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Ataroth Crowns. (1.) A city east of Jordan, not far from Gilead (Num 32:3). (2.) A town on the border of Ephraim and Benjamin (Jos 16:2, Jos 16:7), called also Ataroth-adar (Jos 16:5). Now ed-Da'rieh . (3.) "Ataroth, the house of Joab" (Ch1 2:54), a town of Judah inhabited by the descendants of Caleb.

Ater Shut; lame. (1.) Ezr 2:16. (2.) Neh 10:17. (3.) Ezr 2:42.

Athaliah Whom God afflicts. (1.) The daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and the wife of Jehoram, king of Judah (Kg2 8:18), who "walked in the ways of the house of Ahab" (Ch2 21:6), called "daughter" of Omri (Kg2 8:26). On the death of her husband and of her son Ahaziah, she resolved to seat herself on the vacant throne. She slew all Ahaziah's children except Joash, the youngest (Kg2 11:1, Kg2 11:2). After a reign of six years she was put to death in an insurrection (Kg2 11:20; Ch2 21:6; Ch2 22:10; Ch2 23:15), stirred up among the people in connection with Josiah's being crowned as king. (2.) Ezr 8:7. (3.) Ch1 8:26.

Athens The capital of Attica, the most celebrated city of the ancient world, the seat of Greek literature and art during the golden period of Grecian history. Its inhabitants were fond of novelty (Act 17:21), and were remarkable for their zeal in the worship of the gods. It was a sarcastic saying of the Roman satirist that it was "easier to find a god at Athens than a man." On his second missionary journey Paul visited this city (Act 17:15; compare Th1 3:1), and delivered in the Areopagus his famous speech (Act 17:22). The altar of which Paul there speaks as dedicated "to the [properly an] unknown God" (Act 17:23) was probably one of several which bore the same inscription. It is supposed that they originated in the practice of letting loose a flock of sheep and goats in the streets of Athens on the occasion of a plague, and of offering them up in sacrifice, at the spot where they lay down, "to the god concerned."

Atonement This word does not occur in the Authorized Version of the New Testament except in Rom 5:11, where in the Revised Version the word "reconciliation" is used. In the Old Testament it is of frequent occurrence. The meaning of the word is simply at-one-ment, i.e., the state of being at one or being reconciled, so that atonement is reconciliation. Thus it is used to denote the effect which flows from the death of Christ. But the word is also used to denote that by which this reconciliation is brought about, viz., the death of Christ itself; and when so used it means satisfaction, and in this sense to make an atonement for one is to make satisfaction for his offenses (Exo 32:30; Lev 4:26; Lev 5:16; Num 6:11), and, as regards the person, to reconcile, to propitiate God in his behalf. By the atonement of Christ we generally mean his work by which he expiated our sins. But in Scripture usage the word denotes the reconciliation itself, and not the means by which it is effected. When speaking of Christ's saving work, the word "satisfaction," the word used by the theologians of the Reformation, is to be preferred to the word "atonement." Christ's satisfaction is all he did in the room and in behalf of sinners to satisfy the demands of the law and justice of God. Christ's work consisted of suffering and obedience, and these were vicarious, i.e., were not merely for our benefit, but were in our stead, as the suffering and obedience of our vicar, or substitute. Our guilt is expiated by the punishment which our vicar bore, and thus God is rendered propitious, i.e., it is now consistent with his justice to manifest his love to transgressors. Expiation has been made for sin, i.e., it is covered. The means by which it is covered is vicarious satisfaction, and the result of its being covered is atonement or reconciliation. To make atonement is to do that by virtue of which alienation ceases and reconciliation is brought about. Christ's mediatorial work and sufferings are the ground or efficient cause of reconciliation with God. They rectify the disturbed relations between God and man, taking away the obstacles interposed by sin to their fellowship and concord. The reconciliation is mutual, i.e., it is not only that of sinners toward God, but also and pre-eminently that of God toward sinners, effected by the sin-offering he himself provided, so that consistently with the other attributes of his character his love might flow forth in all its fulness of blessing to men. The primary idea presented to us in different forms throughout the Scripture is that the death of Christ is a satisfaction of infinite worth rendered to the law and justice of God (q.v.), and accepted by him in room of the very penalty man had incurred. It must also be constantly kept in mind that the atonement is not the cause but the consequence of God's love to guilty men (Joh 3:16; Rom 3:24, Rom 3:25; Eph 1:7; Jo1 1:9; Jo1 4:9). The atonement may also be regarded as necessary, not in an absolute but in a relative sense, i.e., if man is to be saved, there is no other way than this which God has devised and carried out (Exo 34:7; Jos 24:19; Psa 5:4; Psa 7:11; Nah 1:2, Nah 1:6; Rom 3:5). This is God's plan, clearly revealed; and f that is enough for us to know.

Atonement, Day of The great annual day of humiliation and expiation for the sins of the nation, "the fast" (Act 27:9), and the only one commanded in the law of Moses. The mode of its observance is described in Lev 16:3; Lev 23:26; and Num 29:7. It was kept on the tenth day of the month Tisri, i.e., five days before the feast of Tabernacles, and lasted from sunset to sunset. (See AZAZEL.)

Augustus The cognomen of the first Roman emperor, C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, during whose reign Christ was born (Luk 2:1). His decree that "all the world should be taxed" was the divinely ordered occasion of Jesus' being born, according to prophecy (Mic 5:2), in Bethlehem. This name being simply a title meaning "majesty" or "venerable," first given to him by the senate (27 B.C.), was borne by succeeding emperors. Before his death (A.D. 14) he associated Tiberius with him in the empire (Luk 3:1), by whom he was succeeded.

Augustus' Band (Act 27:1.: literally, of Sebaste, the Greek form of Augusta, the name given to Caesarea in honour of Augustus Caesar). Probably this "band" or cohort consisted of Samaritan soldiers belonging to Caesarea.

Ava A place in Assyria from which colonies were brought to Samaria (Kg2 17:24). It is probably the same with Ivah (Kg2 18:34; Kg2 19:13; Isa 37:13). It has been identified with Hit on the Euphrates.

Aven Nothingness; vanity. (1.) Hosea speaks of the "high places of Aven" (Hos 10:8), by which he means Bethel. He also calls in Beth-aven, i.e., "the house of vanity" (Hos 4:15), on account of the golden calves Jeroboam had set up there (Kg1 12:28). (2.)Translated by the LXX. "On" in Eze 30:17. The Egyptian Heliopolis or city of On (q.v.). (3.)In Amo 1:5 it denotes the Syrian Heliopolis, the modern Baalbec.