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WHEN treating the developement of Buddhism, I had repeated occasion to allude to metempsychosis, or the migration of the souls of animated beings, as one of the established laws of Buddhism, according to which man's soul migrates as long as the causes of re-birth have not been taken away from it. The forms under which any living being may be re-born, are sixfold:--

1. The highest class are the Lha, "spirits, highest beings, gods," Sanskr. Deva; they rank next to the Buddhas, and inhabit the six celestial regions (Sanskr. Devalôkas). Two of these regions belong to the earth; but the four others, which are considered as superior mansions, lie in the atmosphere, far beyond the earth.

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2. The second class is formed by men, called Mi.

3. The third class are the Lhamayin, "the evil spirits" literally, not a god (in Sanskrit Asuras). They are the adversaries of the Devas., and the most powerful of the evil spirits; they dwell in the regions below the mountain Meru (Tib. Lhungpo).

4. The fourth class are the brutes (beasts), Dudo, or Jolsong.

5. The fifth class is formed by the Yidags, imaginary monsters representing the state of a wretched being (Sanskrit Prêta). They do not receive food or water, though greatly in want of both. Accordingly they ever remain in a state of extreme hunger and thirst; their mouth has the size of a needle's eye, but their bodies are twelve miles in height.

6. The sixth and lowest class of beings is composed of the wretched inhabitants of the hell, Myalba (Sanskrit Naraka), a place of dreadful punishment for the wicked, who are tormented there most cruelly.

Of the six classes, those of gods and men are styled the good grades, the four otheTs being called the bad conditions.[1]

[1. Respecting these six orders of sentient existence see Burnouf, "Loins de Is Bonne Loi," p. 309; Pallas "Mongol. Völkerschaften," Vol. II., p. 95; Schmidt, "Ueber die dritte Welt der Buddhist-en;" Mém. de l'Acad. des sciences, Vol. II., pp. 21-39. The Mongolian authorities place the Lhamayin before man, degrading the latter to the third class; but the works consulted by Burnouf, Rémusat, Hardy, &c., classify them in the order given in our text. In many sacred books, however, only five classes are enumerated, the Singhalese, for instance,, omitting the class of Asuras. Hardy's Manual, {footnote p. 93} p. 37; Burnouf, p. 377. For the description and divisions of hell see Foe koue ki, Engl. Transl., p. 133; Hardy's Manual, pp. 2, 27; Pallas, Vol. II., p. 53.]

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The class in which any animated being is to be reborn depends upon the actions, or works, "Las," which he has performed, either in the present life, or in a previous existence; they are the destiny (in Tibetan Kalba) of the Buddhists, good works involving re-birth in one of the superior classes, evil conduct in the bad states of existence. The valuation of the works, viz. the determination of the moment in which the present existence has to end, and of the class in which man has to be reborn, is the particular business of Shinje, "the Lord of the dead," also called Choigyal (in Sanskrit Dharma râja), "the king of the law." Shinje possesses a wonderful mirror, which shows him all the good and bad actions of men; with a balance he weighs both the good and the bad, and, if in this manner he finds that the present existence of an individual has to cease, he orders one of his servants, who are also styled Shinjes, to seize the soul and bring it before him, in order that its future may be announced. It not unfrequently happens, that the messenger seizes a wrong soul by mistake, or in some instances by design, being bought off by offerings. The Lord of death, after revealing by his mirror that the soul brought before him is the wrong one, then dismisses it, and threatens his servant with severe punishment in the event of the mistake proving an intentional one. At the same time, he orders another servant, to bring him the right soul, which, pending the discovery,

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has remained undisturbed in the body. Hence it appears that the life of a being can be lenghtened {sic} by propitiating the servant of the Lord of death.[1]

Means of deliverance from re-birth.

Re-birth is to be regarded in the light of an expiation of sins. The pains to be endured through being subjected to migration are, however, considered so terrible, that the Buddhist faith has offered its votaries the means of atoning, even during their lifetime, for a portion at least of the evil they have committed. Emancipation may be obtained by subduing evil desires, by the assiduous practise of virtues, of Dhâranîs, and Tantras, and by confession. Already in the early history of Buddhism we find confession of sins enjoined by authority. Thus the novice had to perform this rite before they were received into the congregation of the faithful; the predominant character of public worship, also, when performed according to the prescriptions of the book Pratimoksha, is decidedly that of a solemn confession (Poshadha) before the assembly of priests. This renewal of priestly vows was, in fact, the original purport

[1. Shinje answers to the god Yama of the Hindus, about whom compare Coleman, "Mythology of the Hindus," p. 112. The Mongolians call him Erlik Khan, or Yamantâka; Pallas, "Mongol. Völker." Vol. II., pp. 95, 61. "Voyages," Vol. I., p. 553. Pallas was told that the good and bad actions are recorded by two spirits, the one favourable, the other ill-natured. These, by order of Shinje, bring the soul before him and mark the number of its good and bad actions by white and black pebbles, a proceeding which Shinje controls by the book Bealtan Tooli, in which the deeds of every individual are registered.]

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of confession; the dogma that it confers entire absolution from sins ("from the root, tsava nas") was established by the Mahâyâna Schools.[1]

Up to the present day this is also the character of confession amongst, the Tibetan Buddhists, who consider it of the greatest influence for a happy metempsychosis and the attainment of Nirvâna. The confession (in Tibetan Sobyong) always includes an open repentence of the sins and the promise to commit no more. Also the solicitation of the gods is indispensable, but various are the modes which may accompany the avowal and the prayers addressed to the deities for abolishment of one's sins. As the most easy may be named the use of the water which has been consecrated by the Lamas in the divine ceremony Tuisol, "entreaties for ablution;" but also the abstinence from food and the tiresome reciting of prayers may be combined with it, a kind of confession which bears the name of Nyungne, "to continue abstinence."[2] Such painful modes of getting rid of sins are, however, not greatly in favour, and the less as a simple address to the gods is considered to be almost equally efficacious.

The gods who have the faculty of delivering from sins, are for the greater part imaginary Buddhas

[1. See Burnouf, "Introduction," p. 299. Csoma, "Analysis," As. Res., Vol. XX., p. 58. Wassiljew, "Der Buddhismus," pp. 92, 100, 291. Pratimoksha is a Manual containing the laws of the Buddhist priesthood. A translation by the Rev. Gogerly appeared in the "Ceylon Friend," 1839; an analysis is to be found in Csoma, 1. c., with whom compare Burnouf's "Introduction," p. 300. Hardy gives numerous extracts from its precepts.

2. 'Khrus, "to be thoroughly washed;" gsol, "prayer, entreaty;" snung, "to reduce (in food);" gnas, "to continue." For details I refer to Chapter XV.]

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who are considered to have preceded Sâkyamuni; others are the holy spirits equal in power to the Buddhas, such . as the Hêrukas, Samvaras, &c. From all these deities thirty-five Buddhas are considered the most effectual in taking away sins, and to them accordingly the prayers of the contrite are most frequently addressed. These Buddhas are styled Tungshakchi sangye songa,[1] "the thirty-five Buddhas of confession." Already in the two highly esteemed Mahâyâna compilations, the Ratnakûta and Mahâsamaya, the adoration of these Buddhas is strongly recommended;[2] and beautiful coloured images of them adorn the interior of numerous monasteries, where they take their places by the side of the most celebrated Indian and Tibetan priests and gods. Prayers to these Buddhas are also included in almost every Tibetan liturgy, or compilation of the daily prayers, such as the Rabsal, "principal clearness," and Zundui, "collection of charms." The number of the Buddhas implored has not been, however, limited to thirty-five; in one of these petitionary addresses, the translation of which is the object of Chapter XI, I found their number to be fifty-one; also to the Buriats Tibetan treatises of this kind are known in which more than the original number of thirty-five Buddhas occurs.

One of these Buddhas is also Sâkyamuni; he is called in the address just mentioned by his Tibetan name, Shakya Thub-pa, and is the twenty-seventh of the list; it

[1. Ltung-bshags, "confession of sins;" kyi (chi) = the genitive case; so-lnga "thirty-five."

2. Wassiljew, "Der Buddhismus," pp. 170, 186.]

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is said that "if a man once utter this name he shall be purified from all sins committed in anterior existences." In sacred images representing the Buddhas of confession his figure is regularly the central and the most prominent one, the other thirty-four Buddhas being smaller and ranged above his head.. In a picture which bad been hung up in the temple of Gyungul, in Gnári Khórsum, the images of various sacred persons are added to these thirty-five Buddhas. Amongst the additional figures the persons in the clerical garb of the ancient Indian priests are the sixteen Netan (Sanskrit Stavirâs), who are said in the sacred books to have visited Ceylon, Kashmír, and the southern foot of the Kailâsa or Trans Sátlej range already shortly after the first convocation of the Bikshus, held immediately after Sâkyamuni's death, and to have spread in these countries Buddhist theories.[1] Six other priests in Tibetan lamaic dress have each some words written beneath them, viz. Je Tsonkhapa; Prulku thongva dondon; Khetup sangye; Jampaijang Mai thama shesrab od; Khetub chakdor gyatso; Grubchen tsulkhrim gyatso. Tsonkhapa, the famous Lama, who was born 1355 A.D., is honoured, by the title of reverence, rje; Thongva dondon (prulku, the word preceding his name, means incarnation) was born in 1414; Khetup sangye is probably the Khetup pal-gyi senge of Csoma (born 15315);

[1. See their Tibetan names in A. Schiefner's "Tibetanische Lebensbeschreibung Sâkyamuni's," Note 43. Csoma, As. Res., Vol. XX., p. 439, has for several of them other names. The Netans enjoy great reputation amongst the Tibetans, who have recited on various occasions a hymn in their honour, entitled Netan chudrugi todpa "praise of the sixteen Netan." The library of the St. Petersburgh university has a copy of it.]

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Tsulkhrim gyatso (grubchen =very perfect) is probably the tenth, Dalai Lama, who ruled from 1817-35;[1] concerning the other two Lamas I know no particulars.

An additional figure in Chinese dress has the words Genyen darma written at his feet; Genyen (Sanskrit Upâsaka) denotes him to be an adherent to the Buddhist faith, Darma is most probably his proper name. He carries a basket filled with the Sheets of a religious book, probably the Prâjna Pâramitâ; this very ancient mode of using a basket-case for the palm-leaves, which in former times served as paper, is said to be actually still in use in Tibet, the single volumes of larger works being put together into a common basket. Beneath the throne is represented the goddess Lhamo (Sanskr. Kâlâdevî), with her attendants; Tsepagmed (Sanskr. Amitâyus), the god of longevity; and the five great kings (in Tibetan Ku nga gyalpo).[2]

Sukhavatî, the abode of the blessed.

Complete deliverance from existence, or from the world in its most general meaning, is comprised under the name of Nirvâna (Tib. Nyangan las daspa, by contraction Nyangdas).[3] The essence of Nirvâna is not clearly pointed out in the sacred books; and this, indeed, is

[1. See Csoma, "Grammar," pp. 181 seq.

2. About Lhamo see p. 112; concerning Tsepagmed see p. 129; about the five great Kings see Chapter XIII.

3, Respecting the difference between the genuine idea, of Nirvâna and the Tibetan opinion, see Köppen, "Die Religion des Buddha," Vol. I., p. 307.]

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not possible in a philosophical system in which negation of reality is the fundamental principle;[1] and the sacred Buddhist books also declare at every occasion that it is impossible positively to define the attributes and properties of Nirvâna.

The secondary kind of happiness, to which the Buddha has likewise revealed the path,[2] is the enjoyment of Sukhavatî, the abode of the blessed, into which ascend those who have accumulated much merit by the practise of virtues. Already the entering into Sukhavatî involves the deliverance from metemphsychosis, {sic} but not from absolute existence, nor is the perfection of the Buddhas yet attained.

In general, the Tibetans of the present day do not properly distinguish between Nirvâna and Sukhavatî, their highest ideal being attained by liberation from rebirth and the reception into Sukhavatî. My brothers who have had frequent opportunity of consulting Tibetan Lamas, learned that particular stress is now laid upon the complete emancipation from metempsychosis. It is believed, that then they have no feeling whatever about their existence; a Lama once compared them to a healthy man, who, though provided with a stomach, lungs, a liver &c., experiences no feeling of their presence. How greatly freedom from metempsychosis is prized, appears from a conversation, which Hermann once held with a Lama of Bhután. This man who had been at Lhássa, during the residence there of the French missionaries,

[1. See p. 33.

2. Compare p. 42.]

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Hue and Gabet, had seen some coloured lithographs representing our Saviour Jesus Christ, and various episodes of Bible history. The Lama alleged against the creed of these missionaries, that it does not afford final emancipation. According to the principles of their religion, he said, the pious are rewarded with a re-birth among the servants of the supreme God, when they are obliged to pass an eternity in reciting hymns, psalms, and prayers, in his glory and honour. Such beings, he argued, are consequently not yet freed from metempsychosis; for who can assert, that, in the event of their relaxing in the duty assigned them, they shall not be expelled from the world where God resides, and in punishment be re-born in the habitation of the wretched.[1] Buddhist doctrines, the Lama concluded, are certainly preferable to this theory: they do not allow a man to be deprived of the fruits of the good works performed during life; and if once arrived at final perfection, he is never again, under any circumstances, subjected to metempsychosis, although, at the same time, if desiring to benefit animated beings, he is at liberty to re-assume the human form, whenever it pleases him, without being obliged to retain it or to suffer from any of its disadvantages.

The happy region Sukhavatî, where thrones Amitâbha, lies towards the west.[2] 1n Sanskrit it is called Sukhavatî,

[1. In the prints seen by the Lama angels were doubtless depicted soaring in the air and hovering round the chief figures of the picture. He must have also heard of the expulsion of the bad angels from heaven.

2. Genuine Buddhism rejects the idea of a particular locality being appropriated to Nirvâna. In the remarkable treatise entitled Milindi prasna, {footnote p. 101} translated by Hardy in his works on Buddhism, the priest Nâgasena (Nâgârjuna), is said to have replied to the King Milinda of Sangala (who ruled about 140 B.C.; see A. Weber, Indische Studien, Vol. III., p. 121), in answer to his inquiries about the nature, essence, and locality of Nirvâna: "Nirvâna is wherever the precepts can be observed; and there may be the observance in Yawana, China, Milâta, Alasanda, Nikumba, Kâsi, Kôsala, Kâsmira, Ghandhâra, the summit of Mahâ Meru, or the Brahma-lôkas; it may be anywhere; just as he who has two eyes can see the sky from any or all of these places; or as any of these places may have an eastern side." Eastern Monachism, p. 300.]

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"abounding in pleasures;" in Tibetan Devachan, "the happy;" the Chineses designate it Ngyan-lo, "pleasure;" Kio-lo "the greatest pleasure;" Tsing-tu "pure or glorious land;" and in sacred treatises it is denominated "the pure region, a kind of prosperity." We find an account of this glorious region of Amitâbha, in many religious books.[1] Sukhavatî is declared to be a large lake, the surface of which is covered with lotus-flowers (Padmas), red and white, with perfumes of rare odour. These flowers form the couches for pious men, whose virtues were the cause of their growth, while yet sojourners upon earth. Such men, after being purified from their sins, soar up into their lotus-flowers. The inhabitants of this paradise are moved to earnest devotion by the beautiful song of paradisiacal birds, and receive food and clothes for the mere wishing, without any exertion on

[1. Some descriptions of this region were translated from the Mongolian and Chinese into European languages by Pallas, l'Mongol. Völker," Vol. II. p. 63 (his description, however, seems not to have been correctly be rendered from the original text, see Schott); Schmidt, "Geschichte Ssanang Ssetsens," p. 323 (from the Bodhimör); Kowalewsky in his "Mongolian Chrestomathy" (in Russian), Vol. II., p. 319. Schott, "Der Buddhaismus in Hochasien," pp. 50-9. Compare also the analysis of, the Sukhavatî vyûha in Burnouf's "Introduction," p. 99, and in Csoma's paper, As. Res., Vol. XX., p. 439. Among other Tibetan books containing a description of it, are the Mani Kambum and the Odpagmed kyi shing kod, "construction of Amitâbha's land." The library of St. Petersburgh has a copy of it in a Mongolian translation, entitled: Abida in oronu dsokiyal.]

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their part. They have not yet reached the estate of a Buddha, but have entered the direct path which leads to it; they are endowed with the faculty of assuming human forms and descending upon earth; although when doing so, they are not subjected to a repetition of births, but rise again to the region they have left. Re-birth into a Padmaflower of this paradise is obtained by invocations of the Buddhas, and more particularly of Amitâbha; a form of devotion, according to the Tsing tu nen, translated by Schott, involving greater merit, than that of offerings and mortifications.

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Next: Chapter X. Details Characteristic of the Religion of the People