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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at


1. Of the Varstmânsar 1 there are twenty-three fargards, and the first is the Aêthrapaitis 2, on the asking of Zaratûst, by Maîdôk-mâh 3, about the nature of the birth of Zaratûst, and his coming to the religion. 2. And the reply of Zaratûst about the combative coming together of the life-causing and death-causing spirits at his birth 4. 3. This, too, that when the fellow-villagers 5 of her who bore him saw his head 6

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they considered it the shoulder of 1 Arekdvîksûr 2, and his chest and back those of Aharîsvang 3, and when they saw his full 4 bosom they considered it that of the spirit of liberality 5; and by his side was the Kayân glory 6 to rub (mûstanŏ) his bosom.

4. The speaking of Zaratûst spiritually, on the grievous bringing forth of his head 7, thus: 'As a spiritual lord is my desire, do thou who art the Zôti speak forth to me 8;' and the reply from Aûharmazd thus: 'So shouldst thou be the priestly master as regards whatever righteousness I speak forth with righteous intelligence; thou art of very much value, thou art very righteous, thou art most intelligent, and thou wilt state the religion of the Mazda-worshippers to creatures of every kind.' 5. Through that saying an arrow reaches spiritually unto the demons, just as from a mighty chief warrior of Kaî-Vistâsp 9, like him in a mountain dwelling (garânŏ mân) who has shot an arrow for an attack (patkopisnŏ) opposing those in coats of mail. 6. The evil spirit grumbled (dandîdŏ) to the demons thus: 'Evil has it become for you who are demons, but

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you are unobservant.' 7. Even so Zaratûst proclaimed life free from the control of the demons, when this same saying was uttered by him, thus: 'As a spiritual lord is my desire;' and, at the falling of the demons upon Zaratûst for his destruction, an incarnation (tanû) of its spiritual existence stood opposed to them, in that weapon proceeding from Zaratûst, to keep them back.

8. And he spoke again thus: 'The religion of the benefiters progresses there in him who, through good actions, has joyfulness owing to his righteousness 1;' and, through that saying, an arrow reaches spiritually unto the demons, equal to ten of that which was first spoken, and, at the falling of the demons upon Zaratûst for his destruction, it stood spiritually opposed to them, and that weapon proceeding from Zaratûst kept them back.

9. The third utterance of Zaratûst, on the bringing forth of his arms, was thus: 'That which the first existence produced is to be so practised, with attention, through actions to be concealed by him who is a priestly authority (radŏ) 2;' and through that saying an arrow reaches spiritually unto the demons, equal to one hundred of that which was first spoken, and, at the falling of a demon upon Zaratûst for his death, its spirit, as a sacred being, kept the demon away from Zaratûst.

10. And, when the whole body of Zaratûst was brought forth, trouble (âsipŏ) fell among the demons, and the demons rushed back to hell in haste; light

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increased among the creatures, and every creature of the beneficent sacred being is pleased and talked of virtuous conduct. 11. And Aûharmazd took away Zaratûst with joyfulness to provide security for him, and Arekdvîksûr, Aharîsvang, and the primitive and Kayân glory in the body of Zaratûst spoke to Zaratûst of its production by Aûharmazd thus: 'Thou shouldst think of him who is wise.' 12. Thereupon Zaratûst spoke spiritually, in reply, thus: 'I am a Mazda-worshipper, I profess the Mazda-worship of Zaratûs1; and this means that I am an apostle of Aûharmazd, and am sent by Aûharmazd.'

13. And Aûharmazd spoke to Zaratûst thus: 'As to the sacred beings of the worldly existence, do thou beg companionship from them; but as to the demons, do thou long for (dôsh) 2 separation from every one of them; practise good thoughts, good words, and good deeds, and abstain from evil thoughts, evil words, and evil deeds.' 14. Also about vigilantly reverencing the sacred beings, and the reward thereof; not strengthening the vile, nor weakening 3 the good; expounding for the disturber of religion (dênô-padrêsh), and producing liberality for the accepters of religion; and not turning away from the religion on account of fondness for body and life.

15. The accepting of such advice spiritually by Zaratûst, and his glorifying Aûharmazd, for creativeness,

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sovereignty, and all goodness, and the primary archangels and other good creations, each separately, for their own special glory 1. 16. And, afterwards, the grumbling of the evil spirit maliciously, at that vexation, thus: 'I have produced, for the annoyance 2 of any upholder of that religion of thine, 99,999 wizards, 99,999 wolf-worshippers 3, and 99,999 apostates.'

17. Aûharmazd spoke to Zaratûst thus: 'Maintain this religion steadfastly, for through the assistance of this religion I, who am Aûharmazd, will be with thee, and the omniscient wisdom becomes thine, and extends to thy disciples, Maîdôk-mâh 4, Parshad-gâvô 5, Sênô 6, Kaî-Vistâsp, Frashôstar, and Gâmâsp 7, the teacher of public observance and will to the righteous, besides many of the people who are diligent and even those who are idle, and their good works and praise will be owned by thee.' 18. Likewise

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about the worldly display of the religion to Zaratûst by Aûharmazd, the accepting of the religion by Zaratûst through recitation and faith, and the reverence of the Ahunavair 1 by Zaratûst.

19. Also about Aûharmazd having created the creatures in the spiritual existence, and their allotment out to the worldly existence, the superiority of the righteous man as compared with other creatures, and, among mankind, of him who is relying on the provisions of the law and its unchangeableness from goodness, and who is a teacher and provider of teaching as to the pre-eminent existence of the good religion of the sacred beings.

20. And a summary about the bringing together of that fire which is the residue of a fire in a house, for the reverence of that water which is nearest to the dwelling, and of any spirit of a kinsman; and as to him who leaves that fire, water, and spirit, and, on account of a similar desire, reverences another fire, water, and spirit, but none of them can accept that ceremonial, and the acceptance of that man's ceremonial by the others will have occurred just when the former three are reverenced by him.

21. Righteousness is perfect excellence.


226:1 The second of the Nasks and third of the Gâthic division (see Bk. VIII, Chap. I, 9, 12). It is a second commentary on the Gâthas, devoting a fargard to each ha of the Gâthas and to each Gâthic formula, as in the Sûdkar Nask, but beginning with an extra fargard about the birth and calling of Zaratûst. Its chief object appears to be the quotation of texts, both from the Gâthas and from sources no longer known.

226:2 Here written asrapâitôs (B) and asrapâîtis (K) in Pahlavi, which, no doubt, stand for Av. aêthrapaitis, Pers. hêrbad, 'a Zoroastrian priest.' This name may either refer to the general subject of the fargard, or have been the first word of its Avesta text; as it seems not intended to quote any section of the Yasna, although the guardian spirits of the priests are reverenced in Yas. XXVI, 7, 8, before commencing the recitation of the Gâthas.

226:3 Av. Maidhyô-maungha; he was first cousin of Zaratûst, and also his first disciple (see Bd. XXXII, 2, 3; Zs. XI, 10 n).

226:4 B has 'at the birth of his life.'

226:5 B has ham-vîsagîh, K ham-disagîh.

226:6 Assuming that vagânŏ stands for vagdânŏ, which word occurs in § 4, according to K.

227:1 B omits 'the shoulder of.'

227:2 Av. Aredvî sûra of Yt. V, a title of Anâhita, the female angel of the waters.

227:3 See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3.

227:4 Pahl. aûrûkspar = Av. uruthware.

227:5 Av. Rita, who is associated with the archangel Speñta-Ârmaiti in Yt. II, 3, 8; Sîr. I, II, 5, and with Ashi Vanguhi in Yt. XXIV, 8.

227:6 Av. kavaêm hvarenô (see Chap. XXII, 7).

227:7 B has 'whenever his birth occurred.'

227:8 This, with the first clause of the response, is the Pahlavi version of the concluding formula of Yas. XXVI, 11, without the extra Pahlavi glosses.

227:9 See Bk. VIII, Chaps. XI, 5-4, XIII, 15.

228:1 This is the Pahlavi version of Yas. XXXIV, 13 b, without the glosses.

228:2 This is the Pahlavi version of Yas. XXXIII, 1 a, b, without the glosses and incomplete.

229:1 This is the Pahlavi version of part of Yas. XII, 7, 8 (XIII, 25 Sp.) without the glosses.

229:2 B has 'hope for' (nyôsh).

229:3 Assuming that nizôrinîdanŏ (K) stands for nizârînîdanŏ; B has zôrînîdanŏ, which is synonymous with the previous nîrûkînîdanŏ, 'strengthening.'

230:1 Or it may be 'in his own particular soul (nisman).'

230:2 Pahl. rêshîdârîh, which B omits.

230:3 This term, gûrg-yazakŏ (= Av. vehrkayâza), does not occur in the extant Avesta.

230:4 See § 1.

230:5 Av. Parshad-gau of Yt. XIII, 96 (compare Piz. Parsadgâ of Bd. XXIX, 5). This name can also be read Fradâdayânŏ and be compared with Av. Fradhidaya of Yt. XIII, 97.

230:6 Av. Saêna of Yt. XIII, 97, who is said to have 'first set forth upon this earth with a hundred disciples.' Further details about him are given in Chap. XXXIII, 5. In the third and seventh books of the Dinkard his name is written Sênôv (for Sênôk or Sênôê) which has been read Dâyûn by Peshotan (Dk. pp. 308-314 of English translation), as pointed out by Darmesteter in his Textes Pehlvis relatifs au Judaisme, p. 3, n. 2. In Dk. VII he is said to have been a high-priest who was born in the 100th year of the religion, and died in its 200th year.

230:7 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68.

231:1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. I, 7.

Next: Chapter XXV