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Ladder Occurs only once, in the account of Jacob's vision (Gen 28:12).

Laish A lion. (1.) A city of the Sidonians, in the extreme north of Palestine (Jdg 18:7, Jdg 18:14); called also Leshem (Jos 19:47) and Dan (Jdg 18:7, Jdg 18:29; Jer 8:16). It lay near the sources of the Jordan, about 4 miles from Paneas. The restless and warlike tribe of Dan (q.v.), looking out for larger possessions, invaded this country and took Laish with its territory. It is identified with the ruin Tell-el-Kady, "the mound of the judge," to the north of the Waters of Merom (Jos 11:5). (2.) A place mentioned in Isa 10:30. It has been supposed to be the modern el-Isawiyeh, about a mile north-east of Jerusalem. (3.) The father of Phalti (Sa1 25:44).

Lama (Mat 27:46), a Hebrew word meaning why, quoted from Psa 22:1.

Lamb (1.) Heb. kebes , a male lamb from the first to the third year. Offered daily at the morning and the evening sacrifice (Exo 29:38), on the Sabbath day (Num 28:9), at the feast of the New Moon (Num 28:11), of Trumpets (Num 29:2), of Tabernacles (Num. 29:13-40), of Pentecost (Lev 23:18), and of the Passover (Exo 12:5), and on many other occasions (Ch1 29:21; Ch2 29:21; Lev 9:3; 14:10-25). (2.) Heb. taleh , a young sucking lamb (Sa1 7:9; Isa 65:25). In the symbolical language of Scripture the lamb is the type of meekness and innocence (Isa 11:6; Isa 65:25; Luk 10:3; Joh 21:15). The lamb was a symbol of Christ (Gen 4:4; Exo 12:3; Exo 29:38; Isa 16:1; Isa 53:7; Joh 1:36; Rev 13:8). Christ is called the Lamb of God (Joh 1:29, Joh 1:36), as the great sacrifice of which the former sacrifices were only types (Num 6:12; Lev 14:12; Isa 53:7; Co1 5:7).

Lamech The strikerdown; the wild man. (1.) The fifth in descent from Cain. He was the first to violate the primeval ordinance of marriage (Gen 4:18). His address to his two wives, Adah and Zillah (Gen 4:23, Gen 4:24), is the only extant example of antediluvian poetry. It has been called "Lamech's sword-song." He was "rude and ruffianly," fearing neither God nor man. With him the curtain falls on the race of Cain. We know nothing of his descendants. (2.) The seventh in descent from Seth, being the only son of Methuselah. Noah was the oldest of his several sons (Gen 5:25; Luk 3:36).

Lamentation (Heb. qinah ), an elegy or dirge. The first example of this form of poetry is the lament of David over Saul and Jonathan (Sa2 1:17). It was a frequent accompaniment of mourning (Amo 8:10). In Sa2 3:33, Sa2 3:34 is recorded David's lament over Abner. Prophecy sometimes took the form of a lament when it predicted calamity (Eze 27:2, Eze 27:32; Eze 28:12; Eze 32:2, Eze 32:16).

Lamentations, Book of Called in the Hebrew canon 'Ekhah , meaning "How," being the formula for the commencement of a song of wailing. It is the first word of the book (see Sa2 1:19). The LXX. adopted the name rendered "Lamentations" (Gr. threnoi = Heb. qinoth ) now in common use, to denote the character of the book, in which the prophet mourns over the desolations brought on the city and the holy land by Chaldeans. In the Hebrew Bible it is placed among the Khethubim. (See BIBLE.) As to its authorship, there is no room for hesitancy in following the LXX. and the Targum in ascribing it to Jeremiah. The spirit, tone, language, and subject-matter are in accord with the testimony of tradition in assigning it to him. According to tradition, he retired after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to a cavern outside the Damascus gate, where he wrote this book. That cavern is still pointed out. "In the face of a rocky hill, on the western side of the city, the local belief has placed 'the grotto of Jeremiah.' There, in that fixed attitude of grief which Michael Angelo has immortalized, the prophet may well be supposed to have mourned the fall of his country" (Stanley, Jewish Church). The book consists of five separate poems. In Lam. 1 the prophet dwells on the manifold miseries oppressed by which the city sits as a solitary widow weeping sorely. In Lam. 2 these miseries are described in connection with the national sins that had caused them. Lam. 3 speaks of hope for the people of God. The chastisement would only be for their good; a better day would dawn for them. Lam. 4 laments the ruin and desolation that had come upon the city and temple, but traces it only to the people's sins. Lam. 5 is a prayer that Zion's reproach may be taken away in the repentance and recovery of the people. The first four poems (chapters) are acrostics, like some of the Psalms (Ps. 25, 34, 37, 119), i.e., each verse begins with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet taken in order. The first, second, and fourth have each twenty-two verses, the number of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet. The third has sixty-six verses, in which each three successive verses begin with the same letter. The fifth is not acrostic. Speaking of the "Wailing-place (q.v.) of the Jews" at Jerusalem, a portion of the old wall of the temple of Solomon, Schaff says: "There the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail the downfall of the holy city, kissing the stone wall and watering it with their tears. They repeat from their well-worn Hebrew Bibles and prayer-books the Lamentations of Jeremiah and suitable Psalms."

Lamp (1.) That part of the candle-sticks of the tabernacle and the temple which bore the light (Exo 25:37; Kg1 7:49; Ch2 4:20; Ch2 13:11; Zac 4:2). Their form is not described. Olive oil was generally burned in them (Exo 27:20). (2.) A torch carried by the soldiers of Gideon (Jdg 7:16, Jdg 7:20). (R.V., "torches.") (3.) Domestic lamps (A.V., "candles") were in common use among the Hebrews (Mat 5:15; Mar 4:21, etc.). (4.) Lamps or torches were used in connection with marriage ceremonies (Mat 25:1). This word is also frequently metaphorically used to denote life, welfare, guidance, etc. (Sa2 21:17; Psa 119:105; Pro 6:23; Pro 13:9).

Landmark A boundary line indicated by a stone, stake, etc. (Deu 19:14; Deu 27:17; Pro 22:28; Pro 23:10; Job 24:2). Landmarks could not be removed without incurring the severe displeasure of God.

Laodicea The city of this name mentioned in Scripture lay on the confines of Phrygia and Lydia, about 40 miles east of Ephesus (Rev 3:14), on the banks of the Lycus. It was originally called Diospolis and then Rhoas, but afterwards Laodicea, from Laodice, the wife of Antiochus II., king of Syria, who rebuilt it. It was one of the most important and flourishing cities of Asia Minor. At a very early period it became one of the chief seats of Christianity (Col 2:1; Col 4:15; Rev 1:11, etc.). It is now a deserted place, called by the Turks Eski-hissar or "old castle."