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Arnon Swift, the southern boundary of the territory of Israel beyond Jordan, separating it from the land of Moab (Deu 3:8, Deu 3:16). This river (referred to twenty-four times in the Bible) rises in the mountains of Gilead, and after a circuitous course of about 80 miles through a deep ravine it falls into the Dead Sea nearly opposite Engedi. The stream is almost dry in summer. It is now called el-Mujeb. The territory of the Amorites extended from the Arnon to the Jabbok.

Aroer Ruins. (1.) A town on the north bank of the Arnon (Deu 4:48; Jdg 11:26; Kg2 10:33), the southern boundary of the kingdom of Sihon (Jos 12:2). It is now called Arair, 13 miles west of the Dead Sea. (2.) One of the towns built by the tribe of Gad (Num 32:34) "before Rabbah" (Jos 13:25), the Ammonite capital. It was famous in the history of Jephthah (Jdg 11:33) and of David (Sa2 24:5). (Compare Isa 17:2; Kg2 15:29.) (3.) A city in the south of Judah, 12 miles south-east of Beersheba, to which David sent presents after recovering the spoil from the Amalekites at Ziklag (Sa1 30:26, Sa1 30:28). It was the native city of two of David's warriors (Ch1 11:44). It is now called Ararah.

Arpad (Isa 10:9; Isa 36:19; Isa 37:13), also Arphad.

Arphad Support, a Syrian city near Hamath, along with which it is invariably mentioned (Kg2 19:13; Kg2 18:34; Isa 10:9), and Damascus (Jer 49:23). After a siege of three years it fell (742 B.C.) before the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser II. Now Tell Erfud.

Arphaxad Son of Shem, born the year after the Deluge. He died at the age of 438 years (Gen 11:10; Ch1 1:17, Ch1 1:18; Luk 3:36). He dwelt in Mesopotamia, and became, according to the Jewish historian Josephus, the progenitor of the Chaldeans. The tendency is to recognize in the word the name of the country nearest the ancient domain of the Chaldeans. Some regard the word as an Egypticized form of the territorial name of Ur Kasdim, or Ur of the Chaldees.

Arrows At first made of reeds, and then of wood tipped with iron. Arrows are sometimes figuratively put for lightning (Deu 32:23, Deu 32:42; Psa 7:13; Psa 18:14; Psa 144:6; Zac 9:14). They were used in war as well as in the chase (Gen 27:3; Gen 49:23). They were also used in divination (Eze 21:21). The word is frequently employed as a symbol of calamity or disease inflicted by God (Job 6:4; Job 34:6; Psa 38:2; Deu 32:23. Compare Eze 5:16), or of some sudden danger (Psa 91:5), or bitter words (Psa 64:3), or false testimony (Pro 25:18).

Artaxerxes The Greek form of the name of several Persian kings. (1.) The king who obstructed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezr 4:7). He was probably the Smerdis of profane history. (2.) The king mentioned in Ezr 7:1, in the seventh year (458 B.C.) of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to Jerusalem, was probably Longimanus, who reigned for forty years (464-425 B.C.); the grandson of Darius, who, fourteen years later, permitted Nehemiah to return and rebuild Jerusalem.

Artificer A person engaged in any kind of manual occupation (Gen 4:22; Isa 3:3).

Artillery Sa1 20:40, (Heb. keli , meaning "apparatus;" here meaning collectively any missile weapons, as arrows and lances. In Revised Version, "weapons"). This word is derived from the Latin artillaria = equipment of war.

Arvad Wandering, (Eze 27:8), a small island and city on the coast of Syria, mentioned as furnishing mariners and soldiers for Tyre. The inhabitants were called Arvadites. The name is written Aruada or Arada in the Tell-el-Amarna tablets.