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Covetousness A strong desire after the possession of worldly things (Col 3:5; Eph 5:5; Heb 13:5; Ti1 6:9, Ti1 6:10; Mat 6:20). It assumes sometimes the more aggravated form of avarice, which is the mark of cold-hearted worldliness.

Cow A cow and her calf were not to be killed on the same day (Lev 22:28; Exo 23:19; Deu 22:6, Deu 22:7). The reason for this enactment is not given. A state of great poverty is described in the words of Isa 7:21, where, instead of possessing great resources, a man shall depend for the subsistence of himself and his family on what a single cow and two sheep could yield.

Crane (Isa 38:14; Jer 8:7). In both of these passages the Authorized Version has reversed the Hebrew order of the words. "Crane or swallow" should be "swallow or crane," as in the Revised Version. The rendering is there correct. The Hebrew for crane is the Grus cincerea, a bird well known in Palestine. It is migratory, and is distinguished by its loud voice, its cry being hoarse and melancholy.

Creation "In the beginning" God created, i.e., called into being, all things out of nothing. This creative act on the part of God was absolutely free, and for infinitely wise reasons. The cause of all things exists only in the will of God. The work of creation is attributed (1.) to the Godhead (Gen 1:1, Gen 1:26); (2.) to the Father (Co1 8:6); (3.) to the Son (Joh 1:3; Col 1:16, Col 1:17); (4.) to the Holy Spirit (Gen 1:2; Job 26:13; Psa 104:30). The fact that he is the Creator distinguishes Jehovah as the true God (Isa 37:16; Isa 40:12, Isa 40:13; Isa 54:5; Psa 96:5; Jer 10:11, Jer 10:12). The one great end in the work of creation is the manifestation of the glory of the Creator (Col 1:16; Rev 4:11; Rom 11:36). God's works, equally with God's word, are a revelation from him; and between the teachings of the one and those of the other, when rightly understood, there can be no contradiction. Traditions of the creation, disfigured by corruptions, are found among the records of ancient Eastern nations. (See ACCAD.) A peculiar interest belongs to the traditions of the Accadians, the primitive inhabitants of the plains of Lower Mesopotamia. These within the last few years have been brought to light in the tablets and cylinders which have been rescued from the long-buried palaces and temples of Assyria. They bear a remarkable resemblance to the record of Genesis.

Creature Denotes the whole creation in Rom 8:39; Col 1:15; Rev 5:13; the whole human race in Mar 16:15; Rom 8:19. The living creatures in Eze 10:15, Eze 10:17, are imaginary beings, symbols of the Divine attributes and operations.

Crescens Increasing, probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He was one of Paul's assistants (Ti2 4:10), probably a Christian of Rome.

Crete Now called Candia, one of the largest islands in the Meditterranean, about 140 miles long and 35 broad. It was at one time a very prosperous and populous island, having a "hundred cities." The character of the people is described in Paul's quotation from "one of their own poets" (Epimenides) in his epistle to Titus: "The Cretans are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies" (Tit 1:12). Jews from Crete were in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (Act 2:11). The island was visited by Paul on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27). Here Paul subsequently left Titus (Tit 1:5) "to ordain elders." Some have supposed that it was the original home of the Caphtorim (q.v.) or Philistines.

Crimson See COLOUR.

Crisping-pin (Isa 3:22; R.V., "satchel"), some kind of female ornament, probably like the modern reticule. The Hebrew word harit properly signifies pouch or casket or purse. It is rendered "bag" in Kg2 5:23.

Crispus Curled, the chief of the synagogue at Corinth (Act 18:8). He was converted and, with his family, baptized by Paul (Co1 1:14).