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Apparel In Old Testament times the distinction between male and female attire was not very marked. The statute forbidding men to wear female apparel (Deu 22:5) referred especially to ornaments and head-dresses. Both men and women wore (1.) an under garment or tunic, which was bound by a girdle. One who had only this tunic on was spoken of as "naked" (Sa1 19:24; Job 24:10; Isa 20:2). Those in high stations sometimes wore two tunics, the outer being called the "upper garment" (Sa1 15:27; Sa1 18:4; Sa1 24:5; Job 1:20). (2.) They wore in common an over-garment ("mantle," Isa 3:22; Kg1 19:13; Kg2 2:13), a loose and flowing robe. The folds of this upper garment could be formed into a lap (Rut 3:15; Psa 79:12; Pro 17:23; Luk 6:38). Generals of armies usually wore scarlet robes (Jdg 8:26; Nah 2:3). A form of conspicuous raiment is mentioned in Luk 20:46; compare Mat 23:5. Priests alone wore trousers. Both men and women wore turbans. Kings and nobles usually had a store of costly garments for festive occasions (Isa 3:22; Zac 3:4) and for presents (Gen 45:22; Est 4:4; Est 6:8, Est 6:11; Sa1 18:4; Kg2 5:5; Kg2 10:22). Prophets and ascetics wore coarse garments (Isa 20:2; Zac 13:4; Mat 3:4).

Appeal A reference of any case from an inferior to a superior court. Moses established in the wilderness a series of judicatories such that appeals could be made from a lower to a higher (Exo 18:13.) Under the Roman law the most remarkable case of appeal is that of Paul from the tribunal of Festus at Caesarea to that of the emperor at Rome (Act 25:11, Act 25:12, Act 25:21, Act 25:25). Paul availed himself of the privilege of a Roman citizen in this matter.

Apphia Increasing, a female Christian at Colosse (Plm 1:2), supposed by some to have been the wife of Philemon.

Appii Forum I.e., "the market of Appius" (Act 28:15, R.V.), a town on the road, the "Appian Way," from Rome to Brundusium. It was 43 miles from Rome. Here Paul was met by some Roman Christians on his way to the capital. It was natural that they should halt here and wait for him, because from this place there were two ways by which travelers might journey to Rome.

Apple (Heb. tappuah , meaning "fragrance"). Probably the apricot or quince is intended by the word, as Palestine was too hot for the growth of apples proper. It is enumerated among the most valuable trees of Palestine (Joe 1:12), and frequently referred to in Canticles, and noted for its beauty (Sol 2:3, Sol 2:5; Sol 8:5). There is nothing to show that it was the "tree of the knowledge of good and evil." Dr. Tristram has suggested that the apricot has better claims than any other fruit-tree to be the apple of Scripture. It grows to a height of 30 feet, has a roundish mass of glossy leaves, and bears an orange colored fruit that gives out a delicious perfume. The "apple of the eye" is the Heb. ishon , meaning manikin, i.e., the pupil of the eye (Pro 7:2). (Compare the promise, Zac 2:8; the prayer, Psa 17:8; and its fulfillment, Deu 32:10.) The so-called "apple of Sodom" some have supposed to be the Solanum sanctum (Heb. hedek ), rendered "brier" (q.v.) in Mic 7:4, a thorny plant bearing fruit like the potato-apple. This shrub abounds in the Jordan valley. (See ENGEDI.)

Apron Found in the Authorized Version in Gen 3:7, of the bands of fig-leaves made by our first parents. In Act 19:12, it denotes the belt or half-girdle worn by artisans and servants round the waist for the purpose of preserving the clothing from injury. In marg. of Authorized Version, Rut 3:15, correctly rendered instead of "vail." (R.V., "mantle.")

Aquila Eagle, a native of Pontus, by occupation a tent-maker, whom Paul met on his first visit to Corinth (Act 18:2). Along with his wife Priscilla he had fled from Rome in consequence of a decree (A.D. 50) by Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city. Paul sojourned with him at Corinth, and they wrought together at their common trade, making Cilician hair-cloth for tents. On Paul's departure from Corinth after eighteen months, Aquila and his wife accompanied him to Ephesus, where they remained, while he proceeded to Syria (Act 18:18, Act 18:26). When they became Christians we are not informed, but in Ephesus they were (Co1 16:19) Paul's "helpers in Christ Jesus." We find them afterwards at Rome (Rom 16:3), interesting themselves still in the cause of Christ. They are referred to some years after this as being at Ephesus (Ti2 4:19). This is the last notice we have of them.

Arab Ambush, a city in the mountains of Judah (Jos 15:52), now Er-Rabiyeh.

Arabah Plain, in the Revised Version of Kg2 14:25; Jos 3:16; Jos 8:14; Sa2 2:29; Sa2 4:7 (in all these passages the A.V. has "plain"); Amo 6:14 (A.V. "wilderness"). This word is found in the Authorized Version only in Jos 18:18. It denotes the hollow depression through which the Jordan flows from the Lake of Galilee to the Dead Sea. It is now called by the Arabs el-Ghor. But the Ghor is sometimes spoken of as extending 10 miles south of the Dead Sea, and thence to the Gulf of Akabah on the Red Sea is called the Wady el-Arabah.

Arabia Arid, an extensive region in the south-west of Asia. It is bounded on the west by the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea, on the south by the Indian Ocean, and on the east by the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates. It extends far into the north in barren deserts, meeting those of Syria and Mesopotamia. It is one of the few countries of the world from which the original inhabitants have never been expelled. See map, of Arabia It was anciently divided into three parts:, (1.) Arabia Felix (Happy Arabia), so called from its fertility. It embraced a large portion of the country now known by the name of Arabia. The Arabs call it Yemen. It lies between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. (2.) Arabia Deserta, the el-Badieh or "Great Wilderness" of the Arabs. From this name is derived that which is usually given to the nomadic tribes which wander over this region, the "Bedaween," or, more generally, "Bedouin," (3.) Arabia Petraea, i.e., the Rocky Arabia, so called from its rocky mountains and stony plains. It comprehended all the north-west portion of the country, and is much better known to travelers than any other portion. This country is, however, divided by modern geographers into (1.) Arabia Proper, or the Arabian Peninsula; (2.) Northern Arabia, or the Arabian Desert; and (3.) Western Arabia, which includes the peninsula of Sinai and the Desert of Petra, originally inhabited by the Horites (Gen 14:6, etc.), but in later times by the descendants of Esau, and known as the Land of Edom or Idumea, also as the Desert of Seir or Mount Seir. The whole land appears (Gen. 10) to have been inhabited by a variety of tribes of different lineage, Ishmaelites, Arabians, Idumeans, Horites, and Edomites; but at length becoming amalgamated, they came to be known by the general designation of Arabs. The modern nation of Arabs is predominantly Ishmaelite. Their language is the most developed and the richest of all the Semitic languages, and is of great value to the student of Hebrew. The Israelites wandered for forty years in Arabia. In the days of Solomon, and subsequently, commercial intercourse was to a considerable extent kept up with this country (Kg1 10:15; Ch2 9:14; Ch2 17:11). Arabians were present in Jerusalem at Pentecost (Act 2:11). Paul retired for a season into Arabia after his conversion (Gal 1:17). This country is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isa 21:11; Isa 42:11; Jer 25:24, etc.)