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Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE37), E.W. West, tr. [1892], at

p. 138


Sakâdûm Nask.

1. One section of the last twenty-two is the Vakhshistân ('increase code'), particulars about the progress of increase. 2. About atonement, surrender, and compensation for anything, through dispelling it by compensating, atoning, and surrendering to him whose own it is; the period thereof not being appointed. 3. When he, whose origination of compensation, atonement, and surrender is his own, has appointed the period thereof, the growing of the sin actively, after the appointed time, is increase.

4. About increase 1 which is active (kardakŏ), and that which is existent (zîstakŏ); how it is when the existent becomes quite active, and how it is when both are suppressed (armêstî-aît). 5. About the extraction of increase upon increases which they may occasion up to an equality; where and which it is. 6. About a righteous gift; that is, how it is when overwhelmed by impoverishment, and how it is when its increase still proceeds.

7. About the progress of interest (vakhsh) upon effective wealth, when there is interest for it, and the interest thereon accumulates; also that which does not progress; how it is when the debtor (âvâm-hômônd), even on bringing back the wealth, is opulent, and the lender (âvâm nafsman) is opulent on asking for it; how it is when each is not opulent, and the debtor was not opulent on asking for it; and how it is when the lender (âvâm khvês)

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is opulent on asking for it, and the debtor is not opulent through the wealth.

8. About where and when the life (zîstanŏ) of the lender has once passed away, how it is when the loan is to be issued anew at the end of the issue (zihîsnŏ), and how it is when it has existed in force, through the one issue by the deceased, and the interest accrues. 9. When the debtor passes away, how it is when he puts the interest into the property of any one through adoption, and how it is when it is the interest of the possessor of the wealth in both worlds.

10. About the peculiarity of retribution, the self-retribution of one liable to retribution for others, and the limit of one's own retribution. 11. About the penalty (tâvân) of him who, purchasing animals for impregnation, gives each a bad male; when they are not pregnant, and when they may produce; and whatever is on the same subject. 12. About the time of allowing the admission of the male to the beast of burden, sheep, and camel, and the time of consignment to each separate male for whom reception remains; the case when it is the time for admission of the male (gûsn-hilîh), and the case when it is such a consignment as when the period, which is really originating with the admission of the male, has continued. 13. When, on account of no consignment to the male at the proper time, the female goes on unimpregnated, and there is no pregnancy of the cow, mare, camel, sheep, goat, or pig, each separately, how much the penalty is; also the sin they commit.

14. About the camel, mare, cow, or sheep, unto whom there is damaged milk, void of butter (akarag), owing to the appointed time one postpones; also the

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average and least milk of the mare, cow, goat, and sheep, that is, the measure of their one milking, each separately. 15. About the camel, that is, how much is its production of hair in a year, and the extent that the camel is surpassing therein among cattle; of them is also the ass that they allow to be seized upon for as much value as that of the oxen, and the mode of beating them up. 16. Where and how it is when the females of the camel and horse are a multiplying (afzûnŏ) tending to dissatisfaction; the increase even of increases of the ox, sheep, and goat progresses, and of them how much less is the multiplying of the female—which is an increase of increases tending to dissatisfaction, where it is extending over them—to be produced than that of the male.

17. The camel which is injured on the road, beyond the end of the appointed time, when they keep it at work unlawfully and the road is bad, when at work unlawfully and the road is good, and when comfortable at pasture, where seizing upon it becomes tending to dissatisfaction in several ways, and they are severally buying it when really invigorated 1, or at a price.

18. For how much increase of increases he stands up who is buying also an invigorated dog, or pig, at a price; and when it is that the increase and increase of increases remain undeveloped in them, as it does whenever property, on which the interest of the residue and income accumulates, is still for the children of the well-destined.

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19. About him whose supplies some one is silently (agôpŏ) buying up, and the seller and important holder is quite bereaved, so that the bereaver has plenty for one deprived of food on a summer's day, and plenty for him who is so also on a winter's day (dim-ikîk); also the supplying of mankind and fire lawfully, in the beginning, for a summer's day and night, and that for a winter's one 1. 20. About clothing when it is that which one strips off for donation. 21. About the penalty for a first deprival of food, and the sin of it; also the penalty of the second and third, up to the tenth.

22. About a plaint and defence as regards a debt and its interest, and the decision thereon; also how it is when, for keeping up the repayment, debts upon debts are cancelled so far as the continuance of interest; and whatever is on the same subject. 23. About the uselessness of supplies which are not authorised by the religion. 24. About buying a slaughtered 2 sheep when the seller is bereaved by the delivery; also to how many sheep, in the two previous years, the increase and increase of increases thereof had specially to attain. 25. About where and what is that which would not conduce to increase, and what is that which would. 26. About the special sin and offence, the use of the milk, heart 3, and wool, the spreading about which tends to dissatisfaction, the increase of increases, and the good

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figure of any one sheep, and the regulation of every one.

27. About how the debtor has to announce the nature of the loan, which the lender, through irritation, does not approve; and, when the debtor has provided for a triple issue, when for a double issue, and even when he has for a single issue, the first year is free from begging his own time. 28. About the debtor and what 1 he repays, when each year is announced and he does not assent; and how it happens, as regards the debtor, through many repayments, and all the postponements of the lender 2.

29. About causing the confiscation (pâdîrângarîh) of a human being (gerpîh) 3, and its cessation 4 owing to worldly work, where it is for one month, or, thence onwards, for a second, a third, a sixth, a ninth, or a year at worldly work, and where it is regarding several human beings; the production of gain which accrues upon that single human being; and whatever is on the same subject. 30. About the confiscation of a cloak (gudâd) in the winter, and of a skin-bag for holding water (maskŏ-î âvdânŏ) in the summer; about whom they are appertaining to, on the passing by of the first ten nights, where it is after the bringing out of the cloak at the beginning of winter, and of the water-skin at the beginning of summer; or prior to the length of a month previous,

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severally, to the end of the winter as regards the cloak, and to the end of the summer as regards the water-skin; that is, for how much gain upon that one cloak, or water-skin, is the retribution of the confiscator to whom it is appertaining 1; and whatever is on the same subject.

31. About the increase of grains, and that of sheep with the progeny, milk, and wool that they may severally produce. 32. About the confiscation of clothes and implements by delivering them back to him who specially reckons many as his own 2; that is, how the produce (vakhsh) increases when he orders their use imperfectly, how it does when he does so not imperfectly, and how it does when he keeps them in inactivity. 33. About the produce of land on which grain is cast, and of that on which it is not cast (va-zak-î an-madam ramîtuntô) 3, when by delivery thereof it is self-exhausted. 34. And so also the produce of ornaments of gold and silver, and of red-coloured things, with many regulations on the same subject and what is connected therewith.


138:1 As this word is written vakhs (= nâs) it is doubtful whether vakhsh, 'increase,' or vinâs, 'sin,' is intended; and the context is insufficient to solve the doubt.

140:1 Pâz. aôsanghen, both here and in § 18, no doubt for Av. aoganghem, as in Chap. XX, 58, the Av. g and s being much alike.

141:1 See Farh. Oîm, p. 38, ll. 4-8, and compare Chap. XXXVIII, 13.

141:2 Reading barâ-zegtalûntakŏ, which word has been corrupted by the repairer of the MS.

141:3 Reading dîl, but the word can also be read sar, 'head.'

142:1 Supposing that madam stands for maman; the two words being sometimes confounded.

142:2 Who allows the debtor a longer time for repayment.

142:3 Literally 'bodily form.' The seizure of a slave of the debtor to work off the amount of the debt is evidently meant.

142:4 Reading va-sakisnŏ instead of the very similarly-written nikêzisnŏ, 'explanation,' of the MS.

143:1 This seems the more probable meaning if we are to understand that the confiscation has been actually carried out at an improper season; but, if we suppose that it is avoided on account of the season, it would be better to translate as follows:—'For how much gain upon that one cloak, or water-skin, is the confiscator, to whom it is appertaining, to be compensated.'

143:2 Possibly referring to the seizure of articles sold by a dealer, but not paid for.

143:3 The form an of the negative prefix is here used because the Zvâris an-madam is replaced by the Pâz. an-avar in pronunciation.

Next: Chapter XLII