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Tirhakah The last king of Egypt of the Ethiopian (the fifteenth) dynasty. He was the brother-in-law of So (q.v.). He probably ascended the throne about 692 B.C., having been previously king of Ethiopia (Kg2 19:9; Isa 37:9), which with Egypt now formed one nation. He was a great warrior, and but little is known of him. The Assyrian armies under Esarhaddon, and again under Assur-bani-pal, invaded Egypt and defeated Tirhakah, who afterwards retired into Ethiopia, where he died, after reigning twenty-six years.

Tirshatha A word probably of Persian origin, meaning "severity," denoting a high civil dignity. The Persian governor of Judea is so called (Ezr 2:63; Neh 7:65, Neh 7:70). Nehemiah is called by this name in Neh 8:9; Neh 10:1, and the "governor" (pehah) in Neh 5:18. Probably, therefore, tirshatha = pehah = the modern pasha.

Tirza Pleasantness. (1.) An old royal city of the Canaanites, which was destroyed by Joshua (Jos 12:24). Jeroboam chose it for his residence, and he removed to it from Shechem, which at first he made the capital of his kingdom. It remained the chief residence of the kings of Israel till Omri took Samaria (Kg1 14:17; Kg1 15:21; Kg1 16:6, Kg1 16:8, etc.). Here Zimri perished amid the flames of the palace to which in his despair he had set fire (Kg1 16:18), and here Menahem smote Shallum (Kg2 15:14, Kg2 15:16). Solomon refers to its beauty (Sol 6:4). It has been identified with the modern mud hamlet Teiasir, 11 miles north of Shechem. Others, however, would identify it with Telluza, a village about 6 miles east of Samaria. (2.) The youngest of Zelophehad's five daughters (Num 26:33; Jos 17:3).

Tishbite Elijah the prophet was thus named (Kg1 17:1; Kg1 21:17, Kg1 21:28, etc.). In Kg1 17:1 the word rendered "inhabitants" is in the original the same as that rendered "Tishbite," hence that verse may be read as in the LXX., "Elijah the Tishbite of Tishbi in Gilead." Some interpret this word as meaning "stranger," and read the verse, "Elijah the stranger from among the strangers in Gilead." This designation is probably given to the prophet as denoting that his birthplace was Tishbi, a place in Upper Galilee (mentioned in the apocryphal book of Tobit), from which for some reason he migrated into Gilead. Josephus, the Jewish historian (Ant. Kg1 8:13, Kg1 8:2), however, supposes that Tishbi was some place in the land of Gilead. It has been identified by some with el-Ishtib, a some place 22 miles due south of the Sea of Galilee, among the mountains of Gilead.

Tisri The first month of the civil year, and the seventh of the ecclesiastical year. See ETHANIM (Kg1 8:2). Called in the Assyrian inscriptions Tasaritu, i.e. "beginning."

Tithe A tenth of the produce of the earth consecrated and set apart for special purposes. The dedication of a tenth to God was recognized as a duty before the time of Moses. Abraham paid tithes to Melchizedek (Gen 14:20; Heb 7:6); and Jacob vowed unto the Lord and said, "Of all that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee." The first Mosaic law on this subject is recorded in Lev 27:30. Subsequent legislation regulated the destination of the tithes (Num 18:21, Num 18:26; Deu 12:5, Deu 12:6, Deu 12:11, Deu 12:17; Deu 14:22, Deu 14:23). The paying of the tithes was an important part of the Jewish religious worship. In the days of Hezekiah one of the first results of the reformation of religion was the eagerness with which the people brought in their tithes (Ch2 31:5, Ch2 31:6). The neglect of this duty was sternly rebuked by the prophets (Amo 4:4; Mal 3:8). It cannot be affirmed that the Old Testament law of tithes is binding on the Christian Church, nevertheless the principle of this law remains, and is incorporated in the gospel (Co1 9:13, Co1 9:14); and if, as is the case, the motive that ought to prompt to liberality in the cause of religion and of the service of God be greater now than in Old Testament times, then Christians ought to go beyond the ancient Hebrew in consecrating both themselves and their substance to God. Every Jew was required by the Levitical law to pay three tithes of his property (1.) one tithe for the Levites; (2.) one for the use of the temple and the great feasts; and (3.) one for the poor of the land.

Tittle A point, (Mat 5:18; Luk 16:17), the minute point or stroke added to some letters of the Hebrew alphabet to distinguish them from others which they resemble; hence, the very least point.

Titus Honourable, was with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch, and accompanied them to the council at Jerusalem (Gal 2:1; Act 15:2), although his name nowhere occurs in the Acts of the Apostles. He appears to have been a Gentile, and to have been chiefly engaged in ministering to Gentiles; for Paul sternly refused to have him circumcised, inasmuch as in his case the cause of gospel liberty was at stake. We find him, at a later period, with Paul and Timothy at Ephesus, whence he was sent by Paul to Corinth for the purpose of getting the contributions of the church there in behalf of the poor saints at Jerusalem sent forward (Co2 8:6; Co2 12:18). He rejoined the apostle when he was in Macedonia, and cheered him with the tidings he brought from Corinth (Co2 7:6). After this his name is not mentioned till after Paul's first imprisonment, when we find him engaged in the organization of the church in Crete, where the apostle had left him for this purpose (Tit 1:5). The last notice of him is in Ti2 4:10, where we find him with Paul at Rome during his second imprisonment. From Rome he was sent into Dalmatia, no doubt on some important missionary errand. We have no record of his death. He is not mentioned in the Acts.

Titus, Epistle to Was probably written about the same time as the first epistle to Timothy, with which it has many affinities. "Both letters were addressed to persons left by the writer to preside in their respective churches during his absence. Both letters are principally occupied in describing the qualifications to be sought for in those whom they should appoint to offices in the church; and the ingredients of this description are in both letters nearly the same. Timothy and Titus are likewise cautioned against the same prevailing corruptions, and in particular against the same misdirection of their cares and studies. This affinity obtains not only in the subject of the letters, which from the similarity of situation in the persons to whom they were addressed might be expected to be somewhat alike, but extends in a great variety of instances to the phrases and expressions. The writer accosts his two friends with the same salutation, and passes on to the business of his letter by the same transition (compare Ti1 1:2, Ti1 1:3 with Tit 1:4, Tit 1:5; Ti1 1:4 with Tit 1:13, Tit 1:14; Tit 3:9; Ti1 4:12 with Tit 2:7, Tit 2:15)." Paley's Horce Paulince. The date of its composition may be concluded from the circumstance that it was written after Paul's visit to Crete (Tit 1:5). That visit could not be the one referred to in Act 27:7, when Paul was on his voyage to Rome as a prisoner, and where he continued a prisoner for two year. We may warrantably suppose that after his release Paul sailed from Rome into Asia and took Crete by the way, and that there he left Titus "to set in order the things that were wanting." Thence he went to Ephesus, where he left Timothy, and from Ephesus to Macedonia, where he wrote First Timothy, and thence to Nicopolis in Epirus, from which place he wrote to Titus, about A.D. 66 or 67. In the subscription to the epistle it is said to have been written from "Nicopolis of Macedonia," but no such place is known. The subscriptions to the epistles are of no authority, as they are not authentic.

Tob, The Land of A district on the east of Jordan, about 13 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, to which Jephthah fled from his brethren (Jdg 11:3, Jdg 11:5). It was on the northern boundary of Perea, between Syria and the land of Ammon (Sa2 10:6, Sa2 10:8). Its modern name is Taiyibeh.