Judgment Seat (Mat 27:19), a portable tribunal (Gr. bema ) which was placed according as the magistrate might direct, and from which judgment was pronounced. In this case it was placed on a tessellated pavement, probably in front of the procurator's residence. (See GABBATHA.)
Judith Jewess, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and one of Esau's wives (Gen 26:34), elsewhere called Aholibamah (Gen 36:2).
Julia A Christian woman at Rome to whom Paul sent his salutations (Rom 16:15), supposed to be the wife of Philologus.
Julius The centurion of the Augustan cohort, or the emperor's body-guard, in whose charge Paul was sent prisoner to Rome (Act 27:1, Act 27:3, Act 27:43). He entreated Paul "courteously," showing in many ways a friendly regard for him.
Junia (Rom 16:7), a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sends salutations along with Andronicus.
Juniper (Heb. rothem ), called by the Arabs retem , and known as Spanish broom; ranked under the genus genista. It is a desert shrub, and abounds in many parts of Palestine. In the account of his journey from Akabah to Jerusalem, Dr. Robinson says: "This is the largest and most conspicuous shrub of these deserts, growing thickly in the water-courses and valleys. Our Arabs always selected the place of encampment, if possible, in a spot where it grew, in order to be sheltered by it at night from the wind; and during the day, when they often went on in advance of the camels, we found them not infrequently sitting or sleeping under a bush of retem to shelter them from the sun. It was in this very desert, a day's journey from Beersheba, that the prophet Elijah lay down and slept beneath the same shrub" (Kg1 19:4, Kg1 19:5). It afforded material for fuel, and also in cases of extremity for human food (Psa 120:4; Job 30:4). One of the encampments in the wilderness of Paran is called Rithmah, i.e., "place of broom" (Num 33:18). "The Bedawin of Sinai still burn this very plant into a charcoal which throws out the most intense heat."
Jupiter The principal deity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. He was worshipped by them under various epithets. Barnabas was identified with this god by the Lycaonians (Act 14:12), because he was of stately and commanding presence, as they supposed Jupiter to be. There was a temple dedicated to this god outside the gates of Lystra (Act 14:13).
Justice Is rendering to every one that which is his due. It has been distinguished from equity in this respect, that while justice means merely the doing what positive law demands, equity means the doing of what is fair and right in every separate case.
Justice of God That perfection of his nature whereby he is infinitely righteous in himself and in all he does, the righteousness of the divine nature exercised in his moral government. At first God imposes righteous laws on his creatures and executes them righteously. Justice is not an optional product of his will, but an unchangeable principle of his very nature. His legislative justice is his requiring of his rational creatures conformity in all respects to the moral law. His rectoral or distributive justice is his dealing with his accountable creatures according to the requirements of the law in rewarding or punishing them (Psa 89:14). In remunerative justice he distributes rewards (Jam 1:12; Ti2 4:8); in vindictive or punitive justice he inflicts punishment on account of transgression (Th2 1:6). He cannot, as being infinitely righteous, do otherwise than regard and hate sin as intrinsically hateful and deserving of punishment. "He cannot deny himself" (Ti2 2:13). His essential and eternal righteousness immutably determines him to visit every sin as such with merited punishment.
Justification A forensic term, opposed to condemnation. As regards its nature, it is the judicial act of God, by which he pardons all the sins of those who believe in Christ, and accounts, accepts, and treats them as righteous in the eye of the law, i.e., as conformed to all its demands. In addition to the pardon (q.v.) of sin, justification declares that all the claims of the law are satisfied in respect of the justified. It is the act of a judge and not of a sovereign. The law is not relaxed or set aside, but is declared to be fulfilled in the strictest sense; and so the person justified is declared to be entitled to all the advantages and rewards arising from perfect obedience to the law (Rom 5:1). It proceeds on the imputing or crediting to the believer by God himself of the perfect righteousness, active and passive, of his Representative and Surety, Jesus Christ (Rom 10:3). Justification is not the forgiveness of a man without righteousness, but a declaration that he possesses a righteousness which perfectly and for ever satisfies the law, namely, Christ's righteousness (Co2 5:21; Rom 4:6). The sole condition on which this righteousness is imputed or credited to the believer is faith in or on the Lord Jesus Christ. Faith is called a "condition," not because it possesses any merit, but only because it is the instrument, the only instrument by which the soul appropriates or apprehends Christ and his righteousness (Rom 1:17; Rom 3:25, Rom 3:26; Rom 4:20, Rom 4:22; Phi 3:8; Gal 2:16). The act of faith which thus secures our justification secures also at the same time our sanctification (q.v.); and thus the doctrine of justification by faith does not lead to licentiousness (Rom 6:2). Good works, while not the ground, are the certain consequence of justification (Rom 6:14; Rom 7:6). (See GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO.)