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Goad (Heb. malmad , only in Jdg 3:31), an instrument used by ploughmen for guiding their oxen. Shamgar slew six hundred Philistines with an ox-goad. "The goad is a formidable weapon. It is sometimes ten feet long, and has a sharp point. We could now see that the feat of Shamgar was not so very wonderful as some have been accustomed to think." In Sa1 13:21, a different Hebrew word is used, dorban, meaning something pointed. The expression (Act 9:5, omitted in the R.V.), "It is hard for thee to kick against the pricks", i.e., against the goad, was proverbial for unavailing resistance to superior power.

Goat (1.) Heb. 'ez , the she-goat (Gen 15:9; Gen 30:35; Gen 31:38). This Hebrew word is also used for the he-goat (Exo 12:5; Lev 4:23; Num 28:15), and to denote a kid (Gen 38:17, Gen 38:20). Hence it may be regarded as the generic name of the animal as domesticated. It literally means "strength," and points to the superior strength of the goat as compared with the sheep. (2.) Heb. 'attud , only in plural; rendered "rams" (Gen 31:10, Gen 31:12); he-goats (Num. 7:17-88; Isa 1:11); goats (Deu 32:14; Psa 50:13). They were used in sacrifice (Psa 66:15). This word is used metaphorically for princes or chiefs in Isa 14:9, and in Zac 10:3 as leaders. (Compare Jer 50:8.) (3.) Heb. gedi , properly a kid. Its flesh was a delicacy among the Hebrews (Gen 27:9, Gen 27:14, Gen 27:17; Jdg 6:19). (4.) Heb. sa'ir , meaning the "shaggy," a hairy goat, a he-goat (Ch2 29:23); "a goat" (Lev 4:24); "satyr" (Isa 13:21); "devils" (Lev 17:7). It is the goat of the sin-offering (Lev 9:3, Lev 9:15; Lev 10:16). (5.) Heb. tsaphir , a he-goat of the goats (Ch2 29:21). In Dan 8:5, Dan 8:8 it is used as a symbol of the Macedonian empire. (6.) Heb. tayish , a "striker" or "butter," rendered "he-goat" (Gen 30:35; Gen 32:14). (7.) Heb. 'azazel (q.v.), the "scapegoat" (Lev 16:8, Lev 16:10, Lev 16:26). (8.) There are two Hebrew words used to denote the undomesticated goat: Yael, only in plural mountain goats (Sa1 24:2; Job 39:1; Psa 104:18). It is derived from a word meaning "to climb." It is the ibex, which abounded in the mountainous parts of Moab. And 'akko , only in Deu 14:5, the wild goat. Goats are mentioned in the New Testament in Mat 25:32, Mat 25:33; Heb 9:12, Heb 9:13, Heb 9:19; Heb 10:4. They represent oppressors and wicked men (Eze 34:17; Eze 39:18; Mat 25:33). Several varieties of the goat were familiar to the Hebrews. They had an important place in their rural economy on account of the milk they afforded and the excellency of the flesh of the kid. They formed an important part of pastoral wealth (Gen 31:10, Gen 31:12; Gen 32:14; Sa1 25:2).

Goath A lowing, a place near Jerusalem, mentioned only in Jer 31:39.

Gob A pit, a place mentioned in Sa2 21:18, Sa2 21:19; called also Gezer, in Ch1 20:4.

Goblet A laver or trough for washing garments. In Sol 7:2, a bowl or drinking vessel, a bowl for mixing wine; in Exo 24:6, a sacrificial basin. (See CUP.)

God (A.S. and Dutch God; Dan. Gud; Ger. Gott), the name of the Divine Being. It is the rendering (1.) of the Hebrew 'El , from a word meaning to be strong; (2.) of 'Eloah, plural 'Elohim . The singular form, Eloah , is used only in poetry. The plural form is more commonly used in all parts of the Bible, The Hebrew word Jehovah (q.v.), the only other word generally employed to denote the Supreme Being, is uniformly rendered in the Authorized Version by "Lord," printed in small capitals. The existence of God is taken for granted in the Bible. There is nowhere any argument to prove it. He who disbelieves this truth is spoken of as one devoid of understanding (Psa 14:1). The arguments generally adduced by theologians in proof of the being of God are: (1.) The a priori argument, which is the testimony afforded by reason. (2.) The a posteriori argument, by which we proceed logically from the facts of experience to causes. These arguments are, (a) The cosmological, by which it is proved that there must be a First Cause of all things, for every effect must have a cause. (b) The teleological, or the argument from design. We see everywhere the operations of an intelligent Cause in nature. (c) The moral argument, called also the anthropological argument, based on the moral consciousness and the history of mankind, which exhibits a moral order and purpose which can only be explained on the supposition of the existence of God. Conscience and human history testify that "verily there is a God that judgeth in the earth." The attributes of God are set forth in order by Moses in Exo 34:6, Exo 34:7. (see also Deu 6:4; Deu 10:17; Num 16:22; Exo 15:11; Exo 33:19; Isa 44:6; Hab 3:6; Psa 102:26; Job 34:12.) They are also systematically classified in Rev 5:12 and Rev 7:12. God's attributes are spoken of by some as absolute, i.e., such as belong to his essence as Jehovah, Jah, etc.; and relative, i.e., such as are ascribed to him with relation to his creatures. Others distinguish them into communicable, i.e., those which can be imparted in degree to his creatures: goodness, holiness, wisdom, etc.; and incommunicable, which cannot be so imparted: independence, immutability, immensity, and eternity. They are by some also divided into natural attributes, eternity, immensity, etc.; and moral, holiness, goodness, etc.

Godhead Act 17:29; Rom 1:20; Col 2:9), the essential being or the nature of God.

Godliness The whole of practical piety (Ti1 4:8; Pe2 1:6). "It supposes knowledge, veneration, affection, dependence, submission, gratitude, and obedience." In Ti1 3:16 it denotes the substance of revealed religion.

Goel In Hebrew the participle of the verb gaal, "to redeem." It is rendered in the Authorized Version "kinsman," Num 5:8; Rut 3:12; Rut 4:1, Rut 4:6, Rut 4:8; "redeemer," Job 19:25; "avenger," Num 35:12; Deu 19:6, etc. The Jewish law gave the right of redeeming and repurchasing, as well as of avenging blood, to the next relative, who was accordingly called by this name. (See REDEEMER.)

Gog (1.) A Reubenite (Ch1 5:4), the father of Shimei. (2.) The name of the leader of the hostile party described in Ezek. 38, 39, as coming from the "north country" and assailing the people of Israel to their own destruction. This prophecy has been regarded as fulfilled in the conflicts of the Maccabees with Antiochus, the invasion and overthrow of the Chaldeans, and the temporary successes and destined overthrow of the Turks. But "all these interpretations are unsatisfactory and inadequate. The vision respecting Gog and Magog in the Apocalypse (Rev 20:8) is in substance a re-announcement of this prophecy of Ezekiel. But while Ezekiel contemplates the great conflict in a more general light as what was certainly to be connected with the times of the Messiah, and should come then to its last decisive issues, John, on the other hand, writing from the commencement of the Messiah's times, describes there the last struggles and victories of the cause of Christ. In both cases alike the vision describes the final workings of the world's evil and its results in connection with the kingdom of God, only the starting-point is placed further in advance in the one case than in the other." It has been supposed to be the name of a district in the wild north-east steppes of Central Asia, north of the Hindu-Kush, now a part of Turkestan, a region about 2,000 miles north-east of Nineveh.