN GRIEVOUS MISTAKES
  (1) For a religious devotee to follow a hypocritical charlatan
 instead of a guru who sincerely practiseth the Doctrine is a
 grievous mistake.
  (2) For a religious devotee to apply himself to vain worldly
 sciences rather than to seeking the chosen secret teachings of
 the Great Sages is a grievous mistake.
  (3) For a religious devotee to make far-reaching plans as
 though he were going to establish permanent residence [in
 this world] instead of living as though each day were the last
 he had to live is a grievous mistake.
  (4) For a religious devotee to preach the Doctrine to the
 multitude [err having realized it to be true] instead of meditating
 upon it [and testing its truth] in solitude is a grievous
  (5) For a religious devotee to be like a miser and hoard up
 riches instead of dedicating them to religion and charity is a
 grievous mistake.
  (6) For a religious devotee to give way in body, speech, and
 mind to the shamelessness of debauchery instead of observing
 carefully the vows [of purity and chastity] is a grievous
  (7) For a religious devotee to spend his life between worldly
 hopes and fears instead of gaining understanding of Reality is
 a grievous mistake.
  (8) For a religious devotee to try to reform others instead
 of reforming himself is a grievous mistake.
  (9) For a religious devotee to strive after worldly powers
 instead of cultivating his own innate spiritual powers is a
 grievous mistake.
  (10) For a religious devotee to be idle and indifferent
 instead of persevering when all the circumstances favourable
 for spiritual advancement are present is a grievous mistake.
  These are The Ten Grievous Mistakes.
                     XXII. THE TEN NECESSARY THINGS
  (1) At the very outset [of one's religious career] one should
 have so profound an aversion for the continuous succession of
 deaths and births [to which all who have not attained Enlightenment
 are subject] that one will wish to flee from it even as a
 stag fleeth from captivity.
  (2) The next necessary thing is perseverance so great that
 one regretteth not the losing of one's life [in the quest for
 Enlightenment], like that of the husbandman who tilleth his
 fields and regretteth no the tilling even though he die on the
  (3) The third necessary thing is joyfulness of mind like that
 of a man who hath accomplished a great deed of far-reaching
  (4) Again, one should comprehend that, as with a man
 dangerously wounded by an arrow, there is not a moment of
 time to be wasted.
  (5) One needeth ability to fix the mind on a single thought
 even as doth a mother who hath lost her only son.
  (6) Another necessary thing is to understand that there is
 no need of doing anything, [1] even as a cowherd whose cattle
 have been driven off by enemies understandeth that he can do
 nothing to recover them.
  [1] The yogin's goal is complete quiescence of body, speech, and
  mind, in accordance with the ancient yogic precept, 'Be quiescent,
  and know that thou art That'.  The Hebrew Scriptures echo the same
  teaching in the well-known aphorism, 'Be still, and know that I am
  God' (Psalms xlvi. 10).
  (7) It is primarily requisite for one to hunger after the
 Doctrine even as a hungry man hugereth after good food.
  (8) One needeth to be as confident of one's mental ability
 as doth a strong man of his physical ability to hold fast to a
 precious gem which he hath found.
  (9) One must expose the fallacy of dualism as one doth the
 falsity of a liar.
  (10) One must have confidence in the Thatness [as being
 the Sole Refuge] even as an exhausted crow far from land
 hath confidence in the mast of the ship upon which it resteth.
  These are The Necessary Things.
  (1) If the empty nature of the mind be realized, no longer
 is it necessary to listen to or to meditate upon religious
 teachings. [1]
  [1] Realization of the empty nature of the mind is attained through
  yogic mastery of the Doctrine of the Voidness, which shows that Mind,
  the Sole Reality, is the noumenal source of all phenomena; and, that
  being non-sangsaric (ie. not dependent for its existence upon
  objective appearances, nor even upon thought-forms or thought-
  processes), it is in the Qualityless, the Attributeless, and,
  therefore, the Vacuous.  Once having arrived at this realization,
  the yogin no longer needs to listen to or to meditate upon religious
  teachings, for these are merely guides to the great goal of yoga
  which he has reached.
  (2) If the unsulliable nature of the intellect be realized, no
 longer is it necessary to seek absolution of one's sins. [1]
  [1] According to The Awakening of Faith by Ashvaghosha, one of the
  illustrious expounders of the Mahayana, 'The mind from the beginning
  is of a pure nature, but since there is the finite aspect of it
  which is sullied by finite views, there is the sullied aspect of it.
  Although there is this defilement, yet the original pure nature is
  eternally unchanged.'  As Ashvaghosha adds, it is only an Enlightened
  One, Who has realized the unsulliable nature of primordial mind
  (or intellect), that understands this mystery.  (Cf. Timothy
  Richard's translation of The Awakening of Faith, Shanghai, 1907,
  p. 13; also the translation made by Professor Teitaro Suzuki,
  published in Chicago in 1900, pp. 79-80.)  So for him who knows that
  the defilements of the world are, like the world, without any
  reality, being a part of the Great Illusion, or Maya, what need is
  there for absolution of sin?  Likewise, as the next aphorism teaches,
  'for who abideth in the State of Mental Quiescence', which is the
  State of Enlightenment, all such illusory concepts of the finite mind
  as sin and absolution vanish as morning mists do when the Sun has
  (3) Nor is absolution necessary for one who abideth in the
 State of Mental Quiescence.
  (4) For him who hath attained the State of Unalloyed
 Purity there is no need to meditate upon the Path or
 upon the methods of treading it, [for he hath arrived at the
  (5) If the unreal [or illusory] nature of cognitions be
 realized, no need is there to meditate upon the state of non-
 cognition. [1]
  [1] Here, again, reference to the Doctrine of the Voidness [of mind]
  is essential to right understanding of this aphorism.  The State of
  Non-Cognition, otherwise called the True State [of mind], is a state
  of unmodified consciousness, comparable to a calm and infinite ocean.
  In the modified state of consciousness, inseparable from mind in its
  microcosmic or finite aspect, this ocean illusorily appears to be
  ruffled with waves, which are the illusory concepts born of sangsaric
  existence.  As Ashvaghosha also tells us in The Awakening of Faith
  (Richard's translation, p. 12), 'We should know that all phenomena
  are created by the imperfect notions in the finite mind; therefore
  all existence is like a reflection in a mirror, without substance,
  only a phantom of the mind.  When the finite mind acts, then all
  kinds of things arise; when the finite mind ceases to act, then all
  kinds of things cease.'  Concomitantly with realization of the True
  State, wherein mind is quiescent and devoid of the thought-processes
  and concepts of finite mind, the yogin realizes the unreal nature of
  cognitions, and no longer need he meditate upon the State of Non-
  (6) If the non-reality [or illusory nature] of obscuring
 passions be realized, no need is there to seek their antidote.
  (7) If all phenomena be known to be illusory, no need is
 there to seek or to reject anything. [1]
  [1] For according to the Doctrine of Maya (or illusion) nothing which
  has illusory (or phenomenal) existence is real.
  (8) If sorrow and misfortune be recognized to be blessings,
 no need is there to seek happiness.
  (9) If the unborn [or uncreated] nature of one's own consciousness
 be realized, no need is there to practise transference
 of consciousness. [1]
  [1] Consciousness, or mind, being primordially of the Unborn,
  Uncreated, cannot really be transfered.  It is only to consciousness
  in its finite or microcosmic aspect, as manifested in the Sangsara,
  or Realm of Illusion, that one may apply the term transference.
  To the Unborn, in the True State, wherein the Sangsara is
  transcended, time and space, which belong wholly to the Realm of
  Illusion, have no existence.  How then can the Unborn be transferred,
  since there is no whence or whither to which it can be related?
  Having realized this, that the noumenal cannot be treated as the
  phenomenal, there is no need to practise the transference of
  consciousness.  {Book IV, which follows, being devoted wholly to an
  exposition of the Doctrine of Consciousness-Transference, affords
  further commentary on this aphorism.}
  (10) If only the good of others be sought in all that one
 doeth, no need is there to seek benefit for oneself. [1]
  [1] Humanity being a unified organism, through which the One Mind
  finds highest expression on Earth, whatsoever one member of it does
  to another member of it, be the action good or evil, inevitably
  affects all members of it.  Therefore, in the Christian sense as
  well, the doing of good to others is the doing of good to oneself.
  These are The Ten Unnecessary Things.
  (1) One free and well-endowed human life is more precious
 than myriads of non-human lives in any of the six states of
 existence. [1]
  [1] The six states or regions, of sangsaric existence are (1) the
  deva-worlds, (2) the asura-(or titan)world, (3) the human world,
  (4) the brute-world, (5) the preta(or unhappy ghost)world, and (6)
  the hell-worlds.
  (2) One sage is more precious than multitudes of irreligious
 and worldly-minded persons.
  (3) One esoteric truth is more precious than innumerable
 exoteric doctrines.
  (4) One momentary glimpse of Divine Wisdom, born of
 meditation, is more precious than any amount of knowledge
 derived from merely listening to and thinking about religious
  (5) The smallest amount of merit dedicated to the good of
 others is more precious than any amount of merit devoted to
 one's own good.
  (6) To experience but momentarily the samadhi wherein
 all thought-processes are quiescent is more precious than to
 experience uninterruptedly the samadhi wherein thought-
 processes are still present. [1]
  [1] As explained on {p. 329}, there are four states of dhyana,
  or samadhi (profound meditation).  The highest of these states is
  one wherein the yogin experiences that ecstatic bliss which is
  attained by realization of the unmodified condition of primordial
  mind.  This state is designated as the True State, being vacuous
  of all the sangsaric thought-forming processes of the mind in its
  modified or finite aspect.  In the lowest, or first of samadhi,
  wherein complete cessation of these thought-forming processes
  has not been reached, the yogin experiences an incomparably
  inferior sort of ecstasy, which novices are warned not to mistake
  for the highest state.
  (7) To enjoy a single moments of Nirvanic bliss is more
 precious than to enjoy any amount of sensual bliss.
  (8) The smallest good deed done unselfishly is more precious
 than innumerable good deeds done selfishly.
  (9) The renunciation of every worldly thing [home, family,
 friends, property, fame, duration of life, and even health] is
 more precious than the giving of inconcievably vast worldly
 wealth in charity.
  (10) One lifetime spent in the quest for Enlightenment is
 more precious than all the lifetimes during an aeon spent in
 worldly pursuits.
  These are The Ten More Precious Things.
                       XXV. THE TEN EQUAL THINGS
  (1) For him who is sincerely devoted to the religious life, it is
 the same whether he refrain from worldly activities or not. [1]
  [1] That is to say, as the Bhagavad Gita teaches, for one who is
  sincerely devoted to the religious life and is wholly free from
  attachment to the fruits of his actions in the world, it is the same
  whether he refrain from worldly activities or not, inasmuch as such
  disintrestedness produces no karmic results.
  (2) For him who hath realized the transcendental nature of
 mind, it is the same whether he meditate or not. [1]
  [1] The goal of yogic meditation is to realize that only mind is
  real, and that the true (or primordial) state of mind is that state
  of mental quiescence, devoid of all thought-processes, which is
  experienced in the highest samadhi; and, once this goal is attained,
  meditation has fulfilled its purpose and is no longer necessary.
  (3) For him who is freed from attachment to worldly luxuries,
 it is the same whether he practise asceticism or not.
  (4) For him who hath realized Reality, it is the same whether
 he dwell on an isolated hill-top in solitude or wander hither
 and thither [as a bhikshu].
  (5) For him who hath attained the mastery of his mind,
 it is the same whether he partake of the pleasures of the world
 or not.
  (6) For him who is endowed with the fullness of compassion,
 it is the same whether he practise meditation in solitude or
 work for the good of others in the  midst of society.
  (7) For him whose humility and faith [with respect to his
 guru] are unshakable,it is the same whether he dwell with
 his guru or not.
  (8) For him who understandeth thoroughly the teachings
 which he hath received, it is the same whether he meet with
 good fortune or with bad fortune.
  (9) For him who hath given up the worldly life and taken
 to the practise of the Spiritual Truth, it is the same whether
  he observe conventional codes of conduct or not. [1]
  [1] In all his relationships with human society, the yogin is free to
  follow conventional usages or not.  What the multitude consider
  moral he may consider immoral, and vice versa.  (See Milarepa's
  song concerning what is shameful and what is not, pp. 226-7, of
  Tibet's Great Yogi Milarepa.)
  (10) For him who hath attained the Sublime Wisdom, it is
 the same whether he be able to exercise miraculous powers
 or not.
  These are The Ten Equal Things.
  [1] According to the Southern School, the Dharma (Pali : Dhamma)
  implies not merely the Scriptures, but also the study and practise
  of them for the purpose of attaining Nirvana (Pali : Nibbana).
  (1) The fact that there have been made known amongst
 men the Ten Pious Acts, [1] the Six Paramita, [2] the various
 teachings concerning Reality and Perfection, the Four
 Noble Truths, [3] the Four States of Dhyana, [4] the Four
 States of Formless Existence, [5] and the Two Mystic
 Paths [6] of spiritual unfoldment and emancipation, showeth
 the virtue of the Holy Dharma.
  [1] These are the opposite of the Ten Impious Acts.  Three are acts
  of the body, namely, Saving Life, Chastity, and Charity.  Four are
  acts of speech, namely, Truth-telling, Peace-making, Politeness of
  speech, and Religious discourse.  Three are acts of the mind, namely,
  Benevolence, Good Wishes, and Meekness combined with Faith.
  [2] The Six Paramita (or 'Six Boundless Virtues') are Boundless
  Charity, Morality, Patience, Industry, Meditation, Wisdom.  In the
  Pali canon ten Paramita are mentioned: Charity, Morality,
  Renunciation, Wisdom, Energy (or Industry), Tolerance, Truthfulness,
  Good-Will, Love, and Equanimity.
  [3] The Four Noble Truths taught by the Buddha may be stated as
  follows :(1) Existence in the Sangsara (the transitory and phenomenal
  universe) is inseparable from Suffering, or Sorrow.  (2) The Cause of
  Suffering is Desire and Lust for Existence in the Sangsara.  (3) The
  Cessation of Suffering is attained by conquering and eradicating
  Desire and Lust for Existence in the Sangsara.  (4) The Path to the
  Cessation of Suffering is the Noble Eightfold Path. {See p. 13.}
  [4] {See p. 329 [1].}
  [5] Literally, 'the Four Arapa (Formless) Unions'.  To be born in any
  of these worlds, wherein existence is bodiless or formless, is to be
  united with them.  These worlds are the four highest heavens under
  the sway of the God Brahma, known as the Higher Brahmaloka ('Realms
  of Brahma').  Their names are: (1) Akashanantyayatana (Realm wherein
  consciousness exists in infinite space); (2) Vijnananantyanatana
  (Realm wherein consciousness exists in the infinite state of
  consciousness); (3) Akincanyayatana (Realm wherein consciousness
  exists free from the infinite state of consciousness); (4)
  Naivasamjnana Samjnayatana (Realm wherein there is neither perception
  nor non-perception).  These four realms represent four progressive
  stages in the higher evolutionary process of emptying consciousness
  of its most subtle sangsaric objects, through yogic meditation, and
  thereby attaining higher conditions of sangsaric existence prepatory
  to the attainment of Nirvava.  In the first state, consciousness has
  no object upon which to centre itself save infinite space. In the
  second, consciousness transcends infinite space as its object.  In
  the third, consciousness transcends the second stage and thus becomes
  free from all thinking or process of thought; and this is one of the
  great goals of yoga.  In the fourth state, consciousness exists of
  itself and by itself, without exercising either perception or non-
  perception, in profoundest samadhic quiescence.  These four states of
  consciousness, which are among the highest attainable within the
  Sangsara, are reached in yogic trance induced by deep meditation.
  So transcendent are they that the unwisely directed yogin is apt to
  mistake the realization of them for the realization of Nirvana.  (See
  p. 329 {1}.)  The Prince Gautama, ere attaining Buddhahood, studied
  and practised the yoga pertaining to the Four States of Formless
  Existence under two gurus, Arlara and Uddaka, and relinquished it
  because he discovered that such yoga fails to lead to Nirvana.  (Cf.
  the Aryaparyesana, or 'Holy Research', Sutta, Majjhima Nikaya,
  i. 164-6.)
  [6] According to the Mahayana, there is the lower path, leading to
  the Four States of Formless Existence, and to other heaven worlds,
  such as that of Sukhavati, the Western Paradise of the Dhyani Buddha
  Amitabha; and the higher path, leading to Nirvana, whereby the
  Sangsara is transcended.
  (2) The fact that there have been evolved in the Sangsara
 spiritually enlightened princes and Brahmins [1] amongst men,
 and the Four Great Guardians, [2] the six orders of devas of the
 sensuous paradises, [3] the seventeen orders of gods of the worlds
 of form, [4] and the four orders of gods of the worlds without
 form [5] showeth the virtue of the Holy Dharma.
  [1] Most of the religious teachers of India have been either of royal
  descent, like Gautama the Buddha, or of Brahmanical or priestly
  origin, like Ashvaghosa, Nagarjuna, Tilopa and many others who were
  eminent Buddhists.  Buddhism holds that the historical Buddha,
  Gauatama, is but One of a long succession of Buddhas, and that
  Gautama merely handed on teachings which have existed since
  beginningless time.  Accordingly, it is directly due to beings in
  past aeons having practised these venerable teachings, based as they
  are upon realizable truths, that there have been evolved enlightened
  men and gods; and this fact proves the virtue of these teachings,
  recorded in the Buddhist Scriptures known as the Dharma.
  [2] These are the four celestial kings who guard the four quarters
  of the Universe from the destructive forces of evil, the Four Great
  Guardians of the Dharma and of Humanity.  Dhritarshthra guards the
  East, and to him is assigned the symbolic colour white.  Virudhhaka
  guards the South, and his symbolic colour is green.  The red guardian
  of the West is Virupaksha, and the yellow guardian of the North is
  [3] The six sensuous paradises, together with the Earth, constitute
  the Region of Sensuousness (Skt. Kamadhatu), the lowest of the Three
  Regions (Skt. Trailokya) into which the Buddhists divide the cosmos.
  [4] These are the deities inhabiting the seventeen heavens of Brahma
  which constitute the Region of Form (Skt. Rupadhatu), the second of
  the Three Regions, wherein existence and form are free from
  [5] These are the deities inhabiting the four highest Brahma heavens,
  wherein existence is not only non-sensuous, but is also formless.
  These heavens (named above) together with the Akanishtha (Tib.
  'Og-min) Heaven, the highest sangsaric state {see p. 250 [2]}
  constitute the Region of Formlessness (Skt. Arupadhatu), the third
  of the Three Regions.  Beyond this is the supra-cosmic state, beyond
  all heavens, hells, and worlds of sangsaric existence,--the Unborn,
  Unmade Nirvana.  The Stupa (Tib. Ch'orten) esoterically symbolizes
  the Way to Nirvana through the Three Regions.  (See Tibet's Great
  Yogi Milarepa, opposite p. 269.)
  (3) The fact fact that there have arisen in the world those who
 have entered the Stream, those who will return to birth but
 once more, those who have passed beyond the need of
 further birth, {1} and Arhants, and Self-enlightened Buddhas
 and Omniscient Buddhas, [2] showeth the virtue of the Holy
  [1] These three gradations of human beings correspond to three steps
  to Arhantship (or Saintship in the Buddhist sense), preparatory
  to the Full Enlightenment of Buddhahood.  'Entering the Stream'
  (Skt. Srotaapatti), which implies acceptance of the Doctrine of the
  Buddha, is the first step of the neophyte on the Path to Nirvana.
  'One who receives birth once more' (Skt. Sakridagamin) has taken
  the second step.  'One who will not come back [to birth]' (Skt.
  Anagamin), being one who has taken the third step and attained to the
  state of the Arhant, normally would pass on to Nirvana.  If, however,
  he takes the vow not to accept Nirvana till every sentient being is
  safely set upon the same Supreme Path that he has trodden, and thus
  becomes a Bodhisattva (or 'Enlightenment Being'), he will consciously
  reassume fleshly embodiment as a Divine Incarnation, a Nirmanakaya.
  As a Bodhisattva, he may remain within the Sangsara for unknown aeons
  and so give added strength to the 'Guardian Wall [of Spiritual
  Power]' which protects all living things and makes possible their
  Final Emancipation.  According to the Pali canon, one who is a
  Srota-apatti will be reborn at least once, but not more than seven
  times, in any of the seven states of the Kamadhatu.  A Sakridagamin
  will assume birth only once more, in one of the Kamadhatu.  And an
  Anagamin will not be reborn in any of them.
  [2] Self-Enlightened (Skt. Pratyeka) Buddhas do not teach the
  Doctrine publicly, but merely do good to those who come into personal
  contact with Them, whereas Omniscent Buddhas, of Whom was the Buddha
  Gautama, preach the Doctrine widely, both to gods and to men.
  (4) The fact that there are Those who have attained Bodhic
 Enlightenment and are able to return to the world as Divine
 Incarnations and work for the deliverance of mankind and of
 all living things till the time of the dissolution of the physical
 universe showeth the virtue of the Holy Dharma. [1]
  [1] It is the Holy Dharma alone which has revealed to mankind the
  Bodhic Pathway and the supreme teaching that Those who have won the
  right to freedom from further worldly existence should renounce the
  right and continue to reincarnate in order that their Divine Wisdom
  and Experience shall not be lost to the world, but employed to the
  sublime end of leading all unenlightened beings to the same State of
  (5) The fact that there existeth, as an outcome of the
 all-embracing benevolence of the Bodhisattvas, protective spiritual
 influences which make possible the deliverance of men and of
 all beings showeth the virtue of the Holy Dharma. [1]
  [1] In having chosen the Path of Infinite Benevolence, the
  Bodhisattvas have projected into the worlds of sangsaric existence
  subtle vibratory influences which protect all living beings and make
  possible their spiritual progress and ultimate enlightenment, as
  otherwise explained above.  Were there no such inspiring and
  elevating influences in the world, mankind would be without spiritual
  guidance and remain enslaved by sensuous delusions and mental
  (6) The fact that one experienceth even in the unhappy
 worlds of existence moments of happiness as a direct outcome
 of having performed little deeds of mercy while in the human
 world showeth the virtue of the Holy Dharma. [1]
  [1] The Buddhist teaching that the beneficial results of deeds of
  mercy done in this life assist one even in the unhappy after-death
  states is proved by experience and so shows the virtue of the Holy
  (7) The fact that men after having lived evilly should have
 renounced the worldly life and become saints worthy of the
 veneration of the world showeth the virtue of the Holy Dharma.
  (8) The fact that men whose heavy evil karma would have
 condemned them to almost endless suffering after death should
 have turned to the religious life and attained Nirvana showeth
 the virtue of the Holy Dharma.
  (9) The fact that by merely having faith in or meditating
 upon the Doctrine, or by merely donning the robe of the
 bhikshu, one becometh worthy of respect and veneration
 showeth the virtue of the Holy Dharma.
  (10) The fact that one, even after having abandoned all
 worldly possessions and embraced the religious life and given
 up the state of the householder and hidden himself in a most
 secluded hermitage, should still be sought for and supplied
 with all the necessities of life showeth the virtue of the Holy
  These are The Ten Virtues of The Holy Dharma.
  [1] This category of negations concerning Truth is probably inspired
  by the canonical Prajna-Paramita, upon which the seventh Book of our
  present volume is based.
  (1) As the Foundation Truth cannot be described [but must
 be realized in samadhi], the expression 'Foundation Truth' is
 merely figurative. [1]
  [1] The Foundation Truth, which is synonymous with the Dharma Kaya
  (or 'Divine Body of Truth'), is the All-Truth, in its primordial or
  unmodified aspect.  Yoga, the Science of Mind (or Truth), consists
  of three divisions, namely, the Foundation Truth, the Path (or method
  of attaining realization), and the fruit (or the realization itself).
  (2) As there is neither any traversing nor any traverser of
 the Path, the expression 'Path' is merely figurative. [1]
  [1] 'Path' is merely a metaphor descriptive of the method of
  realizing spiritual growth or progress.
  (3) As there is neither any seeing nor any seer of the True
 State, the expression 'True State' is merely figurative. [1]
  [1] The True State, realizable in the highest samadhi, is in its
  microcosmic reflex, a state wherein the mind, unmodified by the
  process of thought, resembles in its quiescence an ocean unruffled by
  the least movement of air, as has been similarly stated above.
  All doors of perception are closed.  There is complete oblivion
  of the material universe of phenomena.  The microcosmic mind
  becomes attuned to the Macrocosmic Mind.  Thereby is attained
  the knowledge that in the True State there are no seeing or seer,
  that all finite concepts are really non-existent, that all dualities
  become unities, that there is but the One Reality Primordial
  Cosmic Mind.
  (4) As there is neither any meditation nor any meditator of
 the Pure State, the expression 'Pure State' is merely figurative. [1]
  [1] The Pure State is an intensified aspect of the True State,
  wherein mind, in its primordial condition, exists unsullied by any
  predication.  In the realizing of it, in the samadhic condition,
  the act of meditating, the meditator, and the thing meditated upon
  are indistinguishably one.
  (5) As there is neither any enjoying nor any enjoyer of
 the Natural Mood, the expression 'Natural Mood' is merely
 figurative. [1]
  [1] The Natural Mood refers to a state of mind, likewise
  reached in the highest samadhi, concomitant with the True State and
  the Pure State.  Therein there is realized that there are really no
  enjoying or enjoyer, no actions or doer of actions, that all
  objective things are as unreal as dreams; and that, therefore,
  rather than live as the multitude in the pursuit of illusions,
  one should choose the Path of the Bodhisattvas, the Lords of
  Compassion, and be a worker for the emancipation of beings karmically
  bound to the Wheel of Ignorance.
  (6) As there is neither any vow-keeping nor any vow-keeper,
 these expressions are merely figurative.
  (7) As there is neither any accumulating nor any accumulator
 of merits, the expression 'Twofold Merit' [1] is merely
  [1] This is: Casual Merit, which is the fruit of charitable
  deeds, and otherwise known as temporal merit; and Resultant Merit,
  which arises from super-abundance of Casual Merit, and otherwise
  called spiritual merit. {Cf. p. 314 [3]}
  (8) As there is neither any performing nor any performer
 of actions, the expression 'Twofold Obscuration' [1] is merely
  [1] That is: Obscurations of intellect resulting from evil
  passions; and Obscurations of intellect resulting from wrong belief,
  such as the belief that there is an immortal personal self, or soul,
  or the belief that phenomenal appearances are real. {Cf. p. 314 [3].}
  (9) As there is neither any renunciation nor any renouncer
 [of worldly existence], the expression 'worldly existence' is
 merely figurative.
  (10) As there is neither any obtaining nor any obtainer [of
 results of actions], the expression 'result of actions' is
 merely figurative.
  These are The Ten Figurative Expressions. [1]
  [1] All these aphorisms of negation rest upon the Bodhic doctrine
  that personality is transitory, that personal (or soul)
  immortality is inconceivable to one who has attained to Right
  Knowledge.  The microcosmic mind, a reflex of the Macrocosmic
  Mind (which alone is eternal), ceases to be microcosmic, or limited,
  when immersed in the ecstasy induced by the highest samadhi.
  There is then no personality, no obtainer, no renouncer, no performer
  of actions, no accumulator of merits, no vow-keeper, no enjoyer
  of the Natural Mood, no meditator of the Pure State, no seer of the
  True State, no traverser of the Path: and the whole conceptual or
  illusory state of mind is obliterated.  Human language is essentially
  a means of enabling man to communicate with man in terms based upon
  experiences common to all men existing in a sensuous universe; and
  the employment of it to describe supersensuous experiences can never
  anything more than figurative.
  (1) It is great joy to realize that the mind of all sentient
 beings is inseparable from the All-Mind. [1]
  [1] Or the Dharma-Kaya, the 'Divine Body of Truth', viewed as the
  (2) It is great joy to realize that the Fundamental Reality
 is qualityless. [1]
  [1] Qualities are purely sangsaric, ie. of the phenomenal universe.
  To the Fundamental Reality, to the Thatness, no characteristics can
  be applied.  In It all sangsaric things, all qualities, all
  conditions, all dualities, merge in transcendent at-one-ness.
  (3) It is great joy to realize that in the infinite, thought-
 transcending Knowledge of Reality all sangsaric differentiations
 are non-existent. [1]
  [1] In the Knowledge (or Realization) of Reality all partial or
  relative truths are recognized as parts of the One Truth, and no
  differentiations such as lead to the establishing of opposing
  religions and sects, each perhaps pragmatically in possession of some
  partial truth, is possible.
  (4) It is great joy to realize that in the state of primordial
 [or uncreated] mind there existeth no disturbing thought-process. [1]
  [1] {Cf. pp. 89 [1], 153 [2].}
  (5) It is great joy to realize that in the Dharma-Kaya
 wherein mind and matter are inseparable, there existeth neither
 any holder of theories nor any support of theories. [1]
  [1] To the truth-seeker, whether in the realm of physical or of
  spiritual  science, theories are essential; but once any truth, or
  fact, has been ascertained, all theories concerning it are useless.
  Accordingly, in the Dharma-Kaya, or State of the Fundamental Truth,
  no theory is necessary or conceivable; it is the State of Perfect
  Enlightenment, of the Buddhas in Nirvana.
  (6) It is great joy to realize that in the self-emanated
 compassionate Sambhoga-Kaya there existeth no birth, death,
 transition, or any change. [1]
  [1] The Sambhoga-Kaya, or 'Divine Body of Perfect Endowment',
  symbolizes the state of spiritual communion in which all Bodhisattvas
  exist when not incarnate on Earth, similar to that implied by the
  communion of saints.  Like the Dharma-Kaya, of which it is the
  self-emanated primary reflex, the Sambhoga-Kaya is a state wherein
  birth, death, transitions, and change are transcended.
  (7) It is great joy to realize that in the self-emanated, divine
 Nirmana-Kaya there existeth no feeling of duality. [1]
  [1] The Nirmana-Kaya, or 'Divine Body of Incarnation', the
  secondary reflex of the Dharma-Kaya, is the Body, or Spiritual
  State, in which abide all Great Teachers, or Bodhisattvas,
  incarnate on earth.  The Dharma-Kaya, being beyond the realm of
  sangsaric sense perceptions, cannot be sensuously perceived.
  Hence the mind of the yogin when realizing It ceases to exist
  as finite mind, as something apart from It.  In other words,
  in the state of transcendent samadhic ecstasy wherein the
  Dharma-Kaya is realized, finite mind attains to at-one-ment
  with its Source, the Dharma-Kaya.  Likewise, in the state of
  the Nirmana-Kaya, the Divine and the Sentient, Mind and Matter,
  Noumena and Phenomena, and all the dualities, blend in at-one-ment.
  And this the Bodhhisattvas, when in the fleshly body, intuitively
  feels; he knows that neither he himself, nor any sensuous or
  objective thing, has a separate or independent existence apart
  from the Dharma-Kaya.  For a more detailed exposition of this
  fundamental Mahayanic doctrine of the 'Three Divine Bodies'
  (Skt. Tri-Kaya) the student is referred to The Tibetan Book
 of the Dead, pp. 10-15.
  (8) It is great joy to realize that in the Dharma-Chakra
 there existeth no support for the soul doctrine. [1]
  [1] The truths proclaimed by the Buddha are symbolized by the
  Dharma-Chakra (the 'Wheel of Truth') which He set in motion when He
  first preached the truths to his disciples, in the Deer Park,
  near Benares.  In the time of the Enlightened One, and long before
  then, the animistic belief in a permanent ego, or self, in an
  unchanging soul (Skt. atma), ie. in personal immortality, was
  as widespread in India and the Far East as it is in Europe and
  America now.  He denied the validity of this doctrine; and nowhere
  in the Buddhist Scriptures, or Dharma, of either Southern or Northern
  Buddhism, is there any support for it.
  (9) It is great joy to realize that in the Divine, Boundless
 Compassion [of the Bodhisattvas] there existeth neither any
 shortcoming nor any showing of partiality.
  (10) It is great joy to realize that the Path to Freedom
 which all the Buddhas have trodden is ever-existent, ever unchanged,
 and ever open to those who are ready to enter upon it.
  These are The Ten Great Joyful Realizations.
                           [THE CONCLUSION]
  Herein above, is contained the essence of the immaculate words
 of the Great Gurus, who were endowed with Divine Wisdom; and of
 the Goddess Tara and other divinities.  Among these Great Teachers
 were the glorious Dipankara, [1] the spiritual father and his successors, who were divinely appointed for the spreading of the
 Doctrine in this Northern Land of Snow; and the Gracious Gurus of
 the Kahdampa School.  There were also that King of Yogins, Milarepa, to whom was bequeathed the learning of the Sage Marpa of Lhobrak
 and of others; and the illustrious Saints, Naropa and Maitripa,
 of the noble land of India, whose splendour equalled that of the
 Sun and Moon; and the disciples of all these.
  [1] Dipankara [Shri-jnana], as given in our text, is the Indian
 name of Atisha, the first of the Great Reformers of Lamaism,
 who was born in Bengal, of the royal family of Gaur, in AD. 980,
 and arrived in Tibet in 1038.  Having been a professor of
 philosophy in the Vikramanshila Monastery, of Magadha, he
 brought with him to Tibet much fresh learning, chiefly relating
 to Yoga and Tantricism.  His chief work, as a reformer, was
 by enforcing celibacy and a higher priestly morality.
 Atisha associated himself with the sect called the Kahdampas,
 or 'Those Bound by the Ordinances'.  Three hundred and fifty
 years later, under the second of the Great Reformers, Tsong-Khapa,
 a territorial title meaning 'Native of the Onion Country',
 the district of his birth, in Amdo Province, in North-East
 Tibet near the Chinese frontier, the Kahdampas became the
 Gelugpas, or 'Followers of the Virtuous Order', who now
 constitute the Established Church of Tibet.
       Here endeth The Supreme Path, the Rosary of Precious Gems.
                            [THE COLOPHON]
  This treatise was put into manuscript form by Digom Sonam
 Rinchen, [1] who possessed thorough knowledge of the teachings
 of the Kahdampas and of the Chagchenpas. [2]
  [1] Text: Hbri-sgom Bsod-nams Rin-chen (pronounced Di-gom
 So-nam Rin-chen), meaning, 'Meditating One of Precious Merit,
 of the Cave of the Cow-Yak'.
  [2] These are the followers of the yogic teachings contained in
 the Chag-chen Philosophy, the essence of which forms the subject-
 matter of Book II of this volume.
  It is commonly believed that the Great Guru Gampopa, [otherwise
 known as Dvagpo-Lharje], compiled this work, and that he handed
 it on with this injunction: 'I entreat those devotees of generations
 yet unborn, who will honour my memory and regret not having met me in
 person, to study this, The Supreme Path, the Rosary of Precious Gems,
 and, also, The Precious Ornament of Liberation, along with other
 religious treatises.  The result will be equivalent to that of
 an actual meeting with me myself.'
  May this Book radiate divine virtue; and may it prove to be
                               Mangalam. [1]
  [1] The Tibetan-Sanskrit of the text, literally meaning, 'Blessing'
 or 'Happiness'; or, in reference to this Book, 'May blessing be
 upon it'.