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Chronicles of Jerahmeel, by M. Gaster [1899], at

XCVI. (1) In those days the Lord began to render the fourth kingdom more powerful than the third, that is the kingdom of Rome, which was stirred up against the kingdom of Greece. The name of the Roman was exalted over all the empires of the world. That was the fourth animal which Daniel, that greatly-beloved man, saw in a vision. Just as that animal devoured, crushed and trampled upon everything, so did this nation of Romans devour and crush all the other nations. It was they who fought with Antiochus, King of Greece, his 120 elephants and a strong and powerful army of infantry and cavalry, whom they conquered in the battle, and compelled to pay the Romans tribute.

(2) They also humbled the pride of Annibal, King of Africa, who reigned over the city whose name was Carthagene. Annibal entered the field with an army as mighty and as numerous as the sand upon the seashore. With him were all the armies of Ethiopia, Phut and Lud, and other mighty nations. Having crossed the narrow sea between Africa and Sefarad, he humbled the pride of the nation of the Goths (###). Journeying thence, he arrived in the land of Germania by the sea Oceanus. Thence he came to Italy and engaged in battle with the Romans, who went out to meet him. It was a long and fierce contest, in which the Romans were utterly routed.

(3) The Romans, however, continued to fight, and in ten years no less than eighteen battles were fought with Annibal, but they could make no stand before him. At length, they again mustered all their warriors, at the head

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of whom were two valiant men, Æmilius and Varros. Having arranged their men in line of battle by the river Eopiros (###), the battle was fought at Canusi (###), a large city. Here a fierce and desperate battle was fought, in which 90,000 Romans met their death. (4) Among them was Æmilius, one of the Roman commanders. Varros (###), however, managed to escape to Venosia (###), a city situated between the mountains and the plain. Of Annibal's men, 40,000 were killed in that battle. Having pursued the Romans up to the gates of the city, he besieged the city for eight days, and building turrets in front of the city, fought against it.

(5) Then the Roman counsellors said to each other, 'Let us open the gate and come and make a covenant with Annibal, that we may live and not be put to death.' This they determined to do, when a young man, whose name was Scipios (###), arose, and said to the 320 counsellors of the city, 'Far be it from us to subject ourselves to Annibal.' 'But what can we do,' answered they, 'since we have not been able to make a stand before Annibal for the last eighteen years?' 'Then,' said Scipio, 'come, let us take counsel. Give me about five legions of men, and I will go to the land of Africa and attack and destroy his land. As soon as Annibal hears this, he will hasten away from Rome to deliver his own land from my hands, and thus will ye obtain rest.'

(6) Having consented to his proposal, he took with him 30,000 Romans, and marching to Africa, the country of Annibal, he engaged in battle, in which Astrubal, Annibal's brother, was slain. Scipio cut off his head and brought it to Rome, and, mounting the wall, he cried out to Annibal, 'Why art thou so eager for our land, and dost not go to deliver thy own land from my hands, which I am destroying?' He then sent Annibal his brother's head. When he recognised it he braced himself up, and hardening his heart, swore not to leave the city until he had taken it, and he besieged it for several days more.

(7) Scipio then returned to Africa and entirely destroyed

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it. Thence he went to Carthagene and besieged it. And the men of Carthagene sent Annibal a letter to Rome, saying, 'Why dost thou desire a strange land, when thine own land is taken from thee? If thou wilt not hasten here and deliver us from the hand of Scipio, we shall open the gate and give the city of Carthagene with thy palace into his hands.' (8) When he read this letter he wept, and immediately raised the siege, and going to Epirus, where lay his ships, he slew there Romans without number, men, women and children who were taken prisoners. He then went to Africa with all his army. (9) But Scipio went out to meet him, and a fierce war ensued between them, in which Annibal was conquered and about 50,000 of his men slain. He was likewise conquered in three pitched battles with Scipio. After that Annibal fled to Egypt, but Scipio followed him, and Ptolemy the king delivered him into Scipio's hands. He was brought to Africa in great honour, and there he drank poison and died and was buried. Scipio then captured the whole land of Africa, and the place that abounds in gold and silver. Thus Rome was exalted above all the other nations.