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Furnace (1.) Chald. attun, a large furnace with a wide open mouth, at the top of which materials were cast in (Dan 3:22, Dan 3:23; compare Jer 29:22). This furnace would be in constant requisition, for the Babylonians disposed of their dead by cremation, as did also the Accadians who invaded Mesopotamia. (2.) Heb. kibshan , a smelting furnace (Gen 19:28), also a lime-kiln (Isa 33:12; Amo 2:1). (3.) Heb. kur , a refining furnace (Pro 17:3; Pro 27:21; Eze 22:18). (4.) Heb. alil , a crucible; only used in Psa 12:6. (5.) Heb. tannur , oven for baking bread (Gen 15:17; Isa 31:9; Neh 3:11). It was a large pot, narrowing towards the top. When it was heated by a fire made within, the dough was spread over the heated surface, and thus was baked. "A smoking furnace and a burning lamp" (Gen 15:17), the symbol of the presence of the Almighty, passed between the divided pieces of Abraham's sacrifice in ratification of the covenant God made with him. (See Oven.) (6.) Gr. kamnos , a furnace, kiln, or oven (Mat 13:42, Mat 13:50; Rev 1:15; Rev 9:2).

Furrow An opening in the ground made by the plough (Psa 65:10; Hos 10:4, Hos 10:10).

Fury As attributed to God, is a figurative expression for dispensing afflictive judgments (Lev 26:28; Job 20:23; Isa 63:3; Jer 4:4; Eze 5:13; Dan 9:16; Zac 8:2).

Gaal Loathing, the son of Ebed, in whom the Shechemites "placed their confidence" when they became discontented with Abimelech. He headed the revolution, and led out the men of Shechem against Abimelech; but was defeated, and fled to his own home (Judg. 9:26-46). We hear no more of him after this battle.

Gaash A shaking, a hill, on the north side of which Joshua was buried (Jos 24:30; Jdg 2:9), in the territory of Ephraim. (See TIMNATH-SERAH.)

Gabbatha Gab Baitha, i.e., "the ridge of the house" = "the temple-mound," on a part of which the fortress of Antonia was built. This "temple-mound" was covered with a tessellated "pavement" (Gr. lithostroton , i.e., "stone-paved"). A judgment-seat (bema) was placed on this "pavement" outside the hall of the "praetorium" (q.v.), the judgment-hall (Joh 18:28; Joh 19:13).

Gabriel Champion of God, used as a proper name to designate the angel who was sent to Daniel (Dan 8:16) to explain the vision of the ram and the he-goat, and to communicate the prediction of the seventy weeks (Dan 9:21). He announced also the birth of John the Baptist (Luk 1:11), and of the Messiah (Luk 1:26). He describes himself in the words, "I am Gabriel, who stand in the presence of God" (Luk 1:19).

Gad Fortune; luck. (1.) Jacob's seventh son, by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, and the brother of Asher (Gen 30:11; Gen 46:16, Gen 46:18). In the Authorized Version of Gen 30:11 the words, "A troop cometh: and she called," etc., should rather be rendered, "In fortune [R.V., 'Fortunate']: and she called," etc., or "Fortune cometh," etc. The tribe of Gad during the march through the wilderness had their place with Simeon and Reuben on the south side of the tabernacle (Num 2:14). The tribes of Reuben and Gad continued all through their history to follow the pastoral pursuits of the patriarchs (Num 32:1). The portion allotted to the tribe of Gad was on the east of Jordan, and comprehended the half of Gilead, a region of great beauty and fertility (Deu 3:12), bounded on the east by the Arabian desert, on the west by the Jordan (Jos 13:27), and on the north by the river Jabbok. It thus included the whole of the Jordan valley as far north as to the Sea of Galilee, where it narrowed almost to a point. This tribe was fierce and warlike; they were "strong men of might, men of war for the battle, that could handle shield and buckler, their faces the faces of lions, and like roes upon the mountains for swiftness" (Ch1 12:8; Ch1 5:19). Barzillai (Sa2 17:27) and Elijah (Kg1 17:1) were of this tribe. It was carried into captivity at the same time as the other tribes of the northern kingdom by Tiglath-pileser (Ch1 5:26), and in the time of Jeremiah (Jer 49:1) their cities were inhabited by the Ammonites. (2.) A prophet who joined David in the "hold," and at whose advice he quitted it for the forest of Hareth (Ch1 29:29; Ch2 29:25; Sa1 22:5). Many years after we find mention made of him in connection with the punishment inflicted for numbering the people (Sa2 24:11; Ch1 21:9). He wrote a book called the "Acts of David" (Ch1 29:29), and assisted in the arrangements for the musical services of the "house of God" (Ch2 29:25). He bore the title of "the king's seer" (Sa2 24:11, Sa2 24:13; Ch1 21:9).

Gadara The capital of the Roman province of a Peraea. It stood on the summit of a mountain about 6 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee. Mark (Mar 5:1) and Luke (Luk 8:26) describe the miracle of the healing of the demoniac (Mat 8:28 says two demoniacs) as having been wrought "in the country of the Gadarenes," thus describing the scene generally. The miracle could not have been wrought at Gadara itself, for between the lake and this town there is the deep, almost impassable ravine of the Hieromax (Jarmuk). It is identified with the modern village of Um-Keis, which is surrounded by very extensive ruins, all bearing testimony to the splendour of ancient Gadara. "The most interesting remains of Gadara are its tombs, which dot the cliffs for a considerable distance round the city, chiefly on the north-east declivity; but many beautifully sculptured sarcophagi are scattered over the surrounding heights. They are excavated in the limestone rock, and consist of chambers of various dimensions, some more than 20 feet square, with recesses in the sides for bodies... The present inhabitants of Um-Keis are all troglodytes, 'dwelling in tombs,' like the poor maniacs of old, and occasionally they are almost as dangerous to unprotected travelers."

Gadarenes The inhabitants of Gadara, in Revised Version "Gerasenes" (Mar 5:1; Luk 8:26, Luk 8:37). In Mat 8:28 they are called Gergesenes, Revised Version "Gadarenes."