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IN the chapter on "Metempsychosis" I have already alluded to the various means of purification from sins, a very efficacious one, it will be remembered, consisting in .the supplication of the deities. I have likewise there referred to the addresses offered up to the Buddhas of confession, which are contained in various compilations of prayers. A sacred treatise of this nature forms the subject of the present chapter. The original I found concealed in a Chorten my brother Hermann had obtained from the Lama at Saimonbóng, in Síkkim;[1] it is written in small characters (the Vumed) on two sheets

[1. The Chorten stood on the altar in the Lama's praying-room already when Hooker was there. See the View of the interior of the house of the Lama at Saimonbóng in his "Himalayan Journals."]

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of unequal size. The larger is about four feet square, its height being two feet four inches, its breadth one foot nine inches; the smaller has the same breadth) but its height is only six inches, giving a surface of 7/8 square foot. These two sheets were lying one upon the other, but separated by grains of barley interposed between them. They were wound round a wooden four-sided obelisk which filled the central part of the Chorten. The four sides of this obelisk were covered with Dhâranî inscriptions.

As the size of the two sheets does not allow of my reproducing here this invocation of the Buddhas of confession in the form. of a facsimile, I preferred giving it transcribed in the head characters in the ordinary form of Tibetan books, at the end of the chapter. The contents of the two parts are separated by a distance left between them; the beginning of the second part is besides also marked in the Tibetan text by the recurrence of the initial sign.[1]

Its full title runs thus: Digpa thamchad shagpar terchoi, "Repentance of all sins, doctrine of the hidden treasure."[2] The words ter-choi were illegible in the sentence at the head of the treatise, and it was only through their occurring at the foot of the larger leaf in connexion with the rest of the phrase that the hiatus could be filled up. Here also the other words preceding them had suffered considerable injury, but the general

[1. In the English translation the words in parenthesis are rather explanatory paraphrases, than literal translations of the Tibetan.

2. Sdig-pa "sin, vice;" thams-chad "all;" bshags-pa "repentant confession;" r, the sign of the locative, is often used in stead of the genetive {sic} sign (comp. Foucaux, Grain. Tib., p. 94); gter "a treasury;" chhos "the doctrine."]

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context and the few letters still decipherable proved sufficient to remove all doubt that the title had been repeated. Another name for the petition, and one which we several times meet with in the text, is Digshag ser chi pugri, "the golden razor which takes away sins,"[1] this designation evidently signifying its extraordinary efficacy in delivering the sinner.

The larger leaf commences with a general laudation of the Buddhas--past, present, and to come--who are considered to have approached nearest to perfection; then fifty-one Buddhas are mentioned each by name; of some the region is Stated in which they dwell, to others is added the number of their births from the moment in which they entered the Buddha career down to the time when they obtained the Buddhaship. Sins are said to be annihilated by reading or uttering the names of these Buddhas, and the sins are specified from which each Buddha has the power to purify. The wickedness of the human race, which caused the destruction of the universe, is alluded to, and the prophecy is made that man shall have recourse to this treatise and derive from it great advantages.

The second, smaller leaf, begins with the words: "Enshrined in the sacred box at the time of the uttering of benedictions," which refer to the usual inauguration ceremonies of religious buildings, as also to the blessings pronounced on such solemn occasions. Their effects upon the salvation of man, and the advantages

[1. Gser "gold;" kyi, chi, is the sign of the genitive me; spu-gri "a razor."]

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which the inhabitants of the monastery shall derive from repeating them, are also again noticed. It concludes with four Dhâranîs.

The address styles itself a Mahâyâna Sûtra (in Tibetan, Thegpa chenpoi do), under which we should also have to class it from the nature of its contents.[1] The addressing of imaginary Buddhas and the admission of a magical influence of prayers upon the deity implored is particularly to be mentioned in evidence of its being written in this period of mystic modification of Buddhism.[2] We may also, with equal right, regard it as a translation from an ancient Sanskrit work, on account of the occurring of the title in Sanskrit.

The personal names of the Buddhas, and the Tibetan terms explained in the notes, are given in exact transliteration, and are not reprinted in the GLOSSARY OF TIBETAN TERMS, APPENDIX B., if they occur in the text; the native spelling of the other words may be looked for in this Glossary.

Translation of the first part.

"In the Sanskrit language[3].... Reverence be to the

[1. For the characteristic signs of a Mahâyâna Sûtra, see Burnouf, "Introduction," p. 121.

2. The Sûtras Phal-po-chhe and Rim-pa-lnga which are referred to for particulars concerning several Buddhas, are contained in the Kanjur.

3. My original is injured in this place, and the Sanskrit name cannot be read--It is a curious custom, differing from translations in European languages, that books which have been translated from the Sanskrit have frequently two titles, the Sanskrit and the Tibetan one. Some larger works of the Kanjur also receive an additional title in the Tibetan dialect called Dulva zhi, "the basis of religious discipline." See Csoma, "Analysis," As. Res.. Vol. XX., p. 44.]

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very spotless Buddhas, who all came, in the same way.[1] In Tibetan: Repentance of all sins" (or sdig-pa-thams-chad-bshags-par).

"I adore the Tathâgatas of the three periods,[2] who dwell in the ten quarters of the world,[3] the subduers of the enemy, the very pure and perfect Buddhas, (I adore)

[1. In the original, Na-mo-sarva-bi-ma-la-ta-thâ-ga-ta-bud-dha; the words are all Sankrit. {sic} Tathâgatas, in Tibetan De-bzhin, or more fully De-bzhin-gshegs-pa, an epithet of the Buddhas who have appeared upon earth, implying that they have gone in the manner of their predecessors. Comp. pp. 4, 15.--In the sequel I shall translate De-bzhin-gshegs-pa by its Sanskrit equivalent Tathâgata, the literal rendering of the passage making the phrase inconveniently long.

Similar sentences begin religious treatises; the Kanjur e. g. has in the first page three images representing Sâkyamuni, with his son on his left, and one of his chief disciples on the right the following legends being written respectively under each: "Salutation to the prince of the Munis; salutation to the son of Shârikâ; salutation to Grachen dzin (Sanskrit Lâhula)." The title page of the work is followed by the Salutation to the three holy ones. Csoma, "Analysis of the Dulva class of the Kanjur," As. Res., Vol. XX., p. 45. Our historical document relating to the foundation of the Hímis monastery, an abreviated {sic} translation of which is appended to the chapter on monasteries, commences with the words: "Hail! praise and salutation to the teachers!"

2. The three periods are the past, the present and the future; the Buddhas of the past are those who had preached the law and have now returned to Nirvâna; the Buddha of the present time is Sâkyamuni, the last of the Buddhas that have yet appeared; the Buddhas of the future time are the Bôdhisattvas, the candidates for Buddhaship. The Buddhas of the three periods include all the Buddhas.

3 In Tibetan phyogs-bchu. These ten quarters of the world are: north; north-east; east; south-east; south; south-west; west; north-west; the quarter above the zenith; the quarter below the nadir. Each region is inhabited by its own Buddhas and gods, and to know their feelings towards a particular man is considered of the greatest importance. Compare for details Chapter XVII. No. 2.--A totally different meaning must be attached to Sa-bchu-pa "the ten earths," a term equivalent to the Sanskrit Dasabhûmi, referring to the ten regions or degrees of perfection which a Bôdhisattva has to pass in succession in order to attain the Buddha perfection. Comp. Csoma's "Dictionary," p. 89; "Analysis," As. Res., Vol. XX., p. 469; 405. Burnouf "Introduction," p. 438. Wassiljew, "Der Buddhismus," p. 405.]

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these illustrious beings,[1] each and all. I offer to them and confess my sins."

"I rejoice over the cause of virtue,[2] I turn the wheel of the doctrine,[3] I believe that the body of all the Buddhas does not enter Nirvâna.[4]

"The causes of virtue will grow to great perfection.

"I adore the Tathâgata, the vanquisher of the enemy,[5] the very pure, the most perfect[6] Buddha Nara-mkha'-dpal-dri-med-rdul-rab-tu-mdzes;[7]

"I adore the Tathâgata Yon-tan-tog-gi-'od-la-me-tog-padma-vaidhurya'i-'od-zer-rin-po-chhe'i-gzugs, who has the body of a god's son;

"I adore the Tathâgata sPos-mchhog-dam-pas-mchhod-pa'i-sku-rnam-par-spras-shing-legs-par-rgyan-pa;

[1. In Tibetan dpal, a title applied to gods, saints, and great men.

2. The Tibetan word is rtsa-va "root, first cause, origin." The meaning of the phrase is a promise for the practise of virtues.

3. This is the technical term for teaching and preaching the laws of the Buddha, though it is also applied by analogy to the observation of the precepts of the Buddha. Compare Foe koue ki, Engl. Transl., pp. 29, 171.

4. This sentence is to be explained by the dogma of the three bodies of every Buddha, concerning which comp. p. 38. When a Buddha leaves the earth, he loses the faculty of embodying himself again in human shape; the Nirmânakâya body (Tib. Prulpai ku) in which he has contributed to the welfare and salvation of mankind in the periods preceding the attainment of the Buddha perfection, dies with him, and does not enter Nirvâna. The Tibetan gsol-ba-'debs had, therefore, to be translated by "I believe," though the dictionaries only give "to intreat, to beg" as its signification.

5. In Tibetan dgra-bchom-pa, in Sanskrit Arhat (see p. 27).

6. In Tibetan Yang-dag-par-rdzogs-pa, in Sanskrit Samyak sambuddha.

7. This and the following Tibetan terms are the personal names of the respective Buddhas.]

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"I adore the Tathâgata gTsug-tor-gyi-gtsug-nas-nyi-ma'i-'od-zer-dpag-med-zla-'od-smon-lam-gyis-rgyan-pa,

"I adore the Tathâgata Rab-sprul-bkod-pa-chhen-po-chhos-kyi-dbyings-las-mngon-par-'phags-pa-chhags-dang-ldan-zla-med-rin-chhen-'byung-ldan,

"I adore the Tathâgata, Chhu-zla'i-gzhon-nu-nyi-ma'i-sgron-ma-zla-ba'i-me-tog-rin-chhen-padma-gser-gyi-'du-ni-mkha', who has perfectly the body of a god's son,

"I adore the Tathâgata, who is sitting in the ten regions, 'Od-zer-rab-tu-'gyed-ching-'jig-rten-gyi-nam-mkha'-kun-du-snang-bar-byed-pa,

"I adore the Tathâgata Sangs-rgyas-kyi-bkod-pa-thams-chad-rab-tu-rgyas-par-mdzad-pa,

"I adore the Tathâgata Sangs-rgyas-kyi-dgongs-pa-bsgrubs-pa,

"I adore the Tathâgata Dri-med-zla-ba'i-me-tog-gi-bkod-pa-mdzad,

"I adore the Tathâgata Rin-chhen-mchhog-gis-me-tog-grags-ldan,

"I adore the Tathâgata, 'Jigs-med-rnam-par-gzigs,

"I adore the Tathâgata 'Jigs-pa-dang-'bral-zhing-bag-chhags-mi-mnga'-zhing-spu-zing-zhis-mi-byed-pa,

"I adore the Tathâgata Seng-ge-sgra-dbyangs,

"I adore the Tathâgata gSer-'od-gzi-brjid-kyi-rgyal-po."

"Whatever human being upon earth writes the names of these Buddhas, or carries them with him, or reads them, or makes a vow (to do so), will be blessed for it: he will become clean from all darkening sins, and

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will be born in the region bDe-va-chan,[1] which is towards the west."

"I adore the Tathâgata Ts'he-dpag-med[2].who dwells in the Buddha-region bDe-va-chan;

"I adore the Tathâgata, rDo-rje-rab-tu-'dzin-pa, who dwells in the Buddha-region Ngur-smrig-gi-rgyal-mts'han;

"I adore the Tathâgata Pad-mo-shin-tu-rgyas-pa, who dwells in the Buddha-region Phyir-mi-ldag-pa'i-'khor-lo-rab-tu-sgrog-pa;

"I adore the Tathâgata Chhos-kyi-rgyal-mts'han, who dwells in the Buddha-region rDul-med-pa;

"I adore the Tathâgata, Seng-ge-sgra-dbyangs-rgyal-po, who dwells in the Buddha-region sGron-la-bzang-po;

"I adore the Tathâgata, rNams-par-snang-mdzad-rgyal-po,[3] who dwells in the Buddha-region 'Od-zer-bsang-po;

"I adore the Tathâgata Chhos-kyi-'od-zer-gyi-sku-pad-mo-shin-tu-rgyas-pa, who dwells in the Buddha-region 'Da'-bar-dka'-ba;

"I adore the Tathâgata, mNgon-par-mkhyen-pa-thams-chad-kyi-'od-zer,

[1. In Sanskrit Sukhavatî. This word is the name of the happy mansion where the Dyâni Buddha Amitâbha, or in Tibetan Odpagmed, sits enthroned; it is considered the greatest reward of a virtuous life to be re-born in this world. See the description of this region p. 98.

2. In Sanskrit Amitâyus. This is another name of Amitâbha (Burnouf "Introduction," p. 102) who is so styled when implored for longevity. In images referring to this power of the Buddha, he holds a vase-like vessel filled with the water of life, which he is believed to pour out over those who address him.--Such a figure may be very often seen in every kind of religious representations, paintings as well as plastic objects.

3. In Sanskrit Vâirôchana, the name of a fabulous Buddha, regarded as the Dhyâni Buddha of the first human Buddha who taught the law in the actual universe. See Burnouf's Introduction, p. 117.]

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who dwells in the Buddha-region rGyan-dang-ldan-pa;

"I adore the Tathâgata 'Od-mi-'khrugs-pa, who dwells in the Buddha-region Me-long-gi-dkyil-'khor-mdog'-dra;

'I adore the illustrious sNying-po, who dwells in the Buddha-region Padmo, in that pure Buddha-region where abides the victorious, the Tathâgata who has subdued his enemy, the very pure, perfect Buddha Ngan-'gro-thams-chad-rnam-par-'joms-pa-'phags-pa-gzi-brjid-sgra-dbyangs-kyi-rgyal-po."

"All these (Buddhas' stories) are contained in the Sûtra Phal-po-chhe."[1]

"I likewise adore the Buddha Shâkya-thub-pa, who is known to have been born thirty millions of times;[2]

[1. Comp. p. 125--In Csoma's Analysis of it Vâirôchana (rNam-par-snang-mdzad) is the only Buddha mentioned.

2. An allusion to the numerous descents of Shâkya-thub-pa, or Sâkyamuni, the founder of Buddhism, who, in common with all candidates for the Buddhaship previous to their final elevation, has passed through countless probationary stages, during which period greater merit is accumulated by most extraordinary works. The life of the Buddhas in anterior existences is related at large in the sacred books styled Jâtakas, not a few of these tales being identical with the fables of the Greek Aesop. Hardy, "Manual of Buddhism," p. 100; Burnouf, "Introduction," pp. 61, 555. The previous re-births of Sâkyamuni are in most of the sacred books variously estimated from 500 to 550. Upham, "History and Doctrine of Buddhism," Vol. III., p. 296; Foucaux, "Rgy chher rol pa," Vol. II., p. 34; Hardy, "Manual," l. c. But there are also many phrases to be met with tending to establish their infinity, and the Buddha himself is reported to have said: "It is impossible to reckon the bodies I have possessed." Foe koue ki, pp. 67, 348; Hodgson, "Illustrations," p. 86. The number in the text is accordingly an instance rather of the latter belief, and the term khrag might be an abreviation {sic} from khrag-khrig, "a hundred thousand millions," which is also used to signify any indefinitely large number. See Csoma's Dictionary, voce Khrag-khrig.]

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once uttering this name, shall. purify from all sins committed in anterior existences.

"I adore the Buddha Mar-me-mdzad,[1] who has done so eighteen thousand times. Once uttering this name shall purify from the sins committed by pollution with the properties of lower men.

"I adore the Buddha Rab-tu-'bar-ba, who is known (to have been born) 16,000 times. Once uttering this name shall confer absolution, and purify from all sins committed against parents and teachers.

"I adore the Buddha sKar-rgyal, who has been born ten million three thousand times. Once uttering this name shall purify from all sins committed by polluting one's self with sacred riches.

"I adore the Buddha Sâ-la'i-rgyal-po, who has been born eighteen thousand times. Once uttering this name shall purify from all sins of theft, robbery, and the like.

"I adore the Buddha Padma-'phags-pa, who has been born fifteen thousand times. Once uttering this name shall purify from all sins committed by polluting one's self with, and coveting, the riches belonging to Chortens.[2]

[1. In Sanskrit Dîpankara. This name, "the luminous" is applied to an imaginary Buddha who, according to Turner and Hardy, is said to have been the twenty-fourth teacher of the Buddha law previous to Sâkyamuni, to whom he was the first to give a definite assurance of his future Buddhaship. Turner, "Extracts from the Attakata," Journ. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. VIII., p. 789; Hardy's Manual, p. 94. In Hodgson's list (Illustrations, p. 135), however, he is the first Buddha of the actual period and the ninth predecessor of Sâkyamuni--Hardy's texts allege him to have lived 100,000 years; the Nippon Pantheon (by Hofmann in v. Siebold's "Beschreibung von Japan," Vol. V., p. 77) says that his stay upon earth lasted 840 billions of years.

2. About Chortens see Chapter XIII.]

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"I adore the Buddha Ko'u-'din-ne'i-rigs,[1] who has been born ninety millions of times. Once uttering this name shall purify all sins committed....[2]

"I adore the Buddha,[3] who has been born ninety thousand times.

"I adore the Buddha 'Od-bsrung,[4] who has been born nine hundred thousand times.

"I adore the Buddha Bye-ba-phrag-ganga'i-klung-gi-bye-ma-snyed-kyi-grangs-dang-mnyam-pa-rnam.

"I adore the Buddha Kun-du-spas-pa-la-sogs-pa-mts'han-tha-dad-pa, who has been born a thousand times.

"I adore the Buddha 'Jam-bu-'dul-va, who has been born twenty thousand times.

"I adore the Buddha gSer-mdog-dri-med-'od-zer, who has been born sixty-two thousand times.

"I adore the Buddha dVang-po'i-rgyal-po'i-rgyal-mts'han, who has been born eighty-four thousand times.

"I adore the Buddha Nyi-ma'i-snying-po, who has been born ten thousand five hundred times.

[1. In Sanskrit Kâundinya, one of the earliest disciples of Sâkyamuni, who will teach the Buddha law at a very remote period. See Burnouf, "Le Lotus de la Bonne Loi," p. 126; Csoma, Life of Sâkya;" As. Res., Vol. XX., p. 293.

2. In Tibetan follow the two words rmos, "ploughed," and bskol, "to boil in oil or butter." As these two words have no apparent connexion, 1 have omitted them in the text.

3. Here the Buddha is not called by name.

4. In Sanskrit Kâsyapa, who is viewed as the third Buddha of the actual period, or the immediate predecessor of Sâkyamuni; particulars about his nativity, race, age, disciples, &c., are to be found in Csoma's "Analysis," As. Res., Vol. XX., p. 415, and Foe koue ki, p. 180.]

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"I adore the Buddha Zhi-bar-mdzad-pa who has been born sixty-two thousand times.

"I adore all these Buddhas, together with the assembly of the Srâvakas,[1] and Bôdhisattvas.[2]

"All these (Buddhas' stories) are contained in the treatise Rim-pa-lnga" (a part of the Kanjur).[3]

"I adore the victorious,[4] the Tathâgata, the vanquisher of the enemy, the very pure, the perfect Buddha Rin-chhen-rgyal-po'i-mdzod. Once to utter this name takes away the sins which would cause one further existence.

"I adore the victorious, the Tathâgata, the vanquisher of the enemy, the very pure, the perfect Buddha Rin-chhen-'od-kyi-rgyal-po-me-'od-rab-tu-gsal-va. Once to utter this name takes away the sins committed in one existence by polluting one's Self with the riches of the clergy.[5]

"I adore the victorious, the Tathâgata, the vanquisher of the enemy, the very pure, the perfect Buddha sPos-dang-me-tog-la-dvang-ba-stobs-kyi-rgyal-po. Once to

[1. In Tibetan nyon-thos, "auditor." By this word is designated in the ancient religious books a disciple of Sâkyamuni, as also an earlier adherent to his law. In the later sacred writings it is applied to Buddhists who had abandoned the world and turned ascetics. See pp. 18, 149.

2 In Tibetan byang-chhub-sems-dpa'. The Mahâyâna books apply this name to every follower of the Buddhist faith; the lay members are called "Bôdhisattvas who reside in their houses," the ascetics, "Bôdhisattvas who have renounced the world."

3. As an example of the contents of such descriptive stories see Csoma's Analysis, As. Res., Vol. XX., p. 415.

4. In Tibetan bChom-ldan-das, in Sanskrit Bhagavan.

5. In Tibetan dge-'dun, also pronounced Gendun, a general name for the "clergy," respecting whose institutions see Chapter XII.]

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utter this name takes away the sins committed by violation of the moral laws.

"I adore the victorious, the Tathâgata, the vanquisher of the enemy, the very pure, the perfect Buddha Ganga'i-klung-gi-bye-ma-snyed-bye-ba-phrag-brgya'i-grangs-dang-mnyam-par-des-pa. Once to utter this name takes away the sins committed in one existence by taking life.

"I adore the victorious, the Tathâgata, the vanquisher of the enemy, the very pure, the perfect Buddha Rin-chhen-rdo-rje-dpal-brtan-zhing-'dul-va-pha-rol-gyi-stobs-rab-tu-'joms-pa. Once to utter this name makes one equal in religious merit to him who has read over the royal precepts.[1]

"I adore the victorious, the Tathâgata, the vanquisher of the enemy, the very pure, the perfect Buddha gZi-brjed-nges-par-rnam-par-gnon-pa. Once to utter this name takes away the sins committed in one existence by evil desire.

"I adore the victorious, the Tathâgata, the vanquisher of the enemy, the very pure, the perfect Buddha Rin-chhen-zla-'od-skyabs-gnas-dam-pa-dgra-las-rnam-par-rgyal-ba. Once to utter this name takes away the sins which would cause the sufferings in the hell mNar-med.[2]

[1. In Tybetan bka. This word means "precept," and is here to be referred to the rules enacted to the Lamas; the meaning of this reward accordingly is, that the suppliants shall be counted amongst the priests and enjoy the blessings reserved to them. See p. 149.

2. mNar-med is the name of one of the most dreadful divisions of hell. Csoma's and Schmidt's Dictionaries. About the hells see p. 92.]

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"I adore the victorious, the Tathâgata, the vanquisher of the enemy, the very pure, the perfect Buddha Rin-chhen-gtsug-tor-chan. Once to utter this name removes the danger of being born in any of the bad grades of existence,[1] and the most perfect body of a god or man shall be obtained.

"I adore the victorious, the Tathâgata, the vanquisher of the enemy, the very pure, the perfect Buddha rGyal-ba-rgya-mts'ho'i-ts'hogs-dang-bchas-pa-rnam. It is said that once to utter this name purifies from the sin of perjury, and from all sins committed by the mind (bad feelings) through lust, deceit, and the like.

"I adore the victorious, the Tathâgata, the subduer of his enemy, the very pure, the perfect Buddha Ts hei-bum-pa-'dzin-pa-rnam.

"May these Buddhas, deliver all animal beings from the horrors of untimely death.[2]

"I adore all the victorious, the Tathâgatas, the vanquishers of the enemy, the very pure, the perfect Buddhas, the past, the not arrived (future), and the present Buddhas.[3]

"I adore the protector of the creatures, kLu-sgrubs, the hero; Guru Padma; dPal Na-ro-va; dPal Bi-ma-la-mitra;

[1. The Buddhists count six classes of existence. Those in hell, the brute, Asur, and Yidag, are considered as bad existences; those of man and god as the good grades.

2. See p. 109.

3. An analogous phrase to one occurring at the commencement of the address; its meaning was explained at p. 126.]

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Pandita A-ti-sha,[1] &c.; together with the succession of holy Lamas.[2]

"(This book) sDig-bshags-gser-kyis-spu-gri is able to subdue, to burn, to destroy hell. It will be a consolation to the animated beings in that period of distress and misery,[3] when in the (places for the) representatives of the Buddha, of his precepts, and of his

[1. These are Indian priests who were very celebrated for their zeal in the propagation of Buddhism; with the exception of Lugrub, the first of this series, they all took an active part in spreading its doctrines throughout Tibet. Lugrub, in Sanskrit Nâgârjuna, is regarded as the founder of the Mahâyâna system. See p. 30. Guru Padma is the famous teacher Padma Sambhava, who was sent for by king Thisrong de tsan, and is said to have reached Tibet A.D. 747. Bimala mitra also came to Tibet in accordance, with an invitation from this king. See Schmidt in "Ssanang Ssetsen," p. 356. Na-ro-va, who is enumerated before Bimala mitra, must doubtless have been contemporaneous with him and Padma Sambhava. Pandita Atisha, the last of the series, has a great reputation for re-establishing Buddhism after the persecutions of its followers under the reigns of Langdharma and big successors (902-71).

2. The Tibetan bla-ma-dam-pa-brgyud, is an honorary title applied to the priests with whom originated a specific system of Buddhism. In a subsequent sentence, and also in the document relating to the foundation of the Hímis monastery, we shall find them called "Foundation-Lamas," in Tibetan rtsa-va'i-bla-ma.

3. In Tibetan bskal-ba-snyig-ma, According to the notions of the Buddhists, as well as of the Brahmans, the universe, which is without beginning or end, is periodically destroyed and constructed again, these revolutions passing through four different periods, or Kalpas, viz.: the periods of formation, and of the continuance of formation; and those of the destruction, and disappearance of the universe, Here the Kalpa of destruction is referred to, and it is foretold that man shall obtain absolution from his sins by reading this book. The universe is dissolved and consumed by the powers of fire, water, and wind, which effect its entire destruction in sixty-four attacks upon its substance. The moral condition of man previous to the several agencies coming into action is stated as follows: "Before the destruction by water, cruelty or violence prevails in the world; before that by fire, licentiousness, and before that by wind, ignorance. When licentiousness has prevailed, men are cut off by disease; when violence, by turning their weapons against each other, and when ignorance, by famine." Hardy, "Manual of Buddhism," pp. 28-35; Schmidt, Mém. de l'Acad. de Pétersb., Vol. II., pp. 58-68.]

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mercy,[1] men shall cut stuffs woven of cotton, and work it, when cut, to garments; when there they take meat; when there they buy and trade with goods; when the Gelongs[2] break down inhabited places; when the astrologers[3] invoke good fortune;[4] when the Bonpo[5] carry with them (listen to) the secret mystical sentences (Dhârânîs); when the Gebshi are the commanders in

[1. This phrase is to be understood m a sort of prediction that the temples shall be desecrated by worldly negociations; {sic} for it is in the temples that are put up the three representatives (Tibetan Tensumni) of the Buddha, his precepts, and his mercy.

The Buddha is figured as a statue, a bas-relief, or a picture. The pictures hang down from the cross-beams of the roof, or are traced on the walls; the statues and bas-reliefs show him in a sitting attitude, and are placed behind the altar in a recess. The precepts which he bequeathed to man after his departure from earth, are symbolized by a book, which lies upon a lower step of the altar, or rests upon a shelf suspended from the roof. His mercy, or unlimited charity, which enabled him to obtain the sublime rank of a Buddha, in order to lead man to salvation, is signified by a Chorten, a pyramidal chest containing relies, which always occupies a prominent place upon the altar. See Csoma, "Grammar" p. 173, "Dictionary," voce rten;--also Schmidt's Lexicon. For further details about images of gods see Chapter XIV.; for books, see p. 80; Chortens, Chapter XIII. For the place which these objects occupy in temples, I may refer to the Chapter on the temples, and to the view of the interior of the temple at Mangnáng, in Gnári Khórsum, by my brother Adolphe in the Atlas to the "Results of a Scientific Mission."

2. The term dge-slong is applied to ordained priests, who, however, are generally called by the more honourable title of Lama (bla-ma), a distinction strictly belonging only to the superiors of convents. The Gelongs must not care for riches or worldly prosperity; their breaking down inhabited places may mean, perhaps, their fighting against other monasteries or against rich men in general.

3. In Tibetan sngags-pa, one versed in charms.

4. In Tibetan gyang-'gugs; a ceremony of this nature will be noticed in a subsequent chapter. The allusion here is to the abuse of it as a substitute for prayers.

5. Bon-po is the name of the followers of the sect which adheres in the closest manner to the superstitious ideas transferred from the earlier Tibetan creed; comp. p. 74.]

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chief;[1] when the learned and poor (= the priests) live in and preside over the nunneries;[2] when the Zhanglons[3] amuse themselves with their daughters-in-law; when men destroy (eat) the meat destined for the manes of the dead; when the head Lamas eat the meat prepared for offerings;[4] when men cut themselves off from the vital principle (commit suicide[5]); when bad actions increase upon earth; when the song Mani shall be returned in answer;[6] when the calves of the Dzo[7] breed shall devastate (the fields); when men covet the goods of others; when the saints[8] travel and establish trade;

[1. Dge-bshes, abreviated from dge-bai-bshes-gnyen, in Sanskrit Kalyânamitra, meaning a learned priest, a friend to virtue. It is hardly necessary to say that the functions of a military chief do not agree very well with the clerical character.

2. The priests are not allowed to have intercourse with women, but the violation of this precept is but too probable by their dwelling under the same roof with nuns.

3. Zhang, "a maternal-uncle;" blon, "a magistrate, an officer, a nobleman;" the two words in connexion designate a man of superior rank.

4. The Tibetan has zan, which is explained in the dictionaries as "meat, a kind of thick potage, dough, or paste made of the meal or flour of parched grains." As an instance of its use for food in general see the details in Hermann's "Glossary," s. v. Zánkhar, in Vol. III., of the "Results," &c., and R. A. Soc., 1862.

5. Deliverance from existence is only the consequence of good actions; but suicide is also in the opinion of the Buddhist a bad action, and has a re-birth in a lower degree as one of its consequences, since the sins for the expiation of which the present existence had to be endured, are not yet atoned for, and also a new crime is committed. In the period of misery alluded to in the text, however, also this moral law will be overlooked.

6. By Mani the famous six-syllable prayer Om mani padme hum, "O, the Jewel in the Lotus: Amen," is to be understood; this allusion in the text refers to its conversion into a popular song.

7. mDzo, a mixed breed, the offspring of a Yak (bos gruniens) and a common common {sic} Indian Zhebu cow; in the language of the Himálaya tribes it is called Chubu. The Dzos are one of the few mixed species which are capable of propagation, and they outnumber in some valleys the pare Yaks.

8. In Tibetan nal-jor, in Sanskrit Yogâchârya, "a saint, a devotee," is also the name of a religious sect, which enjoyed the most favour in India until the seventh century A.D.--Respecting its history and religious tenets, see Chapter V.]

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when fraud is committed with measure[1] and weight; when the Chinese trade with little children (which they would obtain from the Tibetans); when under the gates (of the temples) illusory miracles (sorcery) shall be practised; when men eat and drink and care but for this actual existence; when there shall be no more gratuities; when the time shall arrive that old customs are disturbed (changed); when men shall be given up to the ravages of war and the enemy; when frost, hail, and drought shall spread (make general) famine;[2] when men and animal beings shall have to suffer from bad actions:[3] then, in this period of distress and misery this sDig-bshags-gter-chhos will be an ablution for every kind of sin which has been accumulated in the meantime; all animated beings shall read it, and on account of it all sins shall be wiped away."[4]

Translation of the second part.

Enshrined in the sacred box at the time of the uttering of benedictions.[5]

"In this period of distress and misery, when many

[1. The Tibetan bre, also pronounced pre, is, according to Csoma's Dictionary, "a dry measure, the twentieth part of a Tibetan bushel."

2. Some words are here illegible.

3. For the Buddhist theory on the influence of good and bad actions upon well-being, see p. 93.

4. The last four lines of the original text have been so much injured that only a few of the words could be deciphered, enough, however, remaining to give a clue to the meaning.

5. With reference to the religious rites and ceremonies connected with the erection of Chortens, see Chapter XIII.]

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living beings shall suffer and sigh for deliverance, these benedictions shall afford great advantages to sinners. The sins which arise from. discord and dispute among the inhabitants of this monastery[1] shall be taken away through them.

"These blessings, if recited on the 8th, 15th, and 30th of every month, purify most surely from the five great crimes,[2] and from all sins, and deliver from the six kinds of hell. The 84,000 great emblems of the essence of the sublime doctrine shall be the same with every being.[3] The mind of man shall become unchangeably directed towards attaining the sanctity of a Buddha; he shall gain the energetic will of the Buddha, and shall in the end obtain the advantages of a Buddha himself.

"This is the end of the Mahâyâna, Sûtra sDig-bshags-gser-gyis-spu-gri.

"All beings be blessed!"

[1. The name of the monastery is not given in the original, which only says, dgon-pa "a monastery".

2. The five great crimes of the Buddhists are: 1. The taking of life; 2. Theft; 3. Adultery; 4. Lying; 5. Drunkenness. See Burnouf, "Lotus de la Bonne Loi," p. 447; Hardy, "Manual of Buddhism," Chapter X., p. 488.

3. This phrase refers, as may be seen from the sequel, to the inferior signs of a Buddha's beauty. They are generally stated to be 80 in number, but other books, as e. g. the Rgya-chher-rol-pa (translated by Foucaux, Vol. II., p. 108) give 84, which, in the present treatise, have been multiplied by 1000. The number of 84,000 is a most favourite one in Buddhist cosmogony and seems to he used in the same way as Khrag-khrig, "a hundred thousand millions" (p. 130), and the Chinese Wan, or 10,000 (Ideler, "Ueber die Zeitrechnung der Chinesen," p. 10), as the designation of an infinite number. The extent, thickness, and diameter of the sakwalas can always be divided by 8; the prolongation of the age of mankind continues for 84,000 years. See Hardy, "Manual," Chapter I.; Foe koue ki, p. 127.]

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(Three Dhâranîs, in corrupt Sanskrit, now follow. The first Dhâranî is a mystic invocation of Dorjesempa, Sanskrit Vajrasattva, (see p. 50); in the second Dhâranî is condensed the belief in the four truths (see p. 16); the third Dhâranî is recited at the inauguration of the temples; now the: text continues:[1]

"By means of these invocations the creatures become perfect in the two collections;[2] they shall be purified from their sins and blessed with the dignity of a most perfect Buddha.

(A fourth Dhâranî follows).

"This (Dhâranî) is raised (granted) as a favour' to the wanderers in the orb for not having paid reverence to parents-instead of thankfully remembering favours received--nor to the holy Foundation-Lamas,[4] who have obtained perfection by virtues.

"All sins committed by taking life, together with the transgressions accumulated in previous existences, the sins of lying, envy, and wickedness which proceed from the mind--all these sins, are abolished by this sublime doctrine.

"Most perfect Sages, be gracious and element, if I should not have rendered rightly the letters of the

[1. The transcription of these three Dhâranîs has been omitted from considerations of brevity.

2. In Tibetan ts'hogs-gnyis; by this term is understood the combination of the highest perfection in the practice of virtues, and the highest degree of wisdom, both of which are reserved for the Buddhas; but simple men can attain this sublimest rank by following the path revealed by Sâkyamuni and his acknowledged predecessors.

3. It delivers from the sins specified.

4. In Tibetan rtsa-vai-bla-ma; in a foregoing passage they were styled bla-ma-dam-pa-brgyud. See p. 136.]

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alphabet.[1] Mi-rgan-sde-gsal-rdo-rje has written it. Praised be this sheet, that he may gain entire deliverance from his sins. This sDig-bshags-gser-gyis-spu-gri has been completed in two days."

[1. For explanation of this sentence I refer to p. 56.]

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Next: Chapter XII. The Tibetan Priesthood