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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at

p. 419


1. The name of the first of these books is Stôd-yas2, and this is a book of thirty-three compilations (ʓûrat), that is, of thirty-three subdivisions (kardah). The sending down of this book was for the description of the Lord 3 and his angels; and he made it an indispensable duty for the whole world that they learn this book by heart, and for this purpose they form an assembly. Of this total of twenty-one Nasks it is one Nask of the Avesta, and in that mode they recite this.

2. The name of the second is Stûdgar 4, and this is of twenty-two subdivisions, which God, the praiseworthy

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and exalted, sent down for prayer and virtue, authority and intercession, and giving union to kindred.

3. The name of the third is Vahist-mânthrah 1, and that is of twenty-two subdivisions, which God, the praiseworthy and exalted, sent down for faith and heedfulness in religion. One is reminded, in this book, about the intention and character of Zaratust; also the goodness of the creation, and the good actions before Zaratust; and the narrative of this book extends in this manner up to the resurrection.

4. The name of the fourth is Bagh 2; this book is of twenty-one parts (pârah) or subdivisions, and its explanation is about whatever is in the religion; also a declaration of God, the praiseworthy and exalted, and of whatever the Lord has made incumbent on mankind as to devotion and heedfulness, as to justice and virtue, and as to good actions, closing the path of Satan to oneself, and approaching the last abode, that is, the other world.

5. The name of the fifth is Dvâzdah-hâmâst 3, and the commentary of this book is for assistance 4. This book is of thirty-two subdivisions, which God, the praiseworthy and exalted, sent down in remembrance of the beginning of the creatures of the upper world and lower world. Also a description of the whole of them, and of whatever the Most Just, the praiseworthy and exalted, has made mention in the

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sky and the earth, water, plants, and fire, mankind and quadrupeds, grazing animals and birds, and whatever is created for the advantage and equipment of them. And like this, moreover, the resurrection, that is, the raising of the dead, their path, assembling, and dispersion, and the nature and circumstances of the resurrection, as to good doers and evildoers, through the gravity of every action which they perform as good or bad.

6. The name of the sixth is Nâdar 1, and that is of thirty-five compilations which are sent down about the stars and the aspect and life of the sky. Also a description of the constellations, which are auspicious and which inauspicious, the method of these sciences and the operation of each one; whatever they say in sublime words, and whatever remains in this. They separate this from a book whose name in Arabic is Bavaftâl 2 and is about the knowledge of the stars; and in Persian the name of that book is Favâmîgasân 3, and they have made much more mention of the meaning of that, and of instruction of this kind for the moderns.

7. The name of the seventh is Pâgam 4, and this is a book of twenty-two subdivisions, which God, the praiseworthy and exalted, sent down about quadrupeds and how it is necessary to render them

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lawful, which is lawful and which unlawful, and how they slaughter them; which it is and how it is necessary to slaughter it for the sake of a season-festival, and whatever is about a season-festival; how it is necessary to celebrate it, and the person who takes the things 1; the expense of a season-festival and how much the reward is; how it is necessary to give to the priests, controllers (radân), and high-priests, and to any persons who are without doubts, who in speech, action, and intention are virtuous, and any persons who recite the season-festival liturgy. And everything wise is in this book; and this is incumbent on all people that they learn this, and it is the same for all till the days of the guardian spirits; and every one who possesses knowledge seeks for this, and causes intercession by mankind, for the sake of the worthy, such as clothing for a righteous gift, so that one obtains recompense in the end from heaven; and it is necessary to give this clothing for a righteous gift to relations and the worthy.

8. The name of the eighth is Ratustâyî 2, and this is of fifty subdivisions, but when, after the time of Alexander, they held an enquiry, they found no more than thirteen subdivisions. And these are about the affairs of the king and obedience, judges and whatever becomes important in holding enquiries, philosophers and devotees; about the edifices of cities, constructed and made magnificent, birds and species of animals, fish and whatever is

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[paragraph continues] Ormazd's, the fowls of Ormazd besides the creatures of Aharman; likewise mountains, rivers, and land, and the like of these.

9. The name of the ninth is Baris 1, and this is a book of sixty subdivisions, but after the time of Alexander they found again no more than twelve subdivisions. And these are about descriptions of kings and judges, and an investigation of their authority and their sufficiency; also the relations of a peasant with peasants, of a king with the kingdom, of judges with a judge, and whatever remains therein. Any actions that are for every nation, how they are ordered, and the option as to their species and nature; also whatever the people know, and the advantage that arises therefrom; besides the sins of people, deceit, telling lies, and whatever remains therein.

Io. The name of the tenth is Kaskasîrah 2, and this is a book of sixty subdivisions, but after the calamity of Alexander they found again no more than fifteen. Its explanation is about the distinction (faʓl) of natural wisdom and knowledge 3 from acquired knowledge, that is, the knowledge born from the mother, and the knowledge and instruction they learn; one learned in purity and truthful speaking, and anything that has brought mankind with virtue out of evil, and with purity out of defilement, and this keeps the doctrine praised and great, and whoever is in the vicinity of a king, and is a peasant, becomes greater in honour and dignity; and, in like manner, any things from which advantage

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arises for mankind; and, as to those who tell lies, how it occurs in the vicinity of kings and peasants.

11. The eleventh is the Vistâsp-shâh 1, and that is of sixty compilations, but after the calamity of Alexander they found again no more than ten subdivisions. It is about Gustâsp's acceptance of the sovereignty, and as to the religion of Zaratust—who was skilful in reciting the religion, and maintaining it and making it current in the world—he chose the religion of Zaratust.

12. The name of the twelfth is ‘Has2, and this is of twenty-two subdivisions, which are sent down in six portions (guzû). The first is about knowing the Lord, may he be honoured and glorified! and faith on account of Zaratust. The second portion is about the obedience of kings, the truth of the religion, complying with commands and resisting them, and restraining one's hand from bad actions. The third portion is about the promise to benefactors and their recompense, evildoers and punishment, and escaping hell. The fourth portion is about the mansions of the world, agriculture, trimming trees, such as the date tree, and whatever remains thereof; the trouble and power of mankind and quadrupeds therefrom, and the obedience they exercise; they are the people to whom heedfulness is attributed, and whatever remains thereof; and the high-priests perform their duty by the law of the religion. The fifth portion is about the ranks of mankind, and

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those are four ranks: the first is to maintain the king grandly, and, next, the judges and the learned in religion; the second rank is to keep watch over the cities, and to annihilate the enemy; of the third rank are writers and, secondarily, cultivators and the society of cities; of the fourth rank are the people of trade, artizans, market-dealers, and tax-gatherers, in war they appear excited, and it is requisite to give a tithe to the high-priests and king; they keep on foot the obeisances and good works of which we have spoken, and, when they act thus, they obtain great rewards in the end 1.

13. The name of the thirteenth is Sfend 2, and that is of sixty subdivisions which are sent down for the information of people who are in want of it, and for the knowledge of those persons who become covetous of virtuous actions, and act after the proceedings of the learned and people of religion, and receive advantage therefrom; also as reminders that there is advantage from the daily practice of them. And this book is our reminder about the accounts of the apostle Zaratust by religious people, and whatever is the allotment of God, the exalted; about the false speaking of the people of the world, and about the goodness of the condition of the people of the world. Also whatever becomes manifest in ten years, about the miracles of Zaratust, by the seven reports that they recite.

14. The name of the fourteenth is Giras3, and this is of twenty-two subdivisions sent down for the

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understanding of the causes of mankind, which have made people manifest in the mother's womb, and afterwards those who come out of the womb, some of whom are apostles, some kings, and some peasants; and whatever remains therein.

15. The name of the fifteenth is Bagh an-yas1, and it is of seventeen subdivisions in praise of the creations of God, the praiseworthy and exalted, and the angels admitted to him; also thanksgiving for his favours, and that which he makes expedient in the religion, augments the thanksgiving for his favour, until one obtains it back in the end; likewise the appearance of the angels, and this is noble. Praise be to the sacred being, the exalted!

16. The name of the sixteenth is Niyâram 2, and that is of fifty-four subdivisions, about decrees as to riches, introducing inmates among outsiders, and whatever is made lawful by the exalted Lord; obtaining deliverance from hell, performing service, slavery, and the nature of wayfarers, and every one who performs service and produces remembrance for mankind; whatever is in the thoughts of mankind, and whatever is in the bodies of mankind.

17. The seventeenth is Aspâram 3, and this is of sixty-four subdivisions which are sent down about rituals, those which are in the book of the people of the religion, and an examination of the people's expense they know of, for the safety and punishment they order in the world until they obtain deliverance in the end; and whatever they do lawfully and do unlawfully they know; also decrees

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as to inheritances and the limits of faith, about anything which they sow and whatever they grow, and about regulating nativity; whatever one makes incumbent on memory, and whatever one makes incumbent on memoranda prepared; also how it is necessary to produce whatever tokens there are at the time of childbirth.

18. The name of the eighteenth is Duvâsarônigad 1, and it is of sixty-five subdivisions; robbers of human beings and quadrupeds, whatever one makes incumbent that they shall give, and an enumeration of what one makes incumbent on each one of them, owing to theft and terror, obstructing the roads, the dread of the wayfarers, and the disturbance of prisons; and whatever remains therein.

19. The name of the nineteenth is Askâram 2, and it is of fifty-two subdivisions, about judges and philosophers, the method of examining decrees, the knowledge of definitions, and am opinion of those in other matters.

20. The name of the twentieth is Vendîdâd 3, and that is of twenty-two subdivisions, for causing the abstinence of mankind from bad actions, from the devil and disgrace, foreign magicians and those who act after their proceedings and become committers of crime; and we are told of their crime among the whole of the goodness and purity, and the whole of the wickedness and defilement, and the explanation of them.

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21. The name of the twenty-first is Hâdokht 1, and this is a book of thirty subdivisions, about the manner of bringing together and the abundance of miracles, also the excellence and connections of them. And the accursed devil goes far from every one who recites this book together with the Yas2, and this person is near to the rank (pâîgâh) of a sacred being, and his sins become pure; also in this book the accursed devil becomes cursed, and God knows it.


419:1 This writer is often quoted in the Rivâyats, but no particulars about him have been noticed. Another copy of this text occurs in MS. 225 of Ouseley's Collection (O225, fols. 15-19) in the Bodleian Library at Oxford; Olshausen and Mohl (OM) combine the information given in II and III; and MS. 10 of Haug's Collection in the State Library at Munich (MH10, fols. 55-57) corn-bines II and IV.

419:2 See Dk. VIII, Chap. XLVI.

419:3 Assuming that ‘hs, his own,' stands for ‘hudâî, as in Riv. IV, 2.

419:4 See Dk. VIII, Chap. II, and IX, Chaps. II-XXIII.

420:1 See Dk. VIII, Chap. III, and IX, Chaps. XXIV-XLVI.

420:2 Ibid. Chap. IV and Chaps. XLVII-LXVIII.

420:3 Ibid. Chap. V.

420:4 Written dar-imdâd; but, omitting the letter r, we should have 'the Dâmdâd.'

421:1 See Dk. VIII, Chap. VI. Singularly enough, the writers in the Rivâyats profess to know very much about this and their twelfth Nask, of neither of which the Dinkard knows anything.

421:2 In the different MSS. consulted, this name is four times written and once .

421:3 Variously written .

421:4 See Dk. VIII, Chap. VII.

422:1 O225 has kîzhâ, the others only hâ; but compare Dk. VIII, Chap. VII, 5.

422:2 See Dk. VIII, Chap. VIII.

423:1 See Dk. VIII, Chap. IX.

423:2 Ibid. Chap. X.

423:3 So in OM, MH10; but O225, B29 are corrupted.

424:1 See Dk. VIII, Chap. XI. In Riv. IV the surviving subdivisions are said to be only eight, so as to correspond with the sections of the extant Vistâsp Yast.

424:2 Ibid. Chap. XII. O225 has ‘Hast.

425:1 Nothing is said of the sixth portion, either in the Rivâyats or the Dîn-vigirgard.

425:2 See Dk. VIII, Chap. XIV.

425:3 Ibid. Chap. XIII. MH10 has Kirast.

426:1 See Dk. VIII, Chap. XV.

426:2 Ibid. Chaps. XVI-XX.

426:3 Ibid. Chaps. XXVIII-XXXVII.

427:1 See Dk. VIII, Chaps. XXI-XXVII. MH10 has Duvâsrôb, and OM Duvâsarôgad; duvâ standing for dûbâ, or zûbâ, the traditional reading of the Zvâris ganabâ, 'a thief.'

427:2 Ibid. Chaps. XXXVIII-XLIII.

427:3 Ibid. Chap. XLIV.

Next: III. From the Rivâyat of Narêmân Hôshang