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The Native Tribes of North Central Australia, by Baldwin Spencer and F. J. Gillen [1899], at

p. 659


(Unclear:) The letter n indicates footnote.


AEMOARA, name of native drink made from Hakea flowers, 185

relationship of, established during the Engwura, 322

ceremony of releasing from ban of silence, 380

Address, terms of, Mr. McLennan's views with regard to those of Australian natives, 56 et seq.

certain terms used by Arunta natives, 56–59, 248, 260

Adze, 591

Alailinga, name given to certain clouds, and to the knocking out of teeth, 451

Alcheringa, meaning of the term, 73 n

ancestors, 119

periods of, 387

early traditions of, 388

middle, 394

later, 418

individuals, three forms of, 515

Alatunja, head of local group, powers of, 9 and n, 159 et seq.

position hereditary, 10

taking charge of sacred storehouse, 153

taking the lead during ceremony of Intichiuma, 168

inheritance of, 190

Ambilyerikirra, ceremony of, 364

Amera, spear thrower, 582

Ampurtanurra, series of ceremonies concerned with Achilpa totem, 406

Ancestors of Arunta tribe, 119

Apmara, nature and use of, 172

Apulla, ground on which circumcision is performed, 220

Arachitta poles, during circumcision, 239

Ariltha, or sub-incision, 251 et seq. 463

performed by one woman on another, 432. See also Initiation

Arri-inkuma, noise made by shouting and moving the hand in front of the mouth, 413 n

Arumburinga, a spirit issuing from a Nanja, 513

spirit doubles of living men and women, 513–515

Arungquiltha, meaning of the term, 548 and n. See also Magic

Arunta tribe, as an example of ordinary life of natives, 8

social organisation of, 70

marriage system of, 70

relationship terms, 71–73

marriage not restricted by totem, 73

lending of wives, 74

genealogical tree, 80

ceremonies attending marriage, 92–95

license at corrobborees, 96 et seq.

totemic system of, 114 et seq., 202

initiation ceremonies, 213 et seq.

Atnongara, stones carried by medicine men, 525

Atnuta, name given to limp dead body, 237

Avenging party, 461, 477

Axes, various types of native, 588–592


Betrothal, 558

Bingongina tribe, ceremony attendant on marriage in, 95

Birds, associated with totems, 448 et seq.

spirit of slain man in form of, 494

medicine man assuming form of, in the Mungabera tribe, 533

p. 660

Blandowski, his account of tooth-knocking out, 453

Blindness caused by magic, 552

Blood, pouring out on the ground during emu ceremony, 179

sprinkling over stone during Unjiamba Intichiuma ceremony, 184

used during ceremonies, 201, 204, 284, 462

taken to women's camp after circumcision, 251

after circumcision at Charlotte Waters, 265

drinking, 341

decorating the Kauaua with, 370

women drawing and forming clay-pan, 433

given to old men, 438, 461

Achilpa man drowning men in, 438

customs concerned with, 460 et seq.

drinking when starting on an avenging party, 461

drinking at reconciliation meeting, 462

after performance of Ariltha on women, 463

given to strengthen men and women when ill, 464

used in the making of medicine men, 526

Bones, pieces of, sucked out of a sick man's body by the medicine man, 531

of dead men used for magic in the Kaitish, Iliaura, and Warramunga tribes, 553

Boomerangs, throwing, 21

legs in shape of, 44

description of various, 593–602

Breasts, promoting growth of, 459

Brother, elder, disposing of women in the Urabunna tribe, 63

younger inheriting the Churinga of an elder sister, 89

Bull-roarer, sound of the, believed to be the voice of a spirit, 246 n

during the Engwura, 344, 347

two distinct types of in Australia, 634. See also Churinga

Burial of Churinga unchima with the natives at death, 156

customs concerned with, 497 et seq.

Bush, the, meaning of the Australian term, 97 n

Byrne, Mr. P. M., his account of the Kurdaitcha, 477 n


Camp, native, 18, 19

Cannibalism, wild dog men feeding on wild dog men and women, 434

in the Alcheringa, 473–475

Capture, marriage by, 103, 104

of wives, 554–557

Carving, general absence of, 568

Ceremonial objects, 624 et seq.

Ceremonies, sacred, concerned with totems, and performed at Lartna, 229, et seq.

Okoara during circumcision, 231

boy embracing waninga, 234

head biting, 251

performed at Engwura, 271, et seq.

sacred, associated with special spots, 278

Iruntarinia, 294, 515

Ambilyerikirra, 364

releasing Abmoara from ban of silence, 380

teeth-knocking out, 450

nose boring, 459

concerned with blood, etc., 460

dislocating the toe of a Kurdaitcha man, 478

promising unborn child as wife, 560

Ininja, 484

sun totem, 562

Changes introduced by men of ability, 12

by old men, 272

traditions with regard to influence of old men in introducing, 421

Chaurilia, given by newly-initiated men to officials of ceremony, 257

Chilara, head band used for magic, 542

decoration of, 572

Child-birth, customs at, 466

Children, peculiarity in the naming of, 57 n

counting descent of, if Arunta man goes into Urabunna tribe, or vice versa, 68

Erathipa stone, 336

Chimbaliri, sacred stick of the Urabunna tribe, 158

Chimurilya, chaplet of bones worn by widow, 503

Churinga, 119, 123, 128

history of the, 128–166

dropped by spirit-child when entering woman, 132

dwelling place of spirit part of individual, 135

remarkable custom connected with a stone, 135 n

ideas now associated with, 137

p. 661

Churinga, name never mentioned in the hearing of strangers, 139

meaning of designs on, 145

designs of, different from those of natives of east and west, 151

absence of stone ones in Southern Arunta, 152

ownership of, 152

of extinct local group taken care of by other men, 153

inheritance of, 154–156

one man owning those of various totems, 155

of other forms than that of bull-roarer, 156

unchima of udnirringita totem, 172

lending and borrowing of, 158, et seq.

Ilpintira of emu totem, 179

kangaroo tail at Undiara, 197

carried by Ertwakurka after sub-incision, 257

disposal of during the Engwura, 277

examination of, 287, 324

handed over to a man by a group which has had charge of them, 302

of rat totem to increase growth of beard, 329, 545

old man killing Oruncha with, 447

carried by Alcheringa individuals, 513

Namatwinna used for obtaining wife, 541

of Amunga or fly totem used to cure eyes, 546

Ilkinia, designs of totems, 614, 631–633

Cicatrices, 41, 42

Circles, designs of concentric, 633

Circumcision, amongst Finke natives, 218

by means of fire stick, 222

introduction of, by means of stone knives, 394

Class names introduced by Ullakupera men, 396, 421

changed by women, 433

Class, sub-class, etc. See Organisation.

Class system, the present one introduced by men of emu totem, 420, 422

Clothing of women, 27

of men, 30

general description of, 570

Clubs, fighting, 602

Collins, Lieut.-Col., his account of ceremony of tooth-knocking out, 454

Colour of natives, 37

Cooking, methods of, 21–24

Corrobborees, license at, 96

handing on of, 281 n

decorations during, 618

Councils of elder men, 15, 272

Counting, limited power of amongst the natives, 25

Cowle, Mr. C. E., on tracking power of natives, 24, 25

reference as to use of Tchintu, 540

Curr, Mr. E. M., on the power which enforces custom, 15

on the “terrible rite,” 263

Customs, changes in, 12, 15

variations in, amongst different tribes, 34, et seq.

rudimentary, 105

ancient, preserved in sacred rites, 394, 401 n

Cutting, by women after circumcision ceremony, 257


Davis, Mr. J. M., on capture of women, 103

Dead, not mentioning the name of, 498

Death never supposed to be due to natural causes, 48, 536

after being pointed at with charmed stick, 533

after being injured by charmed spear, 537

Decoration, materials used for, 378, 570

during corrobborees, 618

during sacred ceremonies, 624. See also Engwura

Degeneration, lack of evidence of, 54

Descent, counting of, 34, 36 n

in the maternal line in the Urabunna tribe, 60, 61

how counted, if an Arunta native goes into the Urabunna tribe, and vice versa, 68

in the paternal line in the Arunta tribe, etc., 70

Designs of Churinga, different from those of natives in the east and west, 151

Dieri tribe, resemblance to the Urabunna, 64

Dingo, the only animal domesticated by the natives, 18 n

Dogs, wild, 434

Iruntarinia, 524

barking of, will cause Atnongara stones to leave body of medicine man, 525

Drink, Abmoara made from Hakea flower, 185

ilpirla made from honey-ant, 438

p. 662


Earth, ceremony of handing, to man who is to perform circumcision, 231

Eating, the totem, ceremony of, amongst the Udnirringita, 203

kangaroo, 204

Irriakura, 205

Idnimita, 205

bandicoot, 205

Plum-tree men eating plums, 320

Echidna, tradition concerning, 398

Eclipses, 566

Elder men, influence of, 10, 12

council of, at Engwura, 272

Elopement, 542, 543, 556, 558

Emily Gap, traditions associated with, 424

Emu, mode of killing the, 20

totem group, 179

Intichiuma ceremony of, 179

on the eating of the eggs of the, 202 n

Erliunpa, place of origin of, 437

emaciated, associated with magic, 548 n

feather chignon, 573

Engwura, ceremonies of, 118, 271 et seq., 323 et seq.

control of, 280

Erathipa stone, 336

Erkincha disease, traditions concerning, 168, 169, 443

Ertnatulunga, 133–135

women not allowed to go near to, 134

a primitive “house of refuge,” 135

showing it to young men, 139, 140

contents of one belonging to the honey ant totem, 141

Evening Star, legend of, at Alice Springs, 360

Eylmann, Dr. E., notes on sacred Churinga, 631


Fight, description of, after elopement, 556

assistance given by particular men, 557

Fire, kangaroo containing it in its body, 208

special one during ceremonies, 239

putting the Arachitta poles through, at circumcision, 244, 246

setting fire to the bough brakes used at circumcision, 244

song during circumcision, 244, 246

Fire, placing of newly-initiated man on by women, 259

throwing over the Illpongwurra by women during the Engwura, 350

throwing over women by the Illpongwurra during the Engwura, 365

ordeal passed through by Illpongwurra, 380

totem, tradition of, 445

origin of, 446

method of making, 582, 584

Fire stick, circumcision by means of, 222

presentation of, to novice, 250

retention of, after introduction of stone knife, 401 n

Fison, Rev. Lorimer, on Dieri tribe, 109

Flint, sharp piece of, used in the rite of circumcision, 263

cutting instrument, 591

Fly totem, Churinga used to cure bad eyes, 546

Food, of natives, 21

ceremonies to increase supply of, 169

restrictions during Intichiuma, 171

restrictions in case of Arakurta, 256

given by newly initiated man to officials of ceremony, 269

gift of, to old man to persuade him to show ceremony, 347

restrictions in regard to young people, etc., 467, 473

sent to newly-made medicine man by female relatives, 529

Foreskin, eaten by younger brother amongst Finke natives, 251

buried after circumcision at Charlotte Waters, 268

Frazer, Mr., his definition of a totem, 210, 211

Frog totem, special ceremony of, 344


Game, hunting, 19–21

Gason, Mr. S., certain customs of the Dieri tribe, Appendix B, 641, 642

Genealogical tree, of Urabunna tribe, 66

of Arunta tribe, 80

Gesture language, 500

Ghost, idea of, amongst the Arunta tribe, 498, 514

Gibber plains, 2

meaning of the term, 2

Glossary of Native Terms, 645

Grave, heaping of the earth on one side of, 497

p. 663

Grey, Sir G., on the Kobong of certain tribes, 112

on restrictions on eating totem, 206

on origin of totemic names in certain tribes, 209

on food restrictions, 467

Group, marriage, 56

modified form of, in Urabunna tribe, 64

relationship terms, 60 et seq.


Haddon, Professor A. C., design on New Guinea shields, etc., 634

Hair, method of treatment of, 40

pulling out of, on upper lip in Warramunga tribe, 40

girdle laid beside boy at sub-incision to prevent flow of blood, 268

customs concerned with, 465

of dead man used for magic, 538

distribution of girdle, etc., of dead man, 539

use of Churinga to promote growth of, 545

fragment of, not used to harm individual from whom it comes, 559

Hakea flower totem. See Unjiamba

Honey ant totem, the, 186

drink made from honey ants, 438

Horn, or trumpet, used for charming women, 545

Howitt, Mr. A. W., on Dieri tribe, 64

showing the Tundun to the novices in the Kurnai tribe, 137

sound of the bull-roarer, believed to be the voice of Tundun, 246

on property in stone, 590 and n

Hunting, methods of, 19–21


Ilchinkinja, name of messenger sent out to summon to the Engwura, 275

Iliaura tribe, marriage and descent in, 89, 90

ceremony attendant upon marriage in, 95

bones of dead men used for magic, 553

Ililika, knout used for magic purposes, 540

Ilkinia, totem design, 175

sacred drawing of the Oruncha, 529

Illapurinja, avenging woman, 485–489

Illpongwurra, name given to men passing through the Engwura, 322

sent out into the bush, 347

lying down by the Parra, 351

throwing fire over women, 365

fire ordeal, 372

painting totemic designs on the back of, 376–378

put on the fire by the women, 380

Ilpintira, design of emu totem drawn on the ground, 179

Ilpirla, manna totem, Intichiuma ceremony of, 185

drink made from honey ants, 438

Ilpirra tribe, marriage and descent in, 89, 90

marriage in, ceremonies attendant upon, 92

Churinga of, 157

initiation ceremonies of, 213

magic amongst, 553, 554

Imitnia, opossum fur string band for the head, 539

Implements, used by women, 26

general remarks on, 567 et seq.

account of various, 604 et seq.

Ininja ceremony, 434

Inapertwa, transformed into men and women, 389, 445

Infanticide, 51, 264

Ingwalara, name of medicine man in Southern Arunta tribe, 523

Initiation ceremonies of women, 92–94

of men, 212, 386

throwing boys up, 214

amongst the Finke River natives, 219

handing earth to man who is to perform circumcision, 231

use of Waninga during ceremonies, 231

sub-incision, 231, 263

men lying on top of novice, 236

head-biting, 251

ceremonies amongst Northern Arunta tribe, 260

in Southern Arunta, 265

ceremony concerning women, 457–460

Injilla, a pointing stick, 534

Inkulta, head ornaments, 573

Inpirta, name given to widow in Arunta tribe, 500

Interlinia, native name for emu feather shoes worn by the Kurdaitcha, 477

Intichiuma ceremonies, 11, 169

of Udnirringita totem, 170

of Erlia totem, 179

of Unjiamba totem, 184

of Ilpirla totem, 185

p. 664

Intichiuma ceremonies—

of Yarumpa totem, 186

of Quatcha totem, 189, 199

of Okira totem, 199

meaning of, 202

performed in Alcheringa by Udniringita men, 428

Inwurra, name given to messengers, 159, 160, 162, 164–166

Irna, a pointing stick, 534

Irriakura totem, ceremony of eating, 205

Iruntarinia, spirits, presenting ceremonies to men, 294, 517, 519

habits of, 513

making medicine men, 524

particular individuals who can see and communicate with them, 515


Jealousy, sexual feeling of, 99, 100

Jus primae noctis, 102


Kaitish tribe, table of relationship terms, 79

marriage and descent in, 90

ceremonies attendant upon marriage, 94

marriage customs amongst, 107

Churinga and sacred objects of the, 157

Churinga used for magic, 546

bones of dead men used for magic, 553

head ornament of women, 574

stone knives of, 593

Kangaroo totem, 193

stone at Undiara represents spot where kangaroo died in Alcheringa, 194

animal chased by kangaroo men, 199

Intichiuma ceremony of, 199–201

wanderings of ancestors of totem, 390

Kauaua, sacred pole, cutting down of, 364

decoration of, 370

description and significance of, 629

Kirra-urkna, girdle made of dead man's hair, 539

Kulchia, arm bands, 539

Kurdaitcha, custom of, 476


Lartna, ceremony of circumcision, 218

Lizard, supposed to reside in body of medicine man, and to give him power of suction, 531.

See also Traditions

Local groups, names of, divisions of 8–10

areas of country occupied by, 9

distribution of totemic groups, 120–127

Locality relationship, 14, 303, 544

Lonka-lonka, shell ornament, used for charming, 545, 573

Love charms, or whirler to attract women, 541

use of by women, 548

Lubras, Mr. J. M. Davis on the capture of, 103

Luritcha tribe, table of relationship terms, 77, 78

ceremonies attendant upon marriage in, 95

Churinga of, 157


Magellanic clouds, idea of, 566

Magic, native dread of, 48

belief that other individuals can work evil, 130

associated with Erathipa stone, 336

counteracting influence of, 531

various forms of, 534 et seq.

Marilla, design of the Oruncha drawn on the medicine man, 529

McLennan, Mr. J. F., on terms of relationship, 56

on the right of captors, 103

Marriage, in the Urabunna tribe, 63 et seq.

in the Arunta tribe, 73–76

not restricted by totem in the Arunta, 73

system in the Ilpirra tribe, 92

ceremonies attendant upon, in the Ilpirra and Arunta tribes, 92, 93

in the Kaitish, 94

in the Warramunga, 95

in the Luritcha and the Iliaura, 95

in the Waagai, 95

in the Bingongina, Iliaura, and Walpari, 119

by capture, 103, 104

discussion concerning customs, 106 et seq.

of Urabunna tribe, 108

absence of reference to restrictions in the early traditions, 393

p. 665

Marriage, tradition concerning the introduction of the present system, 422

See also Group marriage

Measurements of natives, 37, 644

Medicine man, accompanying Kurdaitcha, 478

made by Iruntarinia, 523

made by Oruncha, 525

made by other medicine men, 526

drawing design of Oruncha on, 529

determining who has killed a man, 532, 533

Menstruation, customs concerned with the first period of, 460

Message stick, nature and use of, 141

no true one amongst the Arunta tribe, 142

Messengers, 159

lending of women in connection with the sending of messengers, 97

sent to summon to the Engwura, 274

Moon, myths regarding, 562

regarded as male, 564

Morality of the natives, 46

Morton, Mr. A., on sub-incision in the West Australian tribes, 263 n

Mother-in-law, 559

Mourning, customs and ceremonies concerned with, 497–511

Mulyanuka, name applied by one moiety of the Arunta tribe to the other, 70

Mushrooms, supposed to be fallen stars, 566

Musical instruments, 604


Nakrakia, name applied by the members of one moiety of a tribe to the one to which they belong, 71

Namatwinna, a small Churinga used for charming women, 541. See also Magic

Names of local divisions, 8–10

personal ones used by natives, 139

secret or sacred ones, 139

Ambaquerka, given to child, 218

Wurtja, given to boy after painting him, 221

Urliara, given to man after the Engwura ceremony, 271

given to novice at Charlotte Waters, 248

Arakurta given after circumcision, 249

Ertwa-kurka, given to initiated man, 256

indicating different grades of initiation, 260

of individuals, Appendix A, 637

Nanja, tree or rock, 124, 513

relation between it and individual, 132

Natives, disposition of, 32

personal appearance, 37

general description of, in the Arunta tribe, 39 et seq.

Nose, boring septum, 459

bones called Lalkira, 574

Nung-gara, name of medicine man on Finke River, 523

Nurtunja, sacred poles, etc., 122, 227, 298–300

embracing during ceremony of sub-incision, 254

fresh one made for each ceremony, 345, 346

ceremony in connection with, 360–364

general description of, 627


Ochre, red, used for rubbing Churinga, 144

deposits of, associated with woman's blood, 442, 464

use of, 568

Okalparra, cave where medicine men are made, 524

Okinchalanina, fur string necklet used by women for magic, 548

Oknanikilla, local totem centre, 123

Oknirabata, name given to famous old men, 187, 447

Old men, traditions with regard to influence of, in introducing changes, 421

Organisation of Urabunna tribe, 59

of Arunta, 70

summary of conditions concerning the Arunta, 421 et seq.

Ornaments, personal, 571

Oruncha, or “devil man,” 326

ceremonies concerned with, 329

making medicine men, 525

Orunchertwa, or “devil men,” 447

Orunchilcha, devil's hand, drawn on medicine man, 529

Ownership of land by local groups, 14

in Alcheringa tradition, 431 n


Paintings, native, on rocks, 614, 618

Parra, a special mound on the Engwura ground, 281

Illpongwurra lying down by, 351

p. 666

Piraungaru, accessory wives in the Urabunna tribe, 109. See also Group marriage

Pitchis, 19, 26, 27

description of, 607

Pituri plant, used for stupefying emus, 20

Pleiades, supposed to be women, 566

Pointing sticks and bones, 498, 528, 530

pressed under nail when making medicine man, 528

as magic, pointed at an individual with the idea of injuring him, 534

majority of deaths attributed to poisoned ones, 536

Pole, sacred, 364, 629. See also Kauaua and Nurtunja

Pregnancy, food restrictions, 471, 473

“Primitive,” difficulty in applying the term to native tribes, 36

Promiscuity, discussion concerning, 96

Property, local group owning quarry, 590


Quabara, term for sacred ceremony in Arunta tribe, 118. See Ceremonies

Quatcha, water totem, Intichiuma ceremony of, 189

Quiurnpa, Ulpmerka of, ceremony concerned with, 312

tradition concerning, 314

rock paintings at, 632

See also Engwura traditions


Railtchawa, name of medicine man in the Northern Arunta tribe, 523

Rain totem. See Quatcha

making, 189

Red ochre, use of, 30

See Ochre, Therapeutics

Reincarnation, idea of, amongst Arunta tribe, 123, 124, 126, 127

Relationship, terms of, Mr. McLennan's views with regard to, 56

remarks on, 56–58

in Urabunna tribe, 65–69

natives acquainted with, 67

ascertaining relationship of man of another tribe, 67, 68

terms in Arunta tribe, 75–79

group relationship recognised in Arunta tribe, 73–75

tables of, in Arunta, 76

Relationship, Luritcha, 77

Kaitish, 79

Warramunga, 80

relationship of Mura tualcha, 88, 558

of Unjipinna, 560

Restrictions applying to individuals after circumcision, 250

See also Food, Marriage

Rock paintings, 614, 631

Roth, Mr. W. E., on certain individual terms of relationship amongst Queensland natives, 59, 87

on initiation rites of Queensland natives, 152

tooth-knocking out not an initiation ceremony in Queensland tribes, 214

women decorated as if to fight during circumcision, 220

burning of the brake of boughs used during circumcision, 244

initiation ceremonies of women, 267

on the meaning of sub-incision, 263

handing on of corrobborees, 281

on introcision, 460

medicine men, 532

use of bull-roarers for charming women, 541

system of bartering and trading, 575


Scars on the bodies of men and women, 41, 42

Sexual jealousy, absence of, among the natives, 99

exercise of magic on the sexual organs by women, 547

Shields, description of, 586

Silence, ban of, removal of by performance of ceremony, 260, 383

Sisters, different treatment of according to whether elder or younger in the Arunta tribe, 88, 89

Smell, projecting into food, 469

Smoke signals, 16

Singing the ground, 284

Snake of Imyunga, the, 444

Social organisation. See Organisation

Spears, description of, 575

making and use of miniature one for magic, 550

charming, 537

Spear-throwers, description of, 578

Spindle, 613

Spiral design, 633

Spirit, associated with Churinga, 123

with Nanja, 124

p. 667

Spirit, child choosing mother, 125

of living man called Yenka, of dead man Ulthana, 168

of kangaroo animals driven out of stone at Intichiuma ceremony, 200

Twanyirika taking boy away at circumcision, 222, 246

precautions taken against that of man killed by avenging party, 494

of dead man during mourning ceremony, 510

individuals, 513, 514

making medicine men, 523

pointing sticks of, 531. See also Iruntarinia

Spittle, on tips of fingers used for magic, 552

Star, evening, myth concerning the, 565

Steppes, 1

Sterility, prevalence of, 52 n

Sticks, flaked, called Inkulta, worn in hair, 573

pointing. See Pointing sticks and Magic

Stirling, Dr. E. C., description of Undiara (Antiarra), 193 n

reference to poison stones of Kaitish tribe, 546, 547

on the large knives of the natives, 593

Stone, used at Ilyaba, the Nanja of an Alcheringa man, 188

at Undiara, the Nanja of a kangaroo, 199

Erathipa, traditions concerned with, 334 et seq.

Atnongara stones in body of medicine man, 525

given to man to eat when making medicine men, 528

Aperta tukira, representing boils at Undiara, 550

representing emaciated emu, 551

into which evening star is supposed to descend, 565

weapons, 588

on property in, 590

Stone knives, introduction of use of during circumcision, 224, 403, 421

various kinds of, 592–594

Sub-incision, ceremony of, 251 et seq.

performed a second time, 251

remarks on, 263

introduction by Achilpa, 402

Sun, regarded as female, 561

ceremony concerned with, 562

heat of, in Tchintu, a magic implement, 541


Tchintu, magic implement of Wyingurri tribe, 540

Teeth, knocking out not an initiation ceremony in the central tribes, 213

ceremony concerned with knocking out of, 118 n, 450

placed in a man by an Ulthana, 515

Terms, relationship, table of in Arunta, 76

Luritcha, 77

Kaitish, 79

Warramunga, 80. See Relationship, terms of

Thanunda, the name given to the platform on which Churinga are stored during the Engwura, 277

Therapeutics, easing wound made by sub-incision, by sitting over fire, 256

blood drinking and rubbing with, 463

fat and red ochre used, 464

eating of ertoacha, part of reproductive organs of opossum, 465

lonka-lonka laid on ill person, 545

Time, words expressing, 25

Thunthunie, name of totem amongst Urabunna, 114

Tongue, cutting hole in medicine man's, 523, 529

Totem, local distribution of groups, 8–10, 121, 126

no obligation for men of same totem to assist one another in the Arunta tribe, etc., 34, 557

regulating marriage in Urabunna tribe, 59, 60

not restricting marriage in Arunta tribe, etc., 73, 121

general account of, 112

predominance of one moiety of the tribe in each, 120, 125

method of acquiring totemic name in Arunta tribe, 124

description of Churinga belonging to particular ones, 142

extinction of local group, 152

eating of, 168, 197, 467

no restriction with regard to the eating of, in the Alcheringa, 207

Intichiuma ceremonies of, 168

kangaroo design at Undiara, 194

kangaroo man afflicted with boils at Undiara, 196

killed by wild dogs, 197

design of Udnirringita, 170

of emu, 179

p. 668

Totem, wild cat, special restrictions with regard to eating, 168

relationship between the, and the individual, 196, 197

Euro man changing himself into a kangaroo to pursue a kangaroo, 209

changing, 209, 401, 443

design painted on back of novice during circumcision ceremony, 240

an account of ceremonies, 278 et seq.

plum-tree man eating plums, 320

designs painted on backs of Illpongwurra, 376

in respect to marriage during Alcheringa, 418. See also Ceremonies, Engwura, Intichiuma

Tracking powers, 24, 25

Traditions, kangaroo man afflicted with boils at Undiara, 196

killed by wild dogs, 197

concerning Ulpmerka of Quiurnpa, 288

Erathipa stone, 336, 338

general account of, 387 et seq.

Ungambikula, 390

Ulpmerka, 392, 394

Lizard men killing Oruncha, 391

Ullakupera men and circumcision by means of stone knives, 395

Inarlinga or Echidna man, 396

Achilpa, first group, 402

Achilpa, second group, 405

Achilpa, third group, 410

Achilpa, fourth group, 415

emu men introducing present class system, 420, 422

Udnirringita totem, 423

wanderings of three women, 432

wild dog men, 434

two Unjiamba women, 436

emu men, 437

honey ants, 438

lizard men, 439

dancing women, 441

Erkincha, 443

snake of Imyunga, 444

fire totem, 445

origin of fire, 446

Oruncha and the old man, 447

birds associated with totems, 447

Tree, at Ilyaba, the Nanja of an Alcheringa man, 187

where a blind man died associated with magic, 552

Tribe, Arunta, divided into two moieties, 70

Tualcha, use and meaning of term, 87

Tundun, the bull-roarer of the Kurnai tribe, 137

Twins, regarded as something unnatural, 52


Ullinka, pointing stick used by Iruntarinia, 519, 532

Ulpmerka men, tradition of, 392, 394

Ulthana, spirit of dead man following his killers in the form of a bird, 494

Ultunda, names of stones in medicine man's body amongst Finke natives, 526 et seq.

Umbana, special construction of boughs called wurley, used during Udnirringita Intichiuma ceremony, 176

Umbilical cord, making necklace out of, 467

Undiara, description of ceremonies performed at, and traditions as sociated with, 193 et seq.

Ungambikula, transforming Inapertwa into men and women, 390

Ungutnika, history of, 196

Unjiamba, traditions regarding the origin of, 122

Intichiuma ceremony of, 184

Unjipinna, relationship of, 559

Unthippa, dancing women, 220

tradition of, 441

Urabunna tribe, organisation of, 59

descent counted in maternal line, 60

marriage restrictions, 61

Piraungaru women, 62

wives allotted by elder brothers, 63

modified form of group marriage in, 64

relationship terms, 65 et seq.

genealogical tree, 66, 67

custom of women accompanying messengers, 97

marriage, 108

sacred stick, use of, 158

Wilyaru ceremony. See Appendix B, 640

Urliara, name given to man after Engwura ceremony, 271

Urpmilchima, ceremony at grave, 503 et seq.

Urumpilla. See Engwura


Waagai tribe, marriage and descent in, 89, 90

ceremonies attendant upon marriage in, 95

Churinga and sacred objects of, 157, 158

Walpari tribe, marriage and descent in, 89, 91

ceremonies attendant upon marriage in, 95

p. 669

Wallet, carried by men, 29, 283, 611

Waninga, a ceremonial object, 231–234, 306–310, 627

Warramunga tribe, table of relationship terms in the, 79

ceremonies attendant upon marriage, 95

sacred objects of, 157

mourning of widows, 500 n

bones of dead men used for magic, 553

head ornaments of women, 572

stone knives of, 594

Water supply of natives, 6, 7

Water totem. See Quatcha

Weapons, 28

description of, 574 et seq.

Westermarck, Mr. E., on promiscuity, &c., 100–102, 110

White men, how regarded by the natives, 50

Widow, mourning of, 500

ban of silence and removal of, 501

relationship to younger brother of husband, 502

Wilyaru of Urabunna tribe, Appendix B, 640

Wives, no man exclusive right to in the Urabunna tribe, 62

allotted by elder brothers in the Urabunna tribe, 63

restriction of in Arunta tribe, 73

lending of in Arunta tribe, 74

lending of, 106, 108

lending during initiation ceremonies, 267

man presents food to certain members of the side of the tribe to which his wife belongs, 469

procuring by magic, 541

methods of obtaining, 554 et seq.

Wizard. See Medicine man, 532

Women, initiation ceremony of, 92, 93 n

accompanying messengers, 97

capture of, 103

of the Unjiamba totem taking sacred pole away from Undiara, 195

possessed of greater powers than at present, 195, 196

painted with totemic designs during the Intichiuma ceremony, 176

Women standing at their camp during the Intichiuma ceremony of the honey-ant totem, 186

dancing at the ceremony of circumcision, 220, 267

carrying off the novice during the ceremony of circumcision, 238

rubbing the design from the novice's back during the ceremony of circumcision, 244

stripping the Arachitta poles, 244

presenting of initiated man to, 258

placing initiated man on fire, 259

initiation ceremonies of, 269

ceremony concerned with two Alcheringa women, 286

throwing fire during the Engwura, 350

seeing the Ambilyerikirra, 367, 369

putting the Illpongwurra on the fire, 372, 380

corrobborees, 381

intercourse with, in the Alcheringa, 407, 416

wanderings of, 432, 436

performing ariltha, 432

carrying boys on their shoulders before circumcision, 443

ceremony of knocking out of tooth, 452

ceremony for the promoting of the growth of breasts, 459

ceremony after shedding blood in the presence of, 463

Illapurinja ceremony, 485

offered to avenging party, 491

capture by avenging party, 492, 495

custom at death of husband, 500 et seq.

medicine women, 526

using magic upon, 541–543

represented by hole in ground, 550 n

Wultha-chelpima, ceremony of lying on novice, 236

Wurtja, name given to novice after painting at circumcision, 221


Yam sticks, greased by mother during ceremony of circumcision, 250

Yarumpa, honey-ant, Intichiuma ceremony of, 186