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Mulberry Heb. bakah , "to weep;" rendered "Baca" (R.V., "weeping") in Psa 84:6. The plural form of the Hebrew bekaim is rendered "mulberry trees" in Sa2 5:23, Sa2 5:24 and Ch1 14:14, Ch1 14:15. The tree here alluded to was probably the aspen or trembling poplar. "We know with certainty that the black poplar, the aspen, and the Lombardy poplar grew in Palestine. The aspen, whose long leafstalks cause the leaves to tremble with every breath of wind, unites with the willow and the oak to overshadow the watercourses of the Lebanon, and with the oleander and the acacia to adorn the ravines of Southern Palestine" (Kitto). By "the sound of a going in the tops of the mulberry trees" we are to understand a rustling among the trees like the marching of an army. This was the signal that the Lord himself would lead forth David's army to victory. (See SYCAMINE.)

Mule (Heb. pered ), so called from the quick step of the animal or its power of carrying loads. It is not probable that the Hebrews bred mules, as this was strictly forbidden in the law (Lev 19:19), although their use was not forbidden. We find them in common use even by kings and nobles (Sa2 18:9; Kg1 1:33; Kg2 5:17; Psa 32:9). They are not mentioned, however, till the time of David, for the word rendered "mules" (R.V. correctly, "hot springs") in Gen 36:24 (yemim) properly denotes the warm springs of Callirhoe, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. In David's reign they became very common (Sa2 13:29; Kg1 10:25). Mules are not mentioned in the New Testament. Perhaps they had by that time ceased to be used in Palestine.

Murder Willful murder was distinguished from accidental homicide, and was invariably visited with capital punishment (Num 35:16, Num 35:18, Num 35:21, Num 35:31; Lev 24:17). This law in its principle is founded on the fact of man's having been made in the likeness of God (Gen 9:5, Gen 9:6; Joh 8:44; Jo1 3:12, Jo1 3:15). The Mosaic law prohibited any compensation for murder or the reprieve of the murderer (Exo 21:12, Exo 21:14; Deu 19:11, Deu 19:13; Sa2 17:25; Sa2 20:10). Two witnesses were required in any capital case (Num 35:19; Deu 17:6). If the murderer could not be discovered, the city nearest the scene of the murder was required to make expiation for the crime committed (Deu 21:1). These offenses also were to be punished with death, (1.) striking a parent; (2.) cursing a parent; (3.) kidnapping (Exo 21:15; Deu 27:16).

Murmuring Of the Hebrews in the wilderness, called forth the displeasure of God, which was only averted by the earnest prayer of Moses (Num 11:33, Num 11:34; 12; Num 14:27, Num 14:30, Num 14:31; Num 16:3; Num 21:4; Psa 106:25). Forbidden by Paul (Co1 10:10).

Murrain Heb. deber , "destruction," a "great mortality", the fifth plague that fell upon the Egyptians (Exo 9:3). It was some distemper that resulted in the sudden and widespread death of the cattle. It was confined to the cattle of the Egyptians that were in the field (Exo 9:6).

Mushi Receding, the second of the two sons of Merari (Exo 6:19; Num 3:20). His sons were called Mushites (Num 3:33; Num 26:58).

Music Jubal was the inventor of musical instruments (Gen 4:21). The Hebrews were much given to the cultivation of music. Their whole history and literature afford abundant evidence of this. After the Deluge, the first mention of music is in the account of Laban's interview with Jacob (Gen 31:27). After their triumphal passage of the Red Sea, Moses and the children of Israel sang their song of deliverance (Ex. 15). But the period of Samuel, David, and Solomon was the golden age of Hebrew music, as it was of Hebrew poetry. Music was now for the first time systematically cultivated. It was an essential part of training in the schools of the prophets (Sa1 10:5; Sa1 19:19; Kg2 3:15; Ch1 25:6). There now arose also a class of professional singers (Sa2 19:35; Ecc 2:8). The temple, however, was the great school of music. In the conducting of its services large bands of trained singers and players on instruments were constantly employed (Sa2 6:5; 1 Chr. 15; 16; Ch1 23:5; Ch1 25:1). In private life also music seems to have held an important place among the Hebrews (Ecc 2:8; Amo 6:4; Isa 5:11, Isa 5:12; Isa 24:8, Isa 24:9; Psa 137:1; Jer 48:33; Luk 15:25).

Music, Instrumental Among instruments of music used by the Hebrews a principal place is given to stringed instruments. These were, (1.) The kinnor, the "harp." (2.) The nebel, "a skin bottle," rendered "psaltery." (3.) The sabbeka, or "sackbut," a lute or lyre. (4.) The gittith, occurring in the title of Psa 8:1; 81; Psa 84:1. (5.) Minnim (Psa 150:4), rendered "stringed instruments;" in Psa 45:8, in the form minni, probably the apocopated (i.e., shortened) plural, rendered, Authorized Version, "whereby," and in the Revised Version "stringed instruments." (6.) Machalath, in the titles of Psa 53:1 and 88; supposed to be a kind of lute or guitar. Of wind instruments mention is made of, (1.) The 'ugab (Gen 4:21; Job 21:12; Job 30:31), probably the so-called Pan's pipes or syrinx. (2.) The qeren or "horn" (Jos 6:5; Ch1 25:5). (3.) The shophar , rendered "trumpet" (Jos 6:4, Jos 6:6, Jos 6:8). The word means "bright," and may have been so called from the clear, shrill sound it emitted. It was often used (Exo 19:13; Num 10:10; Jdg 7:16, Jdg 7:18; Sa1 13:3). (4.) The hatsotserah , or straight trumpet (Psa 98:6; Num 10:1). This name is supposed by some to be an onomatopoetic word, intended to imitate the pulse-like sound of the trumpet, like the Latin taratantara . Some have identified it with the modern trombone. (5.) The halil , i.e., "bored through," a flute or pipe (Sa1 10:5; Kg1 1:40; Isa 5:12; Jer 48:36) which is still used in Palestine. (6.) The sumponyah , rendered "dulcimer" (Dan 3:5), probably a sort of bagpipe. (7.) The maskrokith'a (Dan 3:5), rendered "flute," but its precise nature is unknown. Of instruments of percussion mention is made of, (1.) The toph , an instrument of the drum kind, rendered "timbrel" (Exo 15:20; Job 21:12; Psa 68:25); also "tabret" (Gen 31:27; Isa 24:8; Sa1 10:5). (2.) The paamon , the "bells" on the robe of the high priest (Exo 28:33;e Exo 39:25). (3.) The tseltselim , "cymbals" (Sa2 6:5; Psa 150:5), which are struck together and produce a loud, clanging sound. Metsilloth , "bells" on horses and camels for ornament, and metsiltayim , "cymbals" (Ch1 13:8; Ezr 3:10, etc.). These words are all derived from the same root, tsalal, meaning "to tinkle." (4.) The menaan'im , used only in Sa2 6:5, rendered "cornets" (R.V., "castanets"); in the Vulgate, " sistra ," an instrument of agitation. (5.) The shalishim , mentioned only in Sa1 18:6, rendered "instruments of music" (marg. of R.V., "triangles or three-stringed instruments"). The words in Ecc 2:8, "musical instruments, and that of all sorts," Authorized Version, are in the Revised Version "concubines very many."

Musician, Chief (Heb. menatstseah ), the presenter of the Levitical choir or orchestra in the temple, mentioned in the titles of fifty-five psalms, and in Hab 3:19, Revised Version. The first who held this office was Jeduthun (Ch1 16:41), and the office appears to have been hereditary. Heman and Asaph were his two colleagues (Ch2 35:15).

Mustard A plant of the genus sinapis, a pod-bearing, shrub-like plant, growing wild, and also cultivated in gardens. The little round seeds were an emblem of any small insignificant object. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament; and in each of the three instances of its occurrence in the New Testament (Mat 13:31, Mat 13:32; Mar 4:31, Mar 4:32; Luk 13:18, Luk 13:19) it is spoken of only with reference to the smallness of its seed. The common mustard of Palestine is the Sinapis nigra. This garden herb sometimes grows to a considerable height, so as to be spoken of as "a tree" as compared with garden herbs.