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Aijeleth Shahar Hind of the dawn, a name found in the title of Ps. 22. It is probably the name of some song or tune to the measure of which the psalm was to be chanted. Some, however, understand by the name some instrument of music, or an allegorical allusion to the subject of the psalm.

Air The atmosphere, as opposed to the higher regions of the sky (Th1 4:17; Rev 9:2; Rev 16:17). This word occurs once as the rendering of the Hebrew ruah (Job 41:16); elsewhere it is the rendering of shamaiyim, usually translated "heavens." The expression "to speak into the air" (Co1 14:9) is a proverb denoting to speak in vain, as to "beat the air" (Co1 9:26) denotes to labour in vain.

Ajalon And Aijalon, place of deer. (1.)A town and valley originally assigned to the tribe of Dan, from which, however, they could not drive the Amorites (Jdg 1:35). It was one of the Levitical cities given to the Kohathites (Ch1 6:69). It was not far from Beth-shemesh (Ch2 28:18). It was the boundary between the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, and is frequently mentioned in Jewish history (Ch2 11:10; Sa1 14:31; Ch1 8:13). With reference to the valley named after the town, Joshua uttered the celebrated command, "Sun, stand thou still on Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon" (Jos 10:12). It has been identified as the modern Yalo, at the foot of the Beth-horon pass (q.v.). In the Tell Amarna letters Adoni-zedek (q.v.) speaks of the destruction of the "city of Ajalon" by the invaders, and describes himself as "afflicted, greatly afflicted" by the calamities that had come on the land, urging the king of Egypt to hasten to his help. (2.)A city in the tribe of Zebulun (Jdg 12:12), the modern Jalun, three miles north of Cabul.

Akkub (Another form of Jacob) (1.) The head of one of the families of Nethinim (Ezr 2:45). (2.)A Levite who kept the gate of the temple after the return from Babylon (Ch1 9:17; Ezr 2:42; Neh 7:45). (3.)A descendant of David (Ch1 3:24).

Akrabbim Scorpions, probably the general name given to the ridge containing the pass between the south of the Dead Sea and Zin, es-Sufah, by which there is an ascent to the level of the land of Palestine. Scorpions are said to abound in this whole district, and hence the name (Num 34:4). It is called "Maaleh-acrabbim" in Jos 15:3, and "the ascent of Akrabbim" in Num 34:4.

Alabaster Occurs only in the New Testament in connection with the box of "ointment of spikenard very precious," with the contents of which a woman anointed the head of Jesus as he sat at supper in the house of Simon the leper (Mat 26:7; Mar 14:3; Luk 7:37). These boxes were made from a stone found near Alabastron in Egypt, and from this circumstance the Greeks gave them the name of the city where they were made. The name was then given to the stone of which they were made; and finally to all perfume vessels, of whatever material they were formed. The woman "broke" the vessel; i.e., she broke off, as was usually done, the long and narrow neck so as to reach the contents. This stone resembles marble, but is softer in its texture, and hence very easily wrought into boxes. Mark says (Mar 14:5) that this box of ointment was worth more than 300 pence, i.e., denarii, each of the value of seven-pence half-penny of our money, and therefore worth about 10 pounds. But if we take the denarius as the day's wage of a laborer (Mat 20:2), say two shillings of our money, then the whole would be worth about 30 pounds, so costly was Mary's offering.

Alamoth Virgins, a musical term (Ch1 15:20), denoting that the psalm which bears this inscription (Psa 46:1) was to be sung by soprano or female voices.

Alarm A particular quivering sound of the silver trumpets to give warning to the Hebrews on their journey through the wilderness (Num 10:5, Num 10:6), a call to arms, or a war-note (Jer 4:19; Jer 49:2; Zep 1:16).

Alemeth Covering. (1.) One of the nine sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin (Ch1 7:8). (2.)One of the sons of Jehoadah, or Jarah, son of Ahaz (Ch1 8:36). (3.)A sacerdotal city of Benjamin (Ch1 6:60), called also Almon (Jos 21:18), now Almit, a mile north-east of the ancient Anathoth.

Alexander Man-defender. (1.) A relative of Annas the high priest, present when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Act 4:6). (2.) A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of Christ (Mar 15:21). (3.) A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar raised there by the preaching of Paul (Act 19:33). The Jews put him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no sympathy with Paul any more than the Ephesians had. It is possible that this man was the same as the following. (4.) A coppersmith who, with Hymenaeus and others, promulgated certain heresies regarding the resurrection (Ti1 1:19; Ti2 4:14), and made shipwreck of faith and of a good conscience. Paul excommunicated him (Ti1 1:20; compare Co1 5:5).