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India in Primitive Christianity, by Arthur Lille, [1909], at

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Abrasax, a figure with Serpents for legs, 264; represented the Christos in the early church according to Tertullian, 264; is S’iva as the year god who dies at Easter, 263; has affinities with Philo's Logos and the Cingalese god, Kattragam, 267.

Aditî, the Vedic Universal Mother,

Âdityas, Sons of Aditî, the months deified,

Aishwarikas, Buddhists guided by Patanjali's Yogi Śâstra, the theistic school,

Amitâyas, the Buddha of immortal life,

Amarâvâtî, Tablets from, reveal Bacchantic mysteries in Buddhism, 283.

Amrita, Pâli Amata, immortality, "bread of life," 101; the food of the sacrifice after consecration,

Arhat, one emancipated from rebirths, an Adept,

Arûpaloka, the heavens where form ceases,

Asoka on "God," the future life, prayer, mysticism, etc., 85 et seq.; his attitude towards Buddhism, 97 et seq.

Avalokitishvara, Down-looking S’iva. Also S’iva's head on the monuments, 129; brought Buddhism to Tibet, 119; incarnate in each Dalai Lâma, 119.

Avîchi, the "rayless place," hell, purgatory,


Baal-Phœnician, a form of S’ivism, 11.

Bacchantic rites, see Somnâth. Baptism, the Buddhist rite of, 112.

Beal, Rev. Samuel, first suggests the occurrence in the past of a S’iva-Buddhist union, 2.

Bhagavat, lord, god, a title applied to Buddha, and S’iva.

Bhikshu, beggar, one who has adopted the religious life. He is called also Parivrâjika (wanderer), Muni (silent one), Sramana (vile one), Son of Buddha, Son of Sâkya, Son of Dharma, Man of Pure Life, Smâsânika (dwelling amid tombs), Houseless one, etc.,

Bigandet, Bishop, on the Buddhist hierarchy, 122, 216.

Bimbisâra, advised to destroy the infant Buddha, 51.

Bodhi, gnosis, knowledge of the laws of spirit, annihilation of the ego, and mystical union of the soul with the non-ego, or God,

Bodhisatwa, one about to obtain the Bodhi in his next rebirth. Also a gloss of S’iva Buddhism to get rid of the early worship of the Buddhas of the Past. They are changed to Bodhisatwas of the Past; and Bodhisatwa Maitreya rules the Kosmos,

Brahma, the Great Spirit, the ineffable,

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Brahma, the anthropomorphic god,

Brahmacharins, Seekers of Brahma, name for Buddha's early disciples,

Brahmajnâni, an Adept, Büchner, Ludwig, derives Christianity from Buddhism, 1; Metempsychosis, on the, 17.

Buddha, esoterically God, exoterically Sâkya Muni. See Sâkya Muni.

Burnouf Emile, derives Christianity from Buddhism, 1.


Carpet (kûsa mat) of Brahma, a mystic state,

Ceylon, vast pretensions claimed for scriptures of, 92 et seq., 245

Chaitya, sepulchral mound, dolmen,

Chaitya Lingam, a lingam disguised as a Chaitya, 109.

Chakravartin (lit. "he who turns in the Zodiac"), a king of kings,

Child, covered with flour, a feature in the Buddhist and also the Christian mysteries, 243.

Clement of Alexandria, on India,

Colebrooke, Henry, on the theistic Sankhya, 16; on the atheistic Sankhya, 16; derives the philosophy of Pythagoras from Buddhism, 171.

Copleston, Bishop, bases his onslaught on Buddhism on the Mahayana literature o f Buddhaghosa, 245.


Dharma, the laws of spirit personified as a divine woman,

Dhyâna, the trance of extasia,

Durgâ, has many names and many functions. She is the Tree goddess, the pestilent breath of the jungle, 30; patroness of the Thugs, a foul witch, the "She Devil Devî," 112; but also the Dharma of the Buddhists, the Sophia of the Gnostics, the "Church," and the Virgin, 89.

Descent into hell, Cingalese legend explaining, 285; in the Catholic Mass, 286; in the death of S’iva as the year-god, 287.


Elora, Fergusson's date, Rock-detached temples, 750 to 950 A.D., 143; Ati-Brahman's Cave, 149.

Elephant, its meaning, 233 Buddha's descent as one, 48.

Essene rites, 167.


Fa Hian cited, declares that Nalanda, the Rome of Buddhism at the date of Buddhaghosa, held the Great Vehicle teaching, 94.

Fasting, Buddha's forty-seven days’,

Fergusson, James, on Indian Architecture, 141 et seq.

Foucaux, Philippe Edouard, his translation of the "Lalita Vistara" cited, 46 to 69.


Gandharva, a cherub,

Ganeśa, the son of S’iva, gives civilisation to Rome as Janus, 18; parallel between these two gods drawn by Sir William Jones, 19.

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Gâthâ, a poem, a verse,

Girnar Rock, Asoka's inscription, declares that his missionaries converted Egypt, 163.

Gopura, Early Pyramid of S’iva; afterwards a pyramidal gateway to S’ivan Temple,

Grueber, Father, on the similarity of Buddhist and Christian rites, 220.

Guru, a spiritual teacher,


Hadrian, the Emperor, sees little difference between the Christians and the worshippers of Serapis at Alexandria, 269.

Huc, the Abbé, on the similarity of Buddhist and Christian rites, 219.

Hiouen Thsiang, states objections of earlier Buddhism to Agnostic School, 246; on the Convocation of Kaniska, 253; Buddhism of Ceylon belongs to the Great Vehicle, 246.


Inebriating Feast of the Buddha, the form that the Bacchantic S’iva Buddha festival takes in Ceylon,

Isâna, God, on the Asoka stones,


Jerusalem, Church of, its earliest offshoot, in Rome, water-drinking vegetarians, 186.

Jina, a conqueror of his lower nature, a Buddha,

Jones, Sir William, draws a parallel between Ganeśa and Janus, 19.


Karma, the effects of sins or good deeds, which are supposed to land the doer in the hell Avîchi or the heavens of the Devaloka, and detain him until the said Karma is exhausted. He is then born once more into the world, his Karma influencing the new birth, 207.

Kellog, Professor, on the Metempsychosis, 206.

Kailas, Rock-detached Temple. See Elora.


Lâma, the Grand, the high priest of Tibet, descended most probably from the Achârya of Nalanda,

Lightfoot, Bishop of Durham, considers Christ's movement anti-Essene, 174; on the festival at Ruanwelli, 174.

Lingam, sex symbol, S’iva,


Mahâbâlipur, Rock-detached temples and pyramid, very ancient. Fergusson's date fifth and sixth century A.D.,

Mahâdeo, a monolith or menhir, "Great God," a name of S’iva as the Lingam, 10.

Mahâkâla, S’iva as Time.

Mahâkâla Sanhita, gives the rites of S’iva's yearly death as the Time god. These have descended to S’iva Buddhism in the "mystery" of the "Sacrificial Body of the Dead Year," 139.

Mandala, mystic ring,

Mantra, prayer, charm,

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Manushi (mortal), Buddhas, seven, 100 et seq.

Mâra, the Buddhist Satan,

Megasthenes on India, 102, 105.

Monks from Alexandria accepted as genuine Buddhist monks in Ceylon, at the festival to inaugurate the Ruanwelli Tope, B.C. 160—174 et seq.


Nairanjana, the Buddhist Jordan, 67.

Nirvâna, heaven, emancipation, also annihilation.


Oldenburg, Dr., rejects second convocation, 98.


Palâsa, Butea frondosa.

Pâramitâs, the ten, the "qualities of the Other Bank."

Parivrâjika. See Bhikshu.

Pârsvika, a leader in the Agnostic revolution in Buddhism entitled the "Great Vehicle," 127.

Prajnâ Pâramitâ, the "Wisdom of the Other Bank"; Wisdom personified by a woman,


Rajendra Lala Mitra shows that the philosophy of the "Great Vehicle" was plagiarised from the Sunyavâdi, 128.

Râm Râz, Hindu Architect, 149.

Rishi, prophet, man of God,

Rosny, Léon de, derives Christianity from Essenism and Buddhism, 1.


Sâkya Muni, results of his movement, 69; comes down to earth as a white elephant, 48; miraculous birth, 50; marriage, 56; the four presaging tokens, 56; leaves the place, 65; sits under the tree of Knowledge, 66; on the Brahma religion, 72; his reform, 75; begins to preach 68; the historical Buddha, 79, 89; death of, 81.

Samana Deva Râja, S’iva as worshipped in Ceylon, 113.

Sekkraia, Chief God in Ceylon, half a Lingam, half Indra or Sakra. He came on to Alexandria as Serapis, like him a god, half man half stone. He is a mask for the benevolent aspect of S’iva,

Serpent Symbolism. Not in early Buddhism, 276 et seq.

Sesh, Symbol of S’iva, also starry heavens, 26.

S’iva, Pantheistic god, two faces, 241; cultus rises higher and sinks lower than that of all early creeds, 13; Invents Yoga or mysticism, 13; invents the Logos idea, 18; invents Heaven and Hell.

Skandhas, the five (lit. "bodies"), usually applied by Buddhists to the animal nature of man,

Somnâth, S’iva as inventor of first intoxicant, 139; as Bacchus, 139; he figures as a drunken Silenus at the modern festivals, 139.

Southern account of Buddha's movement, 92; drawn up by Buddhaghosa, 93 et seq.; shameful dishonesty of, 94 et seq.

St. Matthew an Essene, 228.

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St. James an Essene, 228.

Stambha, upright monolith, menhir,

Sunya, the void, the "Great Nowhere."

Sunya pushpa, the "Carriage that drives to the Great Nowhere;" a nickname for the Agnostic or innovating school of Buddhism, the Buddhism of the "Great Vehicle,"

S’iva-Buddhism, Forced addition to early Buddhism of the worship of the left-handed, or evil, divinities, 107; identical with the Mahayana movement, 108 et seq.

Sûtra, discourse,

S’iva-Linga, the holiest form of lingam,

Swayamvara, marriage by athletic competition (lit. "her own choice"),


Tapas, self-torture (swinging on hooks, etc.) to gain magical power,

Tathâgata. See Sakya Muni.

Tîrthas, tanks, shrines,

Tope, a dolmen, or sepulchral mound,

Tusita, the highest heaven to be reached by unemancipated spirits.


Upham, Edward, in the Kappooism of Ceylon, 247; pronounces the Buddhism of the North and South identical, 247.


Vaitarani, the Brahmin River of Death,

Varshâ, the rainy season, the Buddhist Lent,

Vihâra, a monastery,


Williams, Sir Monier, pronounces Buddhism atheistic, 89; it ignores all "spiritual aspirations," 69; general denunciation, 89.

Wilson, Professor, Horace Hayman, detects S’ivan rites in the Christian Agapæ described by Gibbon, 237; S’iva's mythology neglected, 9.

Word of Glory—Indian Logos, 18.


Yoga (lit. "union"), the conjoining of heaven and earth, spirit, and matter, the annihilation of the ego and merging of one's will with the divine will. Magical powers were conceived to be a result of this "union." Hence Yoga also means white magic, 15.