Sacred Texts  Bible  Index 

Lintel (1.) Heb. mashkoph , a projecting cover (Exo 12:22, Exo 12:23; Exo 12:7, "upper door post," but R.V. "lintel"); the head-piece of a door, which the Israelites were commanded to mark with the blood of the paschal lamb. (2.) Heb. kaphtar . Amo 9:1; Zep 2:14 (R.V. correctly "chapiters," as in A.V. marg.).

Lions The most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not now found in Palestine, they must have been in ancient times very numerous there. They had their lairs in the forests (Jer 5:6; Jer 12:8; Amo 3:4), in the caves of the mountains (Sol 4:8; Nah 2:12), and in the canebrakes on the banks of the Jordan (Jer 49:19; Jer 50:44; Zac 11:3). No fewer than at least six different words are used in the Old Testament for the lion. (1.) Gor (i.e., a "suckling"), the lion's whelp (Gen 49:9; Jer 51:38, etc.). (2.) Kephir (i.e., "shaggy"), the young lion (Jdg 14:5; Job 4:10; Psa 91:13; Psa 104:21), a term which is also used figuratively of cruel enemies (Psa 34:10; Psa 35:17; Psa 58:6; Jer 2:15). (3.) 'Ari (i.e., the "puller" in pieces), denoting the lion in general, without reference to age or sex (Num 23:24; Sa2 17:10, etc.). (4.) Shahal (the "roarer"), the mature lion (Job 4:10; Psa 91:13; Pro 26:13; Hos 5:14). (5.) Laish, so called from its strength and bravery (Job 4:11; Pro 30:30; Isa 30:6). The capital of Northern Dan received its name from this word. (6.) Labi, from a root meaning "to roar," a grown lion or lioness (Gen 49:9; Num 23:24; Num 24:9; Eze 19:2; Nah 2:11). The lion of Palestine was properly of the Asiatic variety, distinguished from the African variety, which is larger. Yet it not only attacked flocks in the presence of the shepherd, but also laid waste towns and villages (Kg2 17:25, Kg2 17:26) and devoured men (Kg1 13:24, Kg1 13:25). Shepherds sometimes, single-handed, encountered lions and slew them (Sa1 17:34, Sa1 17:35; Amo 3:12). Samson seized a young lion with his hands and "rent him as he would have rent a kid" (Jdg 14:5, Jdg 14:6). The strength (Jdg 14:18), courage (Sa2 17:10), and ferocity (Gen 49:9) of the lion were proverbial.

Lip Besides its literal sense (Isa 37:29, etc.), is used in the original (saphah) metaphorically for an edge or border, as of a cup (Kg1 7:26), a garment (Exo 28:32), a curtain (Exo 26:4), the sea (Gen 22:17), the Jordan (Kg2 2:13). To "open the lips" is to begin to speak (Job 11:5); to "refrain the lips" is to keep silence (Psa 40:9; Pe1 3:10). The "fruit of the lips" (Heb 13:15) is praise, and the "calves of the lips" thank-offerings (Hos 14:2). To "shoot out the lip" is to manifest scorn and defiance (Psa 22:7). Many similar forms of expression are found in Scripture.

Litter (Heb. tsab , as being lightly and gently borne), a sedan or palanquin for the conveyance of persons of rank (Isa 66:20). In Num 7:3, the words "covered wagons" are more literally "carts of the litter kind." There they denote large and commodious vehicles drawn by oxen, and fitted for transporting the furniture of the temple.

Liver (Heb. kabhed , "heavy;" hence the liver, as being the heaviest of the viscera, Exo 29:13, Exo 29:22; Lev 3:4, Lev 3:1, Lev 3:10, Lev 3:15) was burnt upon the altar, and not used as sacrificial food. In Eze 21:21 there is allusion, in the statement that the king of Babylon "looked upon the liver," to one of the most ancient of all modes of divination. The first recorded instance of divination (q.v.) is that of the teraphim of Laban. By the teraphim the LXX. and Josephus understood "the liver of goats." By the "caul above the liver," in Lev 4:9; Lev 7:4, etc., some understand the great lobe of the liver itself.

Living Creatures As represented by Ezekiel (Ezek. 1 - 10) and John (Rev 4:1, etc.), are the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Rev 15:7); they join the elders in the "new song" (Rev 5:8, Rev 5:9); they warn of danger from divine justice (Isa 6:3), and deliver the commission to those who execute it (Eze 10:2, Eze 10:7); they associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who sing the new song (Rev 14:3), and with the Church in the overthrow of her enemies (Rev 19:4). They are supposed to represent mercy, as distinguished from justice, mercy in its various instrumentality, and especially as connected with the throne of God, the "throne of grace."

Lizard Only in Lev 11:30, as rendering of Hebrew letaah, so called from its "hiding." Supposed to be the Lacerta gecko or fan-foot lizard, from the toes of which poison exudes. (See CHAMELEON.)

Lo-ammi Not my people, a symbolical name given by God's command to Hosea's second son in token of Jehovah's rejection of his people (Hos 1:9, Hos 1:10), his treatment of them as a foreign people. This Hebrew word is rendered by "not my people" in Hos 1:10; Hos 2:23.

Loan The Mosaic law required that when an Israelite needed to borrow, what he asked was to be freely lent to him, and no interest was to be charged, although interest might be taken of a foreigner (Exo 22:25; Deu 23:19, Deu 23:20; Lev 25:35). At the end of seven years all debts were remitted. Of a foreigner the loan might, however, be exacted. At a later period of the Hebrew commonwealth, when commerce increased, the practice of exacting usury or interest on loans, and of surety-ship in the commercial sense, grew up. Yet the exaction of it from a Hebrew was regarded as discreditable (Psa 15:5; Pro 6:1, Pro 6:4; Pro 11:15; Pro 17:18; Pro 20:16; Pro 27:13; Jer 15:10). Limitations are prescribed by the law to the taking of a pledge from the borrower. The outer garment in which a man slept at night, if taken in pledge, was to be returned before sunset (Exo 22:26, Exo 22:27; Deu 24:12, Deu 24:13). A widow's garment (Deu 24:17) and a millstone (Deu 24:6) could not be taken. A creditor could not enter the house to reclaim a pledge, but must remain outside till the borrower brought it (Deu 24:10, Deu 24:11). The Hebrew debtor could not be retained in bondage longer than the seventh year, or at farthest the year of jubilee (Exo 21:2; Lev 25:39, Lev 25:42), but foreign sojourners were to be "bondsmen forever" (Lev 25:44).

Lock The Hebrews usually secured their doors by bars of wood or iron (Isa 45:2; Kg1 4:3). These were the locks originally used, and were opened and shut by large keys applied through an opening in the outside (Jdg 3:24). (See KEY.) Lock of hair (Jdg 16:13, Jdg 16:19; Eze 8:3; Num 6:5, etc.).