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1. The rule 4 is this, that a sacred thread-girdle (kûstîk) be three finger-breadths loose transversely

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[paragraph continues] (pavan targûn) 1, as is said in every teaching (kâstak) 2, and when it is less it is not proper.

2. The rule is this, that the sacred cake (drôn), set aside at the dedication formula (shnûmanê) on the days devoted to the guardian spirits 3, is to be used at the season-festivals, the Nônâbar 4, the three nights’ ceremony 5, the Hôm-drôn, and other rites of the righteous guardian spirits; and when they shall not do so, according to some teachings, it is not proper.

3. In the exposition (kâstak) of the Nihâdûm Nask 6 it says that a man is going to commit robbery,

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and a wall falls in upon him, it is his destroyer; when a man strikes at him he is his adversary, and both are in sinfulness; when he is going to perform the worship of God (yazisnŏ-i yazdânŏ) both of them are in innocence.

4. The rule is this, that when a woman becomes pregnant, as long as it is possible, the fire is to be maintained most carefully in the dwelling, because it is declared in the Spend Nask 1 that towards

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[paragraph continues] Dûkdâv 1, the mother of Zaratûst, when she was pregnant with Zaratûst, for three nights, every night a leader (khûdâ) 2 with a hundred and fifty 3 demons rushed for the destruction of Zaratûst, but owing to the existence of the fire in the dwelling they knew no means of accomplishing it.

5. The rule is this, that they have a tank (môg) for the disciples, when they are going to perform the worship of God, and are sprinkling the stone seat (magôk) 4; and lest they should make a wet place by that sprinkling through taking water out from it, it is to be done sitting; for in the Vendidad 5 the high-priests have taught, about making

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water when standing on foot 1, that the measure it refers to applies to everything else, not even of a like origin; by him who makes water the Avesta 2 for making water is to be uttered, and then it is the root of a Tanâpûhar sin 3 for him, and when he does not utter it he is more grievously sinful.

6. The rule is this, that to recite the Gâthas over those passed away is not to be considered as beneficial, since it is not proper to recite the three Hâs 4 which are the beginning of the Aûsvat Gâtha whenever one is on the road; whenever one recites them over a man in the house they are healing.

7. The rule is this, that in the night wine and aromatic herbs (sparam) and anything like food are not to be cast away towards the north quarter, because a fiend 5 will become pregnant; and when one casts them away one Yathâ-ahû-vairyô 6 is to be uttered.

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8. The rule is this, that reverential should be the abstinence from unlawfully slaughtering of any species of animals; for in the Stûdgar Nask 1 it is said, concerning those who have unlawfully slaughtered animals, the punishment is such that each hair of those animals becomes like a sharp dagger (têkh), and he who is unlawfully a slaughterer is slain. 9. Of animals, the slaughtering of the lamb, the goat (vahîk), the ploughing ox, the war-horse, the hare, the bat (kîharâz), the cock or bird of Vohûman, and the magpie (kâskînak) bird, and of birds that of the kite, eagle (hûmâî), and swallow is most to be abstained from.

10. A pregnant woman who passes away is not to be carried away by less than four men 2, who are at it constantly with united strength; for with other corpses, after a dog's gaze, when they carry them along by two men with united strength, they do not become polluted; but for a pregnant woman two dogs are necessary, to whose united power she is to be exposed; and they carry her along by four men with united strength, and they do not become polluted; but when they carry her along by two men they are to be washed with ceremony (pîsak) 3.

11. The rule is this, that when they beg forgiveness for a person (mardûm) who has passed away,

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such a prayer is more significant when one says thus: 'Whenever a trespass (vinâs) of mine has occurred against him, you will take account of it along with those of his which have occurred against me, and the trespasses have passed away one through the other; any further trespasses of his which have occurred against me are then made a righteous gift by me 1.'

12. The rule is this, that one should not walk without boots 2; and his advantage therefrom is even this, that when a boot (mûgak) is on his foot, and he puts the foot upon dead matter, and does not disturb the dead matter, he does not become polluted; when a boot is not on his foot, and he puts the foot upon dead matter, and does not disturb it, he is polluted 3, except when he knows for certain (aêvar) that a dog has seen it, or if not it is to be considered as not seen by a dog. 4

13. The rule is this, as revealed in the Dûbâsrûgêd Nask 5, where a day in the year is indicated,

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that the sacred thread-girdle of every one who shall be one day more than fourteen years and three months old is to be tied on—it is better so than when he remains unto fifteen years, and then ties on the girdle—who is more cared for, that way, than a five-months’ child 1, on whom they should put it in the womb of its mother.

14. The rule is this, that when one retains a prayer inwardly 2, and wind shall come from below, or wind shall come from the mouth, it is all one 3.

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15. Also this, that ten women are necessary for affording assistance to a woman who is in labour: five women for directing the making of the cradle (gavârak), one woman should be opposite the left shoulder, and one to hold the right shoulder, one woman to throw a hand on her neck, one woman to hold her waist, and one woman, when the infant shall be born, to take it up and cut the navel cord, and to make the fire blaze 1. 16. Three days and three nights no one is to pass between the fire and the child, nor to show the child to a sinful man or woman; they are to triturate a little sulphur in the sap (mayâ) of a plant, and to smear it over the child; and the first food to give it is Hôm-juice (parâhôm) and aloes (shapyâr).

17. The rule is this, that in case any one shall beat an innocent man, until the pain shall cease it becomes every day the root of a Tanâpûhar sin 2 for him.

18. The rule is this, that when in a country they trust a false judge, and keep him among their superiors, owing to the sin and breach of faith which that judge commits, the clouds and rain, in that country, are deficient, a portion (bavan) of the deliciousness, fatness, wholesomeness, and milk of the cattle and goats diminishes 3, and many children become destroyed in the mother's womb.

19. The rule is this, that a man, when he does not wed a wife, does not become worthy of death; but when a woman does not wed a husband it

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amounts to a sin worthy of death; because for a woman there is no offspring except by intercourse with men, and no lineage proceeds from her; but for a man without a wife, when he shall recite the Avesta, as it is mentioned in the Vendidad 1, there may be a lineage which proceeds onwards to the future existence.

20. The rule is this, that a toothpick is to be cut out clear of bark (pôst pâk) 2, for the high-priests have taught that when one's toothpick—made for the mouth with the bark—shall fall, and when a pregnant woman puts a foot upon it, she is apprehensive about its being dead matter 3.

21. The rule is this, that in accepting the child of a handmaid (kakar) 4 discrimination is to be exercised; for in the fourteenth of the Nask Hûspâram 5

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the high-priests have taught thus: 'My son is suitable also as thy son, but my daughter is not suitable also as thy daughter.'

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22. The rule is this, that one perseveres much in the begetting of offspring, for the acquisition of abundance of good works at once; because, in the Nihâdûm Nask 1, the high-priests have taught that the duty and good works which a son performs are as much the father's as though they had been done by his own hand; and in the Dâmdâd Nask 2 it is revealed thus: 'Likewise, too, the good works, in like measure, which come into the father's possession.'

23. The rule is this, that they shall give to the worthy as much of anything as is proper for eating and accumulating; because in the Nihâdûm Nask 3 the high-priests have taught thus: 'A man gives a hungry one bread, and it is too much, yet all the good works, which he shall perform through that superabundance, become as much his who gave it as though they had been done by his own hand.'

24. The rule is this, where one lies down, in circumstances of propriety and innocence, one Ashem-vohû is to be uttered 4, and in like manner when he

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gets up well; when he does so, every single drawing of the breath (vayô) becomes a good work of three Srôshô-karanâms, that is, a weight of ten dirhams of the full weight of four mads 1.

25. The rule is this, that when an action or an opinion comes forward, and one does not know whether it be a sin or a good work, when possible it is to be abandoned and not executed by him; as it says in the Sakâdûm Nask 2 that Zaratûst has

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not provided about everything whatever, but three times it has been done by Zaratûst about this duty, that is, so that the Avesta and Zand, when one has learned it thoroughly by heart 1, is for recitation, and is not to be mumbled 2 (gûyisnŏ), for in mumbling (gûdanŏ) the parts of the Ahunavar 3 are more chattering 4. 26. As it says in the Bagh Nask 5

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thus: "Whoever shall mutter, O Zaratûst! my allotment of the Ahunavar 1—that is, shall softly take it inwardly—and shall let it escape 2 again—that is, shall utter it aloud—so much as a half, or one-third, or one-fourth, or one-fifth, his soul will I shield, I who am Aûharmazd, from the best existence—that is, I will keep it away—by so much of an interval as the width of this earth.'

27. The rule is this, that one is to proceed with great deliberation when he does not know whether it be a sin or a good work, that is, it is not to be done.

28. The rule is this, that an opinion (andâzak) of anything is to be formed through consultation

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with the good; even so it is revealed in the Kîdrast Nask 1 that Spendarmad spoke to Mânûskîhar thus: 'Even the swiftest horse requires the whip (tâzânak),

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the sharpest steel knife requires the whetstone (afsân), and the wisest man requires counsel (hampûrsîh).'

29. The rule is this, that when one laughs outright (barâ khandêd) the Avesta and Zand are not to be mumbled, for the wisdom of Aûharmazd is omniscient, and good works are a great exercise of liberality, but an extreme abstinence from producing irritation (hangîdâr-dahîsnîh); because in the Ratûstâîtîh Nask 1, many harsh things are said about the severe punishment of producers of irritation, in the spiritual existence.

30. The rule is this, that as there may be some even of those of the good religion who, through unacquaintance with the religion, when a female fowl crows in the manner of a cock, will kill the

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fowl, so those of the primitive faith 1 have said that there may be mischief (vinâstârîh) from wizards in that dwelling, which the cock is incapable of keeping away, and the female fowl makes that noise for the assistance of the cock 2, especially when the bringing of another cock into that dwelling is necessary.

31. The rule is this, that when one sees a hedgehog, then along with it 3 a place in the plain, free from danger, is to be preserved; for in the Vendidad 4 the high-priests have taught that it is when the hedgehog every day voids urine into an ant's nest that a thousand ants will die.

32. The rule is this, that in the Vendidad 5 seven kinds of things are mentioned, and when they are the cause of a man's death, until the forthcoming period of the day (gâs-i levîn) comes on,

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contamination (nisrûst) 1 does not rush upon him; and for this reason, this, too, is well for the good, that is, to show a dog rightly again a previous corpse in the forthcoming period of the day 2.

33. The rule is this, that by those who attend to a corpse among the pure it is then to be shown to a dog very observant of the corpse; for when even a thousand persons shall carry away a corpse which a dog has not seen, they are all polluted 3.

34. The rule is this, that meat, when there is stench or, decomposition not even originating with it, is not to be prayed over 4; and the sacred cake (drôn) and butter (gâûs-dâk) which are hairy are also not to be prayed over 5.

35. A woman is fit for priestly duty (zôtîh) among women 6, and when she is consecrating 7 the sacred

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cake (drôn), and one Ashem-vohû 1 is uttered by her, she puts the sacred twigs (baresôm) back on the twig-stand, brings them away, and the utterance of another one is good; when she says it is not expedient to do it with attention before a meal, it is proper. 36. The sacred cake of a disreputable woman is not to be consecrated, but is to be rendered ineligible (avigînakŏ).

37. When one places a thing before the fire observantly, and does not see the splendour itself, 'tava âthrô 2' is not to be said.

38. At night, when 3 one lies down, the hands are to be thoroughly washed. 39: That which comes from a menstruous woman to any one, or to anything, is all to be thoroughly washed with bull's urine (gômêz) and water 4.

[40. The rule is this, as Âtarô-pâd son of Mâraspend 5 said when every one passed away:—'The mouth-veil 6 and also the clothing are to be well

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set apart from the gifts (dasarân), so that his soul may become easier.' Completed in peace and pleasure.]


314:4 Reading âînak; Pâzand writers convert it into yak, which can, however, have the same meaning, though they evidently take the word to be Huz. khadûk, 'one,' which is written precisely like âînak in Pahlavi characters. Most of the miscellaneous statements, contained in the latter part of Sls., commence with this phrase.

315:1 That is, round the waist (see Chap. IV, 1).

315:2 That is, 'interpretation or exposition' (see Chap. I, 3, 4). K20 has, 'and by every teaching it is proper.'

315:3 These fravardîkân are, strictly speaking, the five supplementary days at the end of the Parsi year, but the last five days of the last month are usually added to them, so as to make a period of ten days at the end of the year, during which the guardian spirits of the departed are supposed to revisit their old homes, and for whom the sacred cake is set aside.

315:4 The initiatory ceremony of a young priest (see Chap. XIII, 2).

315:5 The ceremonies performed by the survivors for three nights after a death (see Chaps. VIII, 6, XVII, 3, 4).

315:6 This was the fifteenth nask or 'book' of the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to the Dînkard, which calls it Nîkâdûm; but according to the Dînî-vagarkard and the Rivâyats it was the sixteenth nask, called Niyârum. For its contents, as given by the Dînî-vagarkard, see Haug's Essays, p. 132. The following is a brief summary of the account of it given in the eighth book of the Dînkard, where it occupies twenty-five quarto pages of that work:—

The beginning of the law (dâd) is the Nîkâdûm of thirty fargards. The section Patkâr-radistân ('the arbitrator's code') is about umpires and arbitration, contracts by words of four kinds and by signs of six kinds; and twelve sorts of arbitrators are described in four sub-sections, according as they decide by hearing or seeing, and with regard to women and children, foreigners and p. 316 those worthy of death. The second section, Zadamistân ('the assault code'), is a treatise on assault and the consequences of assault, pain, blood, and unconsciousness; on blows and conflicts, man with man, women with women, and child with child, with their proper penalties; also the murder of slaves and children. The third section, Rêshistân ('the wound code'), is a treatise on various kinds of wounds and their characteristics. The fourth section, Hamêmâlistân ('the accuser's code'), is a treatise on accusation and false accusation of various specified crimes, on lying and slander, the care of pregnant women, impenitence and various offences against priests and disciples, remitting penalties, abetting and assisting criminals, mediation, punishment of children, smiting foreigners, murder, medical treatment, and many other things (see Pahl.-Pâz. Glossary, p. 184, where they are erroneously ascribed to the Pâzôn Nask, owing to the defective text of the MS. M13). The fifth section contained twenty-four treatises on miscellaneous subjects connected with crime and sin (see Pahl.-Pâz. Glossary, pp. 184, 185).

The passage mentioned in the text cannot be recognised in any of the details supplied by the Dînkard.

316:1 This was the thirteenth nask or 'book' of the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to all authorities, but is called Sfend in the Rivâyats. For its contents, as given by the Dînî-vagarkard, see Haug's Essays, pp. 131, 132. The following is a summary of the short account of it given in the eighth book of the Dînkard:—

The Spend is a treatise on the origin and combination of the existence, guardian spirit, and glory of Zaratûst; on his generation and birth; on the coming of the two spirits, the good one to sustain, and the bad one to destroy him, and the victory of the good p. 317 spirit; on his going, at thirty years of age, to confer with Aûharmazd, and his seven conferences in ten years; on the seven questions he proposed to the archangels on those occasions; on the conveyance of the omniscient wisdom into him, showing him heaven and hell, and the intermediate place of those 'ever-stationary,' the account taken of sin and good works, the future existence, and the fate of the religion on earth till the renovation of the universe, with the coming of his future sons, the last three apostles.

317:1 The Pâz. Dughdâ of Bund. XXXII, 10 would indicate Pahl. Dûkdân, but the Dînkard has Dûkdâûbŏ and Dûkdâûbag (pointing to Av. Dughdhavan), and the Persian forms are Dughdû and Dughdavîh. Here the name is Dûkdâvŏ, which is transposed into Dûdkâv in Chap. XII, 11; it must have meant either 'milk-maid' or 'suckler' originally.

317:2 K20 has sêdâ, 'a demon,' and in Chap. XII, 11, where this section is repeated, the word can be read either sêdâ, 'a demon,' or shâh, 'a king or ruler;' of course 'an arch-fiend' is meant.

317:3 M6 appears to have 'sixty,' instead of 'fifty,' but see Chap. XII, 11.

317:4 Or magh, on which they squat in the purification ceremony (see B. Yt. II, 36).

317:5 Referring probably to Pahl. Vend. XVIII, 98; the ground is not to be wetted further than the length of the fore-part of the foot beyond the toes, that is, not more than a hand's breadth; this p. 318 measure is here extended to washing water, hence the necessity of squatting during such ablutions.

318:1 This is a sin which is usually classed with 'running about uncovered' and 'walking with one boot' (see Chap. IV, 8, note).

318:2 This Avesta is prescribed in Vend. XVIII, 97, and is still in constant use; it consists of three Ashem-vohûs (see Bund. XX, 2), two Humatanãms (Yas. XXXV, 4-6), three Hukhshathrôtemâis (Yas. XXXV, 13-15), four Ahunavars (see Bund. I, 21), and one YêNhê-hâtãm (see B. Yt. II, 64).

318:3 See Chap. I, 1, 2.

318:4 The three chapters (Yas. XLII-XLIV) which begin the Ustavaiti Gâtha (Yas. XLII-XLV).

318:5 A drûg, or fiend, is usually considered as a female demon (see Vend. XVIII, 70-77); and the demons are supposed to come from the north, where they congregate on the summit of Arezûr, at the gates of hell (see Vend. XIX, 1, 140) 142, Bund. XII, 8).

318:6 See Bund. I, 21. This statement is repeated in Chap. XII, 18.

319:1 See B. Yt. I, 1. The passage here referred to is probably one in the middle of the seventeenth fargard of this Nask, which is mentioned as follows, in the ninth book of the Dînkard: 'And this too, namely, those who unlawfully slay sheep and cattle, which diminishes their life and glory.'

319:2 This is the usual custom, while that mentioned in Chap. II, 6 is the exceptional case, mentioned at the end of this section, which necessitates extraordinary purification.

319:3 That is, with the Bareshnûm ceremony (see Chap. II, 6).

320:1 That is, I pardon them in charity.

320:2 Or, perhaps, 'without stockings,' avîmûgak; this seems to be something different from the sin of aê-mûk-dûbârisnîh, running in one boot' (see Chap. IV, 12).

320:3 Without these words, which do not exist in the MSS., the sentence seems to have no clear meaning.

320:4 And, therefore, still containing the Nasûs, or fiend of corruption, who will enter into any one who merely touches the dead matter, without disturbing it, and can be driven out only by the tedious and troublesome Bareshnûm ceremony.

320:5 This was the sixteenth nask or 'book' of the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to the Dînkard, which calls it Dûbâsrûgd or Dûbâsrûd; but according to the Dînî-vagarkard, which calls it Dvâsrûzd, and the Rivâyats, which call it Dvâsrûgad, Dvâsrûngad, or Dvâsrûb, it was the eighteenth nask. For its contents, as given by the Dînî-vagarkard, see Haug's Essays, pp. 132, 133. The following is a brief summary of the account of it given p. 321 in the eighth book of the Dînkard, which occupies ten quarto pages of that work:—

Of the first eighteen sections of the Dûbâsrûgd the first is a treatise on thieves, their arrest, imprisonment, and punishment, with the various kinds of robbery; the second section is about the irresponsibility of a father for the crimes of a grown-up son, and of a husband for those of a separated wife, about the time for instructing children, and when they first become responsible for sin, the crime of giving weapons to women, children, and foreigners, about warriors plundering, the various kinds of judges and their duties, and offences against accusers. Of the twelve next sections one, called Pasûs-hôrvistân ('the shepherd's dog code'), is about shepherd's dogs, their duties and rights. Of the last thirty-five sections the first, called Stôristân ('the beast of burden code'), is about the sin, affecting the soul, of unlawfully beating and wounding cattle and beasts of burden, birds and fish; the second section, Argistân ('the value code'), is a treatise on the value of animate and inanimate objects; the. third section, Aratêstâristân ('the warrior code'), is a treatise on warriors, arms, armies, generals, battles, plunder, &c.; the fourth section is about warm baths, fires, clothing, winter stores, reaping fodder and corn, &c.

The passage mentioned in the text was probably in that part of the second section which referred to the responsibility of children. The words from 'as revealed' to 'indicated' are omitted in K20.

321:1 K20 has 'nine-months' child.'

321:2 See Chap. III, 6.

321:3 Literally, 'both are one:' that is, in either case the spell of the vâg or prayer is broken.

322:1 Literally, 'make the fire high.'

322:2 See Chap. I, 1, 2.

322:3 Most of these evils are also ascribed (see B. Yt. II, 41-43) to neglect of the precautions prescribed with regard to hair-cuttings.

323:1 This reference is probably to the circumstances detailed in Vend. XVIII, 99-112, but the Pahlavi commentary on §§ 111, 112 of that passage is missing in all MSS. The Avesta to be recited in such cases is precisely the same as that detailed in a note on § 5.

323:2 This translation is in accordance with the seventeenth chapter of the prose Sad-dar Bûndahis, or 'Bûndahis of a hundred chapters,' a Pâzand work of later times; but the text here might be translated 'cut out of clean skin,' and in Chap. XII, 13, where the statement is repeated, the word used is also ambiguous.

323:3 The Sad-dar Bûndahis says, 'the fear arises that the infant may come to harm.' This section and the three which follow are repeated in Chap. XII, 13-16.

323:4 This might mean a kakar, or 'serving' wife (see Bund. XXXII, 6), but the further details given in Chap. XII, 14, where this statement is repeated, make it more probable that a concubine is meant.

323:5 As this was the seventeenth nask or 'book' of the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to all authorities, it is probable that the word 'fourteenth,' in the text here, refers to some particular chapter or fargard, most likely to the last group of fourteen p. 324 sections, mentioned below, in the summary of its contents; and this is confirmed by another reference in Chap. XII, 7. This nask is called Aspâram in the Rivâyats, and Aspârûm in the Dînî-vagarkard; for its contents, as given by the latter, see Haug's Essays, p. 133. The following is a brief summary of the account of it given in the eighth book of the Dînkard, where it occupies sixteen quarto pages of that work:—

Of the first thirty sections of the Hûspâram, one is the Aêrpatistân ('the priest's code'), a treatise on priestly studies, priests, disciples, and their five dispositions. One section is the Nîrangistân ('religious formula code'), a treatise on the formulas of worship, the Avesta to be recited by the officiating priests twice, thrice, and four times, the five periods of the day and their proper ceremonies, the season-festivals, the sacred girdle and shirt, cutting the sacred twigs, reverencing water, the families of Zaratûst, Hvôv, and Vistâsp, &c. One section is the Gôharîkistân ('quality code'), a treatise on nobility and superiority, buying and selling, cattle, slaves, servants, and other property, houses where men or dogs have been sick, dealings with foreigners, &c. And other sections are about appropriating the property of others, obedient and disobedient wives, foreign wives, advantages of male and female offspring, breeding of cattle, treatment of labourers and children, the evil eye, judges, the origin and cultivation of corn, the degrees of crime and punishment, &c. of the next twenty sections, one is about the treatment of furious cattle and mad dogs, and the damage they may do. One section on the means of accumulating wealth, the giving of sons and daughters in marriage, the goodness of charity and evil of waste, the five best actions and the five worst, unlawful felling of trees, the sin of burying the dead, &c. And one section on the begetting, birth, and treatment of children. Of the last fourteen sections, one is a treatise, in six fargards, on the ownership of property and disputes about it, on one's own family, acquiring wife and children, adoption, &c. And a section of seven fargards, at the end, is a treatise on the sufferings of men, women, children, and dogs, on the connection of owner and herds, priest and disciple, on various offences and sins, spiritual and worldly healing, physic and physicians, astrology, p. 325 the proper feeding of cattle, horses, sheep, goats, and pigs, the duty of a frontier governor during a foreign invasion, &c.

The passage mentioned in the text was probably in that portion of the last group of fourteen sections which treated of wives, children, and adoption.

325:1 See § 3; the passage mentioned here cannot be traced in the account of this Nask given in the Dînkard.

325:2 See SZS. IX, 1. The passage here quoted cannot be traced in any of the short accounts of the contents of this Nask. This section is repeated, with a few verbal alterations, in Chap. XII, 15.

325:3 See § 3; the passage here quoted is also not to be traced in the account of this Nask given in the Dînkard. This section is repeated, with a few verbal alterations, in Chap. XII, 16.

325:4 Compare Chap. IV, 14, where much the same is stated as what occurs, in this section.

326:1 Reading i mad-4, instead of va maz-4; the word mad (see Pahl.-Pâz. Glossary, p. 21) being Huz. for the dâng or quarter-dirham. The amount of the Srôshô-karanâm, as deduced from this statement, differs from those given in Chaps. XI, 2, XVI, 5, and must be awkwardly fractional, unless the sentence be altered into 10 gûgan sang nêm zîs pûr sang yehevûnêd, 'a weight of ten dirhams and a half, which is its full weight;' in which case one Srôshô-karanâm would be 3½ dirhams, as in Chap. XVI, 5.

326:2 This was the eighteenth nask or 'book' of the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to the Dînkard; but according to the Dînî-vagarkard and the Rivâyats if was the nineteenth nask, called Askârûm or Askâram. For its contents, as given by the Dînî-vagarkard, see Haug's Essays, p. 133. The following is a brief summary of the account of it given in the eighth book of the Dînkard, where it occupies twenty quarto pages of that work:—

Of the first thirty sections of the Sakâdûm one is a treatise on the necessity of obedience and understanding the laws, on newborn infants and their proper treatment, on the care of fire and sharp-pointed things, on race-courses, the use of water, salt and sweet, warm and cold, flowing and stagnant, &c. One section is the Hakîdakânistân ('annoyances code'), a treatise on irritating words and ill-treatment of living creatures and trees, the finding of buried treasure at various depths and in different places, &c. And one section is the Zîyânakistân ('damage code'), a treatise on damage to animate and inanimate objects. Of the last twenty-two sections, one is the Vakhshistân ('increase code'), a treatise on the progress of growth, breeding of cattle and other animals, pleadings regarding debts, growth of corn, &c. One section is the Varistân ('ordeal code'), a treatise on the detection of witchcraft by ordeal, by heat and cold, &c. One section on asking assistance p. 327 and rewarding it, on the unjust judge and the sagacious one, on daughters given in marriage by mothers and brothers, on the disobedient son, &c. And one section on the spirits of the earthly existences, the merit of killing noxious water-creatures, the animal world proceeding from the primeval ox, the evil spirit not to be worshipped, and much other advice.

The passage mentioned in the text appears to have been in the first section of this Nask, as the Dînkard says it treated, among other matters, 'about a man's examining an action before doing it, and when he does not know whether it be a sin or a good work, when possible, he is to set it aside and not to do it.' But nothing is said there about Zaratûst, and what is said here seems to have very little connection with the 'rule' laid down in this section.

327:1 Literally, 'made it quite easy.'

327:2 Literally, 'not to be devoured or gnawed.'

327:3 The formula commencing with the words Yathâ ahû vairyô (see Bund. I, 21); its parts or bagha are the phrases into which it may be divided (see Yas. XIX, 49 6, 9, 12).

327:4 Reading drâîtar, 'more clamourous or chattering;' but the word is ambiguous, as it may be darâktar, 'more rending,' or girâîtar, 'more weighty, more threatening' &c.

327:5 M6 has Bak. This was the third nask or 'book' of the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to the Dînkard, which calls it Bakô; but according to the Dînî-vagarkard and the Rivâyats it was the fourth nask. For its contents, as given by the Dînî-vagarkard, see Haug's Essays, p. 127. In the Dînkard, besides a very brief account of it, in the eighth book, which states that it was a treatise on the recitation of the revealed texts, there is, in the ninth book, a long description of the contents of each of its twenty-two fargards, occupying, fifty quarto pages in the MSS, of the Dînkard. From this it appears that the passage quoted in our text probably occurred in the first p. 328 fargard. It also occurs, in nearly the same words, in Pahl. Yas. XIX 12-15, and as Yas. XIX is called 'the beginning of the Bakân' in some MSS., it is possible that the three Hâs (Yas. XIX-XXI) which relate to the three short Avesta formulas are really the first three fargards of the Bagh Nask, which are said to have treated of the same subjects.

328:1 The text is corrupted into min zak-i li, Zaratûst! bêstârîh-i min Ahunavar drûgist, which might be translated, in connection with the following phrase, thus: 'of my vexation, O Zaratûst! from the Ahunavar, the most fiendish is that one shall softly take it,' &c. But very slight alterations of the Pahlavi letters (in accordance with Pahl. Yas. XIX, 12) convert min into mûn, bêstârîh into bâkhtârîh, and drûgist into drengâd. Instead of 'allotment of the Ahunavar' we might read 'predestination, or providence, from the Ahunavar;' because the Pahlavi translator, by using the word bâkhtârîh or bakhtârîh, appears to have understood the Av. bagha in its sense of 'divinity, providence,' rather than in that of 'part, portion.'

328:2 Reading rânînêd or rahôînêd. The Pahlavi translator seems to think the sin consists in breaking the spell of the vâg or inward prayer (see Chap. III, 6) by speaking part of it aloud; but the original Avesta of this passage attributes the sin to obscuring the meaning by imperfect recitation.

329:1 This was the twelfth nask or 'book' of the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to the Dînkard, which calls it Kidrastô or Kidstô; but according to the Dînî-vagarkard and the Rivâyats it was the fourteenth nask called Girast. For its contents, as given by the Dînî-vagarkard, see Haug's Essays, p. 131. The following is a summary of the short account of it given in the eighth book of the Dînkard:—

The Kidstô is a treatise on the race of man; how Aûharmazd produced the first man, Gâyômard, how the first pair, Mashya and Mashyôî, arose, with their progeny, till the region of Khvanîras was full, when they supplied the six surrounding regions, till they filled and cultivated the whole world. The Pêsdian dynasty of Hôshâng, Tâkhmôrupŏ, and Yim, the evil reign of Dahâk, descended from Tâz, the brother of Hôshâng and father of the Arabs, then Frêdûn who divided Khvanîras between his three sons, Salm, Tûg, and Aîrîk, who married the daughters of Pâtsrôbô (compare Pahl. Vend. XX, 4) king of the Arabs, then Manûskîhar, descendant (nâpô) of Aîrîk, the penal reign of Frâsîyâv ruler of Tûrân, then Aûzôbô the Tûmâspian, descendant of Mânûskîhar, then Kaî-Kavâd and the penal reign of Karsâspô. The Kayânian dynasty of Kâî-Us, Kaî-Khûsrôb son of Sîyâvakhsh, with many tales of the specially famous races of Iran, Tûrân, and Salmân, even to the reigns of Kaî-Lôharâsp and Kaî-Vistâsp. The apostle Zaratûst, and the progress of time and events from the reign of Frêdûn till Zaratûst's conference with Aûharmazd. The race of Mânûskîhar, Nôdar, and others. Avarethrabau's (see Fravardîn Yt. 106) father, Âtarô-pâd son of Mâraspend. On future events and the reign of the renovation of the universe; the origin of the knowledge of occupation, and the care and industry of the period; the great acquaintance of mankind with the putting aside of injury from the adversary, the preservation of the body, and the deliverance of the soul, both before and after the time of Zaratûst.

As Mânûskîhar is several times mentioned there are several places in this Nask where the statement, quoted in the text as a saying of Spendarmad, the female archangel who has special charge of the earth (see Chap. XV, 5, 20-24, and Bund. I, 26), may have occurred.

330:1 This was the seventh nask or 'book' of the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to the Dînkard, which calls it Ratûstâîtî; but according to the Dînî-vagarkard and the Rivâyats it was the eighth nask called Ratustâî. For its contents, as given by the Dînî-vagarkard, see Haug's Essays, p. 129. The following is a summary of the short account of it given in the eighth book of the Dînkard:—

The Ratûstâîtî is a treatise on indispensable religious practices, the reason of the worthiness and superexcellence in a purifying priest, and how to distinguish worthiness and superexcellence from unworthiness, in the priesthood of each of the seven regions of the earth; on the indication and manifestation of an assemblage of the archangels, the formulas and means to be employed in reverencing the angels, the position and duties of the two officiating priests in the ceremonies, and all the business of the orderers of ceremonies, with their various duties; on the greatness and voluntariness of good works, the kinds of voluntariness, and the proximity of Aûharmazd to the thoughts, words, and deeds of the material world.

It is uncertain under which of these heads the passage mentioned in the text may have occurred.

331:1 See Chap. I, 3.

331:2 The cock is considered to be an opponent of demons and wizards (see Bund. XIX, 33), and to warn men against the seductions of the demoness of lethargy (see Vend. XVIII, 33-42, 52).

331:3 Assuming that levatman val means levatman valman, but the reading 'he takes it back to (lakhvâr val) the plain,' which occurs in the repetition of this section in Chap. XII, 20, seems preferable.

331:4 The details which follow are to be found in Bund. XIX, 28, but they appear to be no longer extant in the Pahlavi Vendidad; though the hedgehog is called 'the slayer of the thousands of the evil spirit,' in Vend. XIII, 5, of which passage the statement in our text seems to be an illustration. The ant is considered noxious.

331:5 Vend. VII, 5, 6, where, however, eight modes of death are mentioned, which delay the arrival of the Nasûs, or fiend of corruption, till the next period of the day; these are when the person has been killed by a dog, a wolf, a wizard, anxiety, falling into a pit, the hand of man as sentenced by law, illegal violence, or strangulation. In all other cases it is supposed that the fiend of corruption enters the corpse immediately after death (see Vend. VII, 2-4).

332:1 See Bund. XXVIII, 29.

332:2 In order that there may be no risk of the fiend of corruption having entered the corpse after it was first exhibited to a dog.

332:3 This statement has been already made in Chap. II, 65.

332:4 That is, it is not to be used in any religious ceremony. Small pieces of meat are consecrated, along with the sacred cakes, in the Drôn and Âfrîngân ceremonies at certain festivals.

332:5 So in K20; but M6 has, 'the sacred cake they present, even that is not to be prayed over.' Although M6 is more carefully written than K20, it seems to have been copied from an original which was hardly legible in some places, of which this is one. The presence of a hair in the cake or butter would render it useless for religious purposes.

332:6 But only for some of the minor priestly offices, such as consecrating the sacred cake. According to Avesta passages, quoted in the Nîrangistân, any man who is not a Tanâpûhar sinner can perform certain priestly duties for virtuous men, and any woman who is not feeble-minded (kasu-khrathwa) can perform them for children.

332:7 M6 has, 'when she does not consecrate.'

333:1 See Bund. XX, 2; it is rather doubtful whether we should read 'one' or, 'two.'

333:2 These Avesta words, meaning 'for thee, the fire,' are used when presenting anything to the fire, such as firewood and incense (see Yas. VII, 3, XXII, 10, 22, &c.)

333:3 Reading amat, 'when,' instead of mûn, 'who' (see Bund. I, 7, note).

333:4 Here ends the original Shâyast lâ-shâyast. § 40 is found only in M6, and is evidently a later addition to that MS. by another hand. Then follows the Farhang-i Oîm-khadûk, both in M6 and K20; this is an old Avesta-Pahlavi Glossary which has no connection with Sls., although it may be of the same age, as it quotes many Avesta sentences which are no longer extant elsewhere, and amongst others passages from the Nihâdûm Nask (see Sls. X, 3) and the commentary of Afarg (see Sls. I, 3).

333:5 See Bund. XXXIII, 3.

333:6 The padâm (Av. paitidâna, Pâz. penôm) 'consists of two p. 334 pieces of white cotton cloth, hanging loosely from the bridge of the nose to at least two inches below the mouth, and tied with two strings at the back of the head. It must be worn by a priest whenever he approaches the sacred fire, so as to prevent his breath from contaminating the fire. On certain occasions a layman has to use a substitute for the penôm by screening his mouth and nose with a portion of his muslin shirt.' (Haug's Essays, p. 243, note 1; see also Pahl. Vend. XVIII, 1-4.)

Next: Chapter XI