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p. 142


   If the philosopher says that mental phenomena cannot be accounted for wholly in physiological terms, and that the behaviour of living organisms cannot be exhaustively described by laws of mechanics, he not only cannot be scientifically refuted, but he will find a number of scientific men to agree with him. And if he says that the whole evolutionary process cannot be attributed to chance, but points to the gradual realization of some gupreme purpose, he will still find scientific men willing to follow him—a little faint, perhaps, but pursuing.

The Times, London. 

p. 143


{notes|elucidations and analyses}

   The title is Fan Lun ###. The meaning of fan is a large expanse of water; overflowing water. Here it is used to describe a wide survey of history from the beginning of time, to discover the gains and losses, with the tao as the standard of measurement; and everything is referred to it as the unity.

   An ancient king1 did not wear the crown and royal robes to govern the empire. He cherished the people and
Kingship lies in good government not in pomp.
made no use of degrading punishments. He gave wealth to the people rather than extracted it from them. The empire did not mind the absence of regal symbols, since it respected the virtues of his person. During such a period, the Yin and Yang were in harmonious cooperation; the rain and wind were seasonable, and creation flourished. Nests could be looked into and the birds fondled. Wild beasts could be held in the leash and led about.2 What need was there for the authorities to wear broad phylacteries and the embroidered symbols of power, such as a crown, etc.?

   In ancient times, the people, living in humid plains, dug caves further and further into the earth. When the
Sages ameliorated hard social conditions.
people were not able to bear the severities of winter with its cold and frosts and fogs, nor the heat of summer with its stinging bites of mosquitoes and gnats, the Sages arose and planned their relief. They dug foundations, and made timber houses for them; they made them of rafters, above, and covered roof and sides with boards, as p. 144 a protection against wind and rain and a shelter from cold and heat. These measures gave satisfaction to the people.

   Pei Yu was the first tailor to fashion clothes. People twisted hemp with their fingers and made it by spinning into cloth of web and woof. Thus they had the wherewith to cover their persons and fight the cold. The ground was tilled, in primitive times, with sharp-pointed sticks and hoed with the bones of shell fish (clam). They cut grass with a wooden sickle and carried water in earthen vessels. The people worked hard, with only meagre gains. Later generations made ploughs and hoes and picks for mowing and hoeing; they drew water up in buckets, by means of a winch. The people were eased and got more profitable returns.

   In ancient times, as great rivers and famous channels interrupted communication and prevented intercourse, they
Transport improved.
scooped out timber and joined logs together for rafts and boats. Thus it was possible to interchange commodities, and by the saddling of horses to cover great distances. The labour of carrying heavy loads was lightened by the creation of wheels, made by bending wood, and making it into carts to which were harnessed horses and kine, so that travel to distant parts was possible without fatigue. Men had no means of defence against the depradations of ravenous beasts and wild animals, until swords and pikes were cast and fashioned into defensive weapons. It was only then possible to ward them off and keep men free from their spoliations.

   Thus people, driven by necessity of their difficulties, sought means of relief. Forced by their trials, they devised means of alleviation. By empirical knowledge, every one sought means of relief from his necessitous circumstances. Finding out the economical, they gradually changed their implements to suit their requirements. The customary tool need not be followed, and implements of the past need not be conformed to. Thus the standards of former kings are changed.

p. 145

   We may instance the case of marriage. The ancient custom determined that the parties themselves should not
Not incumbent to follow convention.
arrange the marriage ceremony (but that it should be left to relations), Shun, however, married without telling his people about it. This was quite not permissible from the point of view of propriety.

   The rule in the selection of an heir was that the eldest be chosen; but Wen Wang passed by Pei I Kuo, the eldest, and designated Wu Wang. This was constitutionally irregular.

   It was the custom that people should marry only on attaining the age of thirty, but Wen Wang begat Wu Wang when he was only fifteen. Such was against the law.

   The House of Hsia placed the tablet of a deceased member to the east of the central steps; the House of Yin
Custom only temporary,
placed it between the central pillars; the House of Chou on the west. These practices differed. The House of Yu used earthenware coffins. The Hsia House made a brick grave and reclined the corpse within, covering it over with earth. The Yin House used coffins made of cypress. The Chou House decorated the walls of the grave (with feathers). Thus the practices of burial have been dissimilar.

   Again, the house of Hsia offered their sacrifices in their houses at midnight (in the dark). The Yin people sacrificed in the Ancestral Hall in the twilight. The Chou people sacrificed from sunrise to evening, in the Audience Hall. This shows the existence of diversity in the practice of sacrifices.

   Yao had the Ta Chang imperial music: Shun used the Chin Shao music, Yü the Ta Hsia, T‛ang the Ta Hu, Chou the Wu-Hsiang, These show that the music used by the different dynasties differed.

   Thus we see that whilst there was a diversity in the practices of the Five Emperors,4 nevertheless their virtues equally embraced the whole empire. The Three Kings p. 146 used different methods; but the renown of each equally became a tradition.

   Now all these changed their methods in unison with the times, and regulated their etiquette and music
and may be abrogated.
accordingly. As an illustration, take the case of a blind musician who, in fixing the bridge of a psaltery (violin), moves it up and down into position. Though he has no definite measurements to guide him, yet he gets the tune (key) unerringly. Therefore he who is versed in the spirit of the art of music, can fix the key. The discernment being within the mind, he can judge and decide the proper positions of the whole gamut. Duke Shao of Lu had a foster mother whom he loved. When she died, he wore a white linen cap in mourning. Thus arose the custom of mourning for foster mothers. Yang Hou slew Liao Hou (at a feast) and took his wife. Owing to this, the custom of women's presence at a feast was abrogated.5

   Thus when the practices of the Ancient Kings appeared to be unsuitable to new times, they were abandoned; but when suitable to and compatible with the demands of still later times, they were revived and observed. These show that there have been no uniform standards of ceremonies and music, in the past. Sages regulated them according to the times. They were not bound by any.

   There is only one fundamental and unvarying law in all rule, that is the good of the people. There is a constant
The good of the people
principle in governing and in education, of which the important factor is, that commands should be such as can be observed readily. There is no need for any literal imitation of the ancients, if methods in use are beneficial to the people. There is no need to follow precedent, if existing plans meet the needs of the time.

   The decay of Hsia and Shang came about through obstinate conservatism and refusal to change decaying methods. This resulted in the end of the dynasties. The p. 147
The unvarying law.
rise of the Three Kingdoms was due to the use of new methods, independent of the traditionary, and the exercise of rule on these new lines. Hence, the Sages legislated to suit the changing times and reformed the ceremonies according to
Obstinate conservatism fatal.
modified customs and new ideas. Dress and utensils have followed the law of utility. Laws and regulations have been adopted fitting to the occasion. Hence, it cannot be said that any wrong has been done in changing ancient practices, and to follow established custom is not altogether praiseworthy.

   A hundred streams issue from different springs; but
Methods differ. The aim one.
all converge towards the one centre, the sea. Sage statesmen varied in their methods and regulations; but all concentrated their thoughts towards good rule.

   It was when the princely rule was failing, that poetry was created in the hope of reviving it. When the
Why the Odes were made
House of Chou was crumbling, and propriety and justice were decadent, the Annals were written (as a stimulating admonition to the world). These classics are extolled by those who studied them. But it must not be forgotten that they are the creations of decadent ages. Scholars drunk in their principles and art as an education, for a guidance to the world. But surely they are not comparable to the golden age of the Three Kingdoms. To regard the Odes and Annals as the way of the ancients, and honour them as such, may be very well; but we have to remember that there is still something
But Tao is the vital matter.
better, viz:—the ages before the Odes and Annals were composed. A Tao that is imperfect is not comparable to the Tao in its perfection. The humming of the Odes of former Kings is inferior to a realization of the principles that inspired them. But to put into words this inspiration p. 148 is not possible. Words cannot express this. Hence this saying.6


   Duke Chou, in his service of Wen Wang, arrogated no arbitrary authority. He administered nothing on his
Duke of Chou
own responsibility. He had the air of an incompetent individual (as though his person were unable to carry his clothes): he seemed as though he could not express his mind. In attendance on Wen Wang, he appeared most pliable and submissive, as though he could not sustain his position, always showing a fear lest he should fail. In this he may be said to be a true son.

   When Wu Wang died, and Cheng Wang was still young, Duke Chou carried on the work of Wen Wang. He attended to the Census, transacted the affairs of administration, suppressed the disturbances of the I and Ti: he executed his two brothers, Kuan and Tsai.{7} He sat with his back to the screen and faced south;8 and gave audience to the Feudal Lords. He had no counsellor in administering rewards and punishments, in organizing and deciding.9 His authority was respected everywhere, and his renown filled the land. In this he may be said to be perfect as a great statesman.

   After Ch‛eng Wang had grown to manhood, the Duke handed back to him the insignia of empire and once more took the position of facing north, offering the homage and service of a minister. He acted only after consultation and did the business of his office after receiving the imperial reply. He showed no trace of an ambitious will nor any shade of boastfulness of his merits. Thus he may be said to be a perfect minister.

   Thus we see, in the person of one man, that, in order to sustain the duties of the several times, he had to make three changes. How much more necessary is a change incumbent on a prince who experiences many changes or on p. 149 a country which has a succession of kings! Man, according to his position, follows his taste and predilections and relies on his power to satisfy what his desires command. But it is plain that the application of one uniform principle or fixed rule to the demands of every different time and the appreciation of the mating of them to every issue, will never result in a proper equilibrium.

   Therefore, the sage's spring of action is called the Tao. His deeds are called affairs (Shih). The Tao is like a bell
The Tao is unchangeable.
or a stone musical instrument. Their tunes are unvarying. Affairs may be likened to the violin and psaltery. Each string has its tone. Different strings imply different plans. Laws, ceremonies, justice are the instruments of governing men, and are not the cause or raison d'être of government, which must be in the tao of the ruler. Hence (jen) humanity is the web, and justice (i) is the woof. These are the unchanging principles of every age in the art of governing.
Methods vary.
But as to man, an estimate of his worth and examination of his suitability to the times must be made. Given these, what matters it, though there be a daily change in events and circumstances. Apart from the fundamental moral principles, just enumerated, there can be no unchanging law for all time. Harmony with the times, agreeableness with human experience, conformity to the laws of Nature, acceptance by the Divinity, these are the principles which will ensure a proper government.

   In ancient times, men were simple and sincere; work was real; commerce was honest, and woman was virtuous and faithful. Under such conditions it was an easy matter for government and education to convert people and correct
Laws must suit the times
customs. But now that virtue is much on the wane and the manners of the people superficial, it would be idle to attempt to apply a law which may have been applicable to an age full of sincerity and honesty, to a people already lawless and base. p. 150 It would be just like an attempt to control a restive horse without bit, bridle, stirrups and a whip.

   Of old, Shen Nung10 never issued laws; nevertheless the people followed him. T‛ang and Yü had a system of laws without punishments. The House of Chow governed by faithfulness: they never broke their word. The House of Yin demanded an oath from the people. The House of Chou went further and entered into covenant by blood.9a When we come to consider the present age, when the people think lightly of the shame of castigation and punishment, and do not consider a lustful disposition degrading, any attempt to apply the way of Shen Nung in government would lead to inevitable anarchy.

   Pei Ch‛eng Tzŭ Kao refused the position of a feudal lord and continued to till his land. This renunciation won universal admiration. But should a man now refuse office and go into retirement, he would be looked an as the lowest in the district. He could never have the same standing as was awarded to such independence of mind, in olden times.

   In olden times, the soldier was simply armed with bow and sword. Their pikes had no points, their long lances no barbs. But soldiers of a later age must be equipped with battering rams for attack; the defenders must have shields to stop the arrows. The bow became a multiple one and it was needful to have a cow drag the carriage into battle.11

   In olden times it was not the custom to slay youths in taking a kingdom nor to make captives of men whose temples were getting grey. What was counted good in ancient times is now laughed at. What was looked on as glory in the past is now regarded as a shame. The art of ruling as carried on by the ancients is now considered anarchical and out of date.

   Though Shen Nung and Fu Hsi dispensed no rewards and punishments people did no wrong. Nevertheless, legislators cannot (now), in imitation of them, do without law and succeed in governing men. Shun used the lancers p. 151 and dances and the rebellious aborigines became willing subjects. Notwithstanding, pacificators cannot hang up their instruments and do without soldiers and arms in governing a violent people.

   From these considerations it is evident that the nature of legislation must be determined, as to its means and use,
Times and needs must determine nature of legislation.
by a consideration of national conditions; and regard to its nature must be determined by the urgency of the times. It should be swift and severe in disturbances, easy and tolerant in times of tranquility. Implements are changed with the times and fixed to suit circumstances, and the legislation of the sage is such that all things settle down in mutual conformity. The worthies organize ceremonies so that even bad men pay heed to them. The people under law cannot respond to a very idealistic regime; those under the restraints of ceremonies cannot meet every change (i.e., the rustic knows the simple rules of social etiquette, but he would be at a loss in the ceremonies of the court). It is useless to commission one who has no ear for music to produce a tune. He who has no appreciation of the fundamental origins of order and disorder of human nature should not be entrusted with the making of laws. There must be the understanding ear and clear vision before the Tao can be entrusted to anyone for action.

   Yin altered the regime of Hsia; Chou altered that of Yin; and the dynasties of the Annals changed the customs of Chou. Since the ceremonies of the Three Dynasties were dissimilar, what need is there for us to follow and conform to antiquity?

   A fundamental principle is that the leaders should create, and associates should follow. They who know the sources from which law and government spring, will change their methods in response to the times. They who have no apprehension of the fountain-head of law and the art of ruling, can never maintain tranquility, even though they follow ancient ways.

p. 152

   Legislation should change with the times; ceremonies and etiquette should alter with new ideas. Students who
Die-hards. A square peg in a round hole.
follow traditional methods; they who walk after the ways of predecessors, who stick to habits, think no government can be carried on except on these traditional lines. This attitude may be expressed by the saying "He tries to fit a square peg into a round hole." It would be difficult to obtain, by any such procedure, satisfactory and firm issues, such as are desired.

   At present the Confucianist and Meist extol the Three Dynasties, the Wen and Wu systems,12 but do not act up
Superficial Reforms.
to their professions. They preach what they do not practise. They reprobate the present manners, but do not reform them. They thus do what they condemn. They praise what is good, but operate what is bad. Thus they are full of anxieties the whole time, but fail to give any help in ruling. They toil with their bodies and exercise their intelligence without giving any help to the King or the age. Modern artists paint monstrosities, such as demons and nymphs, and dislike to paint common objects, such as dogs and horses, because demons and nymphs never appear, whereas dogs and horses may daily be seen.13 (People could say whether the art was good and correct them).

   Now it is not possible without knowledge to meet critical situations. People of even limited intelligence can well enough praise the merits of the ancients. Words alone are a simple matter. The sages, however, refuse to bring into being laws that cannot be put into practice. Good kings will not listen to advice that cannot be verified in practice. There is nothing greater in the fluid of Nature than the creative harmony. When this creative spirit operates, Yin and Yang work, day and night are distinguished, and creation moves into birth; seed sown in spring matures in autumn. Both in birth and fruition p. 153
Nature of the rule of the Tao-Sage.
there must be the essence of the creative life (ho). Hence, the Tao of the sage is generous and yet dignified, severe and yet benign, pliant and yet firm, stern and yet benevolent.

   Too much sternness will defeat its own ends by
He finds the equilibrium.
breaking the offender; too much leniency will lead to laxity. The sage stands just midway between harshness and benignity, and so he finds the very root of the Tao.

   An accumulation of the Yin fluid will result in depression; an accumulation of the Yang fluid will lead to overbuoyancy. When the Yin and Yang fluids combine, the happy medium is found resulting in creative harmony.

   A line used for measuring can be both rolled up and stretched out. Drawn out and expanded, it is straight and a measurement taken by it. It is in some similar way that the sage uses his body.

   Now a rope has length without breadth. Though short, it is interminable, i.e., it can be used successively in measurement. It is straight and yet not stiff. Its results are
and harmony
lasting, i.e., the measurements, etc., which it has taken are determined and cannot be altered. These are the qualities of the line. And its symbolic qualities are seen in the acts of the sage. Hence, he appears benign in the exercise of his kindness; being benign, he does not strike terror. The enforcement of severity implies harshness; but where there is pure harshness, concord is absent. The application of love tends to leniency; pure leniency results in disobedience to commands. The use of punishment means cruelty, and cruelty wears away the spirit of affection.

   In olden times, Duke Chi Chien lost control of his kingdom, by committing the whole power to his great
Ruler must not be too indulgent.
ministers. His generals, prime minister and regents assumed authority, and these parties created factions, so that justice failed in the land. This resulted in Ch‛en Ch‛eng, T‛ien p. 154 Ch‛ang, Ch‛ih I and Tzŭ P‛i, slaying their master (the Duke). Lü Shih overthrew the imperial altars, and Ch‛en got the Kingdom. This tragic result arose from the indulgence (of the ruler). On the other hand, Cheng Tzû Yang was harsh, he loved to decapitate and punish. He lacked the reforming spirit in his punishments. His bow was broken by one of his ministers, and he, fearing decapitation for his fault, slew Tzŭ Yang with a crowbar in a melée. This was the result of harsh severity.

   People do not understand the power of the Tao, so
But must have a dominating conduct.
when they see the gentle being despoiled, they all strive to be aggressive; seeing the aggressive coming to a bad end, they strive to be gentle,—a result arising from the lack of one dominating principle of conduct. So when any untoward event is heard of or seen, they have no definite means to meet it.

   Take an illustration. A person who does not know the music of a gong, will sing too low in the bass and fail to recover; the tenor will get too high and screech and lose the harmony. As a contrast, the lyric singing of Han Nyo, Tsing Ch‛ing, Hsieh T‛an, the ballads of Hou Tung and Yen Sheng came hot from the soul of these singers and welled up from their inspired feelings, with a richness of voice, so that every note was correct and harmonized with the listener's mind. The secret was that they had a mastery of their music which gave them control over the
And exercise control.
high and the low without outward or artificial help; they had the scale and time in their own minds. Again a blind man, wending his way, follows the direction of others. He goes to the right or left as directed. A gentleman gets out of his way; but a rustic may cause him to swerve into a ditch, because he cannot see. Therefore the two generals Lou Tzŭ and Wu Ch‛o lost Hsi Ho (territory of the Wei Kingdom); Min Wang delegated full power to Nao Ch‛ih and died at Tung Miao. These tragic events were caused by lack of proper p. 155 plans and forethought in their defensive methods, and in the king's failure to exercise strong control. On the contrary, Wen Wang used his two ministers Lu Wang and Kung Shih and extended his empire. Tsŭ Wang used only one minister, Sun Shu Ao, and became the supreme ruler. These men had method in their defensive operations, and exercised control.

   The orchestra, drum and dance are the instruments of music; obeisances and bowing are the practices for cultivating etiquette. Generous expenditure in funerals and protracted mourning in the obsequies of the dead, were established by Confucius. But these proprieties were condemned by Mei Tzŭ. Universal love, altruism, respect for the saints, adoration of the spirits, disbelief in destiny, were the creations of Mei Tzû; but these practices and ideas were condemned by Yang. The preservation of one's nature, the maintenance of reality and refusal to let circumstances entangle one's person, were the creations of Yang; but they were criticised by Mencius. Thus, each man has
Each faculty in life must be used in the right sphere.
his own method and ideas in the principles he adopts and the opinions he opposes. Therefore, right and wrong have each their place. These found, there can be no mistake. When the right and the wrong are not properly placed, there can be nothing right. The Tan Hsueh, Tai Ming, Fan Chiung Kung Tung, Ta Hsia Pei Shih, Ch‛i Hung Hsin Ku tribes have each their standards of what is right and wrong; their customs respectively vary. But in China, king and minister, husband and wife, father and son, have their laws of mutual service. In these views of right and wrong, what one person looks on as right the other regards as wrong, and vice versa. Just as, for example, a hatchet, an axe, a bradawl, a file each has its own work. When Yü was King, he heard all the affairs of empire by the help of the five musical tones.14 There was hung the bell, the drum, the sonorous stone, the bell and clappers, to receive and give notice of the arrival of visitors from the p. 156 Four Parts. The purpose of this arrangement may be explained in the words of the Classics "Those who have anything to teach me on principles, let the drum be struck: Those who have any instructions on right, let the bell be struck; those who have anything to say on State affairs let the clappers be sounded; those who have urgent words on a crisis, let the sonorous stone be sounded; those who have pleas should strike the flat drum with the clappers." Under such a regime he was busy. He got up from his meal ten times; often he had no time to dress his hair after a bath, but answered the summons clutching his hair in his hand. Such was his toil in the service of the people; and if anyone failed to be good and loyal under such an example, it was the person's fault.15

   In the age of Ts‛in16 (the fashion was) to build lofty belvederes and grand-stands, to lay out extensive gardens
Militarism is costly in lives an suffering.
and mark out long race-courses and cast big bronze men. Soldiers were deputed to guard the frontier walls, and tributes of corn and levy of money were received for the public use. Poll taxes were collected and sent to the Exchequer. Strong men were conscripted and sent to Lin Ch‛ao and Ti Tao on the West, to Kuei Chi and Fu Shih, on the East, to Yu Chang and Kuei Lin, on the South, and to Fei Hu and Yang Yuan, on the North, viz.: to most distant parts and on laborious expeditions. Along the roads corpses filled the ditches. The good and loyal men who protested against these unjust practices were called "ill-omened fellows"; and the preachers of humanity and justice were laughed at as fanatics. When we come to the epoch of the Emperor Kao, we find that he preserved tottering states and continued princely houses who left no issue. In elevating great principles through the empire, he was full of zeal; his body burned with ardour and he rolled up his sleeves in taking up arms to control the lawless, beseeching the Almighty on behalf of the people. During this period, the valiant, valorous, brave and gallant braved death in desert and p. 157 marsh. The vanguard received arrow and stone; the rearguard dropped into ditches and gullies. Wounded a hundred times, they offered their whole life to contest the possession of power. Burning with military ardour, they trod the path of full sacrifice, surrendering their precarious lives. At that time those people who wore flowing garments and broad sashes (scholars) and who preached Confucianism and Meism, were looked on with disfavour. Thus it continued until the anarchy was overcome. After the settlement of the country the regime of Wen was resumed and the glory of Wu reestablished. When the emperor's title to the royal power was secure, the house of Lin created its own symbolic crown. The doctrines of the literati, of Mei, of Lu and of Ch‛u were unified and the traditional teachings of the former sages were understood and practised. The banners of the King were displayed and the great coach17 ridden in; the nine pennants gonfallon were furled; the great bell sounded; the musical drum played; the imperial music Hsien Ch‛ih was presented and the Kan Chi dance performed. The emperor would hesitate to order a recrudesence of militarism in the time of peace. Thus, during this period, the civil and military, with their blessings and evils, alternated according to the times.

   The militarists of the present time despise the civilians. The pacificists (civil) condemn the militarists. There are mutual recriminations. Both fail to appreciate the different needs of alternating times and the necessity for the application of divers methods, each suitable to its time. Each faction looks at the matter from a one-sided point of view. So one party, looking only to the eastern side, does not see the west window; looking at the north he does not see the south. Thus, as there is no comprehensive view, there
Morality essential to national well-being
can to be no kind of understanding. Moral truth is the principle by which nations are preserved. Families decay because morality is being clogged. Yao had not a hundred families under his rule.{18} Shun had but a pin point of p. 158 territory. Howbeit they gained the empire in the end. Yü had not even 18 people nor Tang as much as seven li of land, yet finally they ruled the Feudal Lords. Wen Wang was placed between Ch‛i and Chou, with no more of a territory than 100 li; yet he rose to be emperor. These
Rise and fall of Nations
men exercised the kingly way.19 On the other hand, Hsia, Chieh, Yin and Chou were most powerful. Wherever the foot of man went or boat penetrated was within their territories; nevertheless, these kings were slain by the hand of man and became the laughing-stock of the world. These men practised the way of decay. Therefore, the sages judge of success by the life of the people. The indications of the rise and decay of morality appear beforehand in life and manners. Hence, they who have hold of the right way are bound to grow, though small at first. They who have the seed of death in them and are bound to come to an end, even though they have attained to the possession of great power.

   Consider; when Hsia20 was about to fall, Chung Ku, the Prime Minister, anticipating the disaster, fled beforehand to Shang; just three years afterwards, Chieh, the emperor, perished. When Yin was about to be overthrown, Huang and I, ministers, went over to Wen Wang, just a year before the death of Chou. We thus see that the sages, in their discernment of the symptoms of rise and fall, and the crises of success and failure, have no need to wait for the actual days of Ming T‛ao and Yeh Chia.21

   Now, people seeing that success comes to the strong, measure their land and count their numbers. Thinking that
Not by power nor might.
gain comes to the wealthy, they total up their corn and calculate their cash. On such lines the prince of a thousand chariots could not fail to become the dominant power, and the power of a myriad chariots would dissipate every sign of decay. Were these the symptoms of preservation and decay it would be easy to know them! A rustic man and an unsophisticated woman could discourse on them. However these are not p. 159 the means of success, nor the law of continuance, Hsiang Tzû of Chao, by means of the one city of Tsin Yang, became an autocrat, Chih Pei through possessing San Tsin, fell a victim.22 Min Wang perished, though he ruled
Reign of Law essential.
the Great Ch‛i. T‛ien Tan won renown by the possession of Chieh Mei, Hence we see that kingdoms, however great, if decadent, cannot be upheld, but where there is law, small countries may not be slighted. From these examples we may learn that the preservation of kingdoms does not depend on their bigness but on the reign of law; and their ruin results from the loss of truth and not from their littleness. The Ode says:—"God looked towards the West and favoured that reign."22a These words speak of locality, indicating the removal of Yin (on the east) by the advance of Chou (from the west).

   Therefore, we find this great principle, that princes of anarchical countries who strive to extend their territory,
Humanity and Justice.
but who neglect to fill the land with the practices of humanity and justice, who seek to aggrandise their power and who fail to advance truth and righteousness, neglect the very means that could establish and preserve them and create the very conditions of decay and ruin. For these reasons, when Chieh became the prisoner (of T‛ang) in Chiao Men, he did not even then repent of his evil ways, but rather only regretted that he had not killed T‛ang, when he had him prisoner in Hsin Tai.23 Likewise Chou, when he was confined in Hsuan Shih, had no sorrow for his wickedness, but only regretted that he had not killed Wen Wang at Chin Li.24 These two princes, when they were mighty and strong, failed to realize their wrong-doing. If they had
Avengers of might.
cultivated the way of right and justice, T‛ang and Wu would not have dared even to come and pay obeisance to them; much less would they have ventured to attack and slay them! These men confused the lights of Heaven and lost the hearts of men. p. 160 Even insignificant mortals—let alone T‛ang and Wu—would have invaded their lands. Themselves unmindful of their conduct, their deeds paved the way to their own ruin. There are more than one Tang and Wu in the world; even though these were killed, others would arise to continue their work. Furthermore, Tang and Wu, though small and weak at first, eventually rose to imperial power, because they maintained the way of truth. Chieh and Chou were placed in positions of immense power, yet were despoiled of everything, because they failed to walk in the paths of rectitude.

   This is the guiding law. If the principles of a government by right are not acted on, but rather the selfish policy of personal gain is followed, which ends in seizure of territory, then such a course leads directly to ruin.

   When Wu Wang overthrew Yin, some of his people wished to build a fortress on the Wu Hsing mountain.
Forts cannot preserve a nation.
The Duke of Chou opposed the scheme, justifying his opposition by maintaining that the Wu Hsing mountain was a position of strength and inaccessible, naturally. "If my virtue," he said, "can spread over the empire, people would find it difficult to bring their tribute and reports over these heights, if fortified. Were I to act in an arbitrary and illegal way, the people would fall on me and make difficulties." Based on such principle, the house lasted for thirty-six generations without losing any of its territory. The Duke of Chou, in thus refusing to build fortifications, may be said to have conserved the interests of the kingdom.

   There is an old saying of a Chou book: "The words of the authorities are put in practice by the subjects. The words of the subjects are put into use by the authorities. They thus mutually help in carrying on the country."

   The words of the authorities are the prince's law, the words of the people are a guide to meet the needs of the country and carry on administration satisfactorily. These are the ways to success, of expediency and failure. The p. 161 sages, alone, know what is expedient; others look on a literal faithfulness in words, or a strict adherence to time
Minor sins permissible to shield great principles.
as excellent conduct for ruling a country. The father of Chih Kung appropriated some strayed sheep, and his son confessed. Wei Sheng lost his life in keeping an assignation. Now this testimony of the son to the crime of the father, who was drowned for his crime, was an act of literal faithfulness. Faith was carried to an extreme; but such acts are little esteemed.

   It is generally held a great fault for the soldier to go beyond his command. When the Duke Mu moved his soldiers to make a surprise attack on the Cheng country, he had to pass Chou, on his march eastward. Hsü An-kao, a merchant of Cheng, travelling west with cattle to the markets, met the Ts‛in commander on the confines of Chou and Cheng. He feigned to have an order from the Baron of Cheng. And so he told the Commander that he was
A deception justified
deputed to come with a present of 12 heads of cattle to him. This he did to stop the army and save the Cheng nation. Thus, it comes to pass, sometimes, in certain things, that fidelity becomes a fault and the telling of an untruth a great merit. Under what circumstance, then, can it be said that equivocation is praiseworthy and meritorious? An example will help us in answering. Kung Wang of Ts‛u, once upon a time, was captured at Yin Ling. P‛an Wang, Yang T‛ien Chi, Huang Shuai Wei, Kung Sun Ping made a compact to rescue their captured King. Kung Wang feigned great fear and stood trembling, as though he had lost all his manhood. Huang Shuai Wei kicked him, whereupon the king, showing great anger at this indignity, rushed after them, and they took him off. Now all this feigning was flagrant deception, but justifiable by the circumstance. Ts‛ang Wu Jao married a wife and gave her to his brother because of her beauty. But this act, though showing an affectionate loyalty, should not have been done.

p. 162

   We may, then, judge that the sage considers the circumstances and suits his methods to the end in view; he
The Sage guided by times and seasons.
accommodates his actions to the times and has no fixed methods of application to any and all occasions. Now he bends, now he is unbendable; now he yields, now he is adamantine. He has no unalterable mode of action. According as the times are difficult or easy, he humbles himself, swaying like the reed before the wind, yet not so as to give way before an aggrandising power. Strong and firm, his resolution mounts high like the floating clouds and yet without any haughtiness of spirit. He responds to every change according to the call of the time and occasion.

   Intercourse, according to the rules of propriety, demand that the minister should bend the knee and bow the head in reverence and respect. But in an exiguous crisis, no one would affirm that the lifting of the foot to kick the person of the prince would be wrong. Therefore, if etiquette should he wanting at times, it arises from the exigency of the occasion. Filial service demands a pleasant countenance, a humble demeanour and an orderly deportment from the son, when he stoops to tie the gaiter
The right of impiety.
and the shoe of the father; but when one's father is drowning, the son may pull the father out by the hair, to save him. No one would think the son guilty of any contumely to the person of a father, in so doing. Thus we see that the pulling of a father by the hair or the mention of the King's name25 in prayer, is a natural act demanded by the circumstances. This is the demand of expediency. Listen to the words of Confucius:

"Those who study together may not equally find the way. There may even be a common agreement on theories, but it does not follow that all will be established in the way. Even though there be a common practice, it may be that all will not concur in a matter of p. 163 expediency."

Analects BK IX. Chap. 29.  

   The Sage, alone, is able to see the way of expediency. Therefore, what appears, at first, incompatible, later on
The Sage avoids varnish and seeks reality.
turns out to be correct, which shows a knowledge of what is expedient. A loss of expediency turns a good occasion into a failure. From all this we see that etiquette is but an outward varnish on the real material, an artificially created decoration, and is of no use in a sudden crisis. So the Sage carries on the conventions of society by means of etiquette, but applies reality in the administration of affairs, fitting occasion to the needs of the case. He is not bound by any one custom nor tied to any unchangeable or crystallized form. For this reason his failures are few, his successes many. His commands carry to all parts of the empire without opposition.

   The ape has a cognizance of the past, but none of the future. The Eastern magpie26 knows the future, but not the past. This is a differentiation in merits and shortcomings.

   Formerly Chang Hung was the astrologer of the house of Chou. There were neither laws of climatic conditions nor of changes in weather, with which he was not conversant; nevertheless he was not able to foresee his own death through a carriage accident. Su Ch‛in was a common man who generally rode shanks's pony. But he rose to travel in a stylish carriage and be the adviser of great kings.
Mere capacity not enough.
The Feudal Lords unhesitatingly followed his advice, nevertheless, he, too, did not succeed in avoiding a wreck when travelling. Hsü Yen Wang's duties lay in great philanthropy, and he did the works of mercy and justice. The whole Thirty-six Kingdoms paid him court; nevertheless he was killed, and having neither sons nor grandsons, his house perished. Ta Fu Chung was the right-hand man of Wang Chu: Ch‛ien of Yueh righted his wrongs and wiped out his disgrace by p. 164 capturing the person of Ch‛ien Fu, his enemy, He extended the national territories by about a thousand li. Yet he threw himself from the top of the tower, Shu Lou, (given him by the king), and died.

   All these persons were versed in the essentials of government and in the means of self-preservation. Chang Hung was proficient in astrology but not in human affairs. Su Ts‛in knew the art of weighing the merit of plans and schemes, but did not know what constituted misfortune and happiness. Hsü Yen Wang was a proficient protagonist in the exercises of love and mercy, but not in the signs of the times. Ta Fu Chung knew how to be loyal, but not how to plan for his own person.

   The sages did not so act. They weighed every matter in all their deliberations of world conditions and acted
Sages careful in planning.
accordingly. Their policies were regulated in view of circumstances. Therefore, whilst the greatest need of empire was met, the petty needs of a locality were not neglected for a moment.

   Let us suppose the empire in anarchy, law and order being suspended, the principles of government abandoned, the strong and weak in mutual conflict, everyone striving to gain power, the distinction of prince and minister lost, the differentiation of classes extinct, the military verminous from constant service, the swallows building their nests in the camps, and the soldier with never a respite from service: only when the country had come to these straits, did the people realize the gravity of affairs and feel a sense of responsibility: but it was too late to revive the country. Disaster was inevitable.

   Suppose the country at rest, the government in concord, the people in comfort and peace, high and low in mutual harmony, and then those persons who only think of getting into the public service, come out with zeal and energy to serve their country, when all is calm. They would inevitably be the subject of public castigation.

   Now both those who realized the sense of danger too p. 165 tardily, and those who come out into public service only during an era of peace, are useless. On the contrary, the action of the sage is very different. Only such as he can accommodate himself to obscurity and publicity; he, alone, can be pliant or obdurate; he, alone, can be active or quiet, according to the times. He will act according to the circumstance. He will apprehend what direction forces will take. He will study the fluctuations of affairs in their beginnings, act compatibly with their transformations and respond to them as they shift. Therefore, he will have no
and in weighing events.
embarrassments during his life's activities. Thus we see there will be matters that can be performed, but not discussed; there will be matters that can be discussed, but not performed. Some that are difficult of completion may be easily ruined. Some will be easy of action, but difficult to bring to fruition. The former means that some plans can be acted on and that others must be abandoned. The second means that some plans are wholly wrong. The next means that what is difficult of completion and easily spoilt pertains to reputation. These four categories are what the sage, alone, can discern clearly and to which he pays great attention. It is the sage that gains a yard by giving an ell. This is his method of action. Superior men may swerve a little from
Minor faults no bar to service.
the strict rules of morality, in order to gain the full truth. This is their method of action. As examples we may quote the case of the Duke of Chou who bore the obloquy of putting his brother to death. Huan Kung of Ch‛i carries the odium of raising strife in the country. Notwithstanding, the Duke of Chou wore out the infelicity of his act, by the justice inherent in his case. And Huan Kung slew the dragon of ill repute, by his valorous merits: so both these are amongst the worthies. Now were we to hide and tarnish a life of brilliancy for even small faults, there never would be any great kings or worthy ministers. When the eye is troubled with a little sore, provided it does not interfere with sight, p. 166 no one would think of cauterizing it. When the throat is sore, provided it does not interfere with breathing, no one would apply the knife to it. The mounds along the river bank are innumerable; yet the country generally may be said to be level. An obstacle in flowing water raises wavelets; but the high and low being near and many, it may be said that the surface is even.

   Formerly, Ts‛ao Tzŭ, a general of Luh, was thrice defeated in battle and lost 1,000 li of land. Ts‛ao Tzŭ never looked back or retraced his steps, but went forward, ready, if need be, to die in battle, and thought the worst that could happen would be no more than a reputation of a loser of battles and a captured general. Notwithstanding, Ts‛ao Tzŭ was not mortified by his defeats but rather felt ashamed of dying without achieving his purpose; so, during the treaty at Kô, he drew out his dagger and, clutching the coat of Huan Kung, threatened to kill him. He thus won back in a day what he had lost in three defeats. The renown of his valour spread over the empire and his deeds were enshrined in the Luh nation.

   Kuan Chung27 attempted to rescue his King, Baron Chin, but he cannot be praised for intelligence, for he fled and escaped and had no share in the tragic death of his King (as a minister should). For this he cannot be called valorous. Bound and handcuffed and yet unashamed of his chains, he cannot be said to be faithful. For these unmeritorious acts, an ordinary man would not claim his friendship nor would a prince ever make a minister of him! Nevertheless, freed from the shackles of bondage after becoming the leading minister in Ch‛i, he united the 9 Feudal states into one empire. Had he rushed to death and lost his life, without regard to later plans for the empire, he would never have accomplished the work of unifying the empire under one dominant power.

   As things are now, princes do not weigh the supreme merit of their ministers, nor regard their preeminent abilities, as a whole, but rather select them for some small personal p. 167
Small defects must not stand in the way of service.
goodness, and thus they miss the chance of getting really able men. Therefore, when men are distinguished by a generous humanity, there is no need to enquire into some small blemish or some crux in their characters, or to criticise them for some minor failt, when their fame is established. No leviathan or sturgeon can be bred in a puddle, made by rain in the footprints of an ox, and a beehive cannot be the nest of an ostrich. A small form cannot contain a large body.

   No nature is wholly free from some shortcoming. It is enough to weigh the general purpose of the life. A trifling shortcoming must not be allowed to entangle the whole person. Of course, if a person fails to have any great scheme or purpose in life, then he is useless for great office, even though he may be well-spoken-of in his village.

   Yen Hsin Chu of Liang Fu was a bandit, but rose to be a loyal minister of Ch‛i. Tuan Kan Mu was a
Character considered as a whole.
piece-goods broker of Ts‛in and became the instuctor of Baron Wen. Meng Mao married his sister-in-law and had five sons by her; but he became the Prime Minister of Wei. He pacified its turbulence and dissipated the national troubles. Ching Yang was a drunkard, an unkempt fellow and a whoremonger; but as a General of Wei, he brought the Feudal Lords to their knees. Now all these men had each his shortcomings; yet their work and renown have not perished. This may be attributed to the great powers of their character, as a whole.

   Chi Huang, Ch‛en Chung Tzŭ were worthy men and independent in action. They refused to enter the
Too idealistic standards.
unwholesome atmosphere of the Court, nor would they eat the food of anarchy and so they died of hunger. Their idealism failed wholly to save the country and throne, because they lost the conception of the general good in a narrow view of personal integrity. Thus we see that a narrow view of life will never achieve p. 168 anything great. Men have no use for a censorious critic of the age. The knarled rings in a big body are more
Moral indiscretions not a bar.
widely distributed; a big foot will make a long pace. There never has been a wholly perfect man from the begining till now. So the I Ching says: "Small mishaps may, if they do not discourage one, lead on to fortune." This means that there are none without some faults and indiscretions: the only thing to be feared is lest these small faults should get the mastery of life. Yao, Shun, Tang and Wu were masters of the world during its most brilliant periods. Ch‛i Huan and Tsin Wen were the heroic figures of the Five Autocracies.28 Yet Yao had the name of being unkind, Shun bears the reproach of haughtiness towards his father. Tang and Wu are sullied by those affairs of slaying people. The Five Barons have the reputation of planning rebellions. Thus, no gentleman will demand a perfect and complete virtue in anyone individual. You cannot lop off a part of a perfect limb and correct moral character, nor tear a piece from a virtuous life. A person of extensive knowledge must not be defamed (though he may have a blot on the scutcheon). A perfect knowledge of civil and military things must not be asked of any one man. What can be expected from one person should not be above what one man's strength can bear. Personal virtue comes by the cultivation of the tao; never demand of a person more than what the strength of one man can easily render. The
Moral culture not easy.
cultivation of the person in virtue is a most difficult business. When this difficult work is achieved, the person's conduct is high. To make any service possible implies that the demand shall be moderate. The precious jade-piece of the house of Hsia Hou is not without flaws. A most brilliant diamond is not free from lines of crystallization, Yet these masterpieces with their little flaws are regarded as the most precious things in the empire; small blemishes are not enough to hide their great beauty. It were indeed difficult to find any p. 169 worthy men in the empire, if men of purpose were lost because of their shortcomings rather than prized for their great achievements.

   Pei Li Hsi was a cattle-broker, Yi Yin a cook, T‛ai Kung was a butcher, Ning Ch‛i a ballad singer. But subsequently their merits as ministers are not forgotten. Before they rose to power, the multitude only saw the
Discernment in choosing men.
lowliness of their avocations and their degrading occupations. They failed to appreciate their general excellencies and thought of them as degenerates. It needed the penetration of the kingly mind to see their worth. It was only after they became the assistants of Kings and were made the Prime Ministers of the Feudal Barons, that the populace saw their worth and realized that they were exceptional men.

   To be advanced from the kitchen, to emerge from the butchery, to be raised, after deliverance from the prisoner's shackles, to be exalted from a broker's position, for such, I say, to be bathed in the bath of nectar and purified by the heating streams of the sun, exalted to high positions in the Court and seated in high office of State, on the right hand of the Three Dukes, for them to stand unabashed in the Palace of the Kingdom and feel pride of dignity abroad amongst the Barons, with powers matching those of princes,—all this shows that it required the penetration of Yao to discern their merits, whilst they were as yet undistinguished. This is the way Yao knew Shun. The populace only became cognizant of his merits after he had completed his great work and established his reputation.

   Such, only, is the popular knowledge of Shun. Were anyone to rely merely on his own eyes and intelligence,
Given only to a few.
without having the proper methods of judging a worthy, and were he to go and try to find him in palace or hamlet, he would assuredly miss many a one. Ordinary men cannot go and imitate Yao in his discovery of Shun, since they have not the acumen for discovering men.

p. 170

   Now, as a rule, all things have a great similarity. There is outwardly but little difference between one man and another. And mediocre princes and governors of the world may be deceived easily by appearances. A white bone much resembles ivory; most men fail to distinguish the one from the other. So with men. The specious kind appears to have goodness, but it is not really so. The bravado kind has not really got courage. Now, did men really appear as distinct in character as a jade does from stone, or beauty from ugliness, it would be easy to judge them. There are four varieties of plants very much alike and hard to be distinguished, so that people often mistake them. Similarly the sword-maker may err in thinking a Sword is like (the famous) Mo Hsieh sword. Only the expert, O Yen, could give an authoritative opinion. The diamond-cutter may
Easy to err in judgement.
mistake a piece of jade, thinking it to be an imitation stone, the P‛i. But I Tun, alone, would never miss the lustre. The prince of An was misaken in a wicked minister who had only the devices and sharpness of a knave. But the perfect gentleman is discerned only by the sage who can see clearly the true marks by slight indications, just as the length of a snake may be gauged by the head uplifted just one foot. The size of an elephant may be guessed from its tusk. The expert in swords, Chu Yung Tzu of Hsieh, was able to discern the keenness of the edge by an apparent image of the Fox cuirass on the blade.29 If the waters of the Chih and Sheng rivers were mixed, Hsü Erh and I Yü could yet disinguish the one from the other by sipping the mixture, distinguishing the sweet and bitter. In like manner, too, the Sage determines a worthy man from a single act of his, and can thus differentiate between a worthy and an unworthy one.

   Confucius, by refusing the magistracy of Ling Ch‛in, showed that he was free from the love of empty gain. By the refusal of Imperial power, Hsü Yu manifested, by this one act, the purity of his life. Similarly, it might be said p. 171 that he who has not been burnt will not grasp fire, since
Taste and act show character.
he knows it burns. He who has not been wounded wlll not clutch a blade because he sees its danger. We may thus gather that a glance is enough for a man to decide, withou actual experience, so that the character of a person may be known from a mere trifle. Hence, in judging a person's principles, if he is of the nobility, see what theories he advances; if wealthy, see how he dispenses his money; if poor, see what he declines; if a commoner sees what he will not do; if impoverished, see what he will not accept. You will find out the courage of a person if he refuses to yield to difficulties; if tempted by enjoyments and luxuries, see how he comports himself. Surrounded by wealth and riches, it will be possible to judge of his benevolence; agitated by fears, it will be possible to decide his virtues. These various symptoms embrace the whole of human nature.

   The ancient method of rewards was good, involving but little expenditure of money, yet resulting in wide-spread
Value of rewards and punishments.
influence. Their method of punishment was good. It was thus, by a few exemplary acts they stopped all wickedness. Their method of giving was also good. It was discreet but effective in results. Their method of exacting revenue was also excellent and brought in a large supply from the contributors without compunction.

   Examples of such may be given from history. Chao Hsiang Tzŭ, after the raising of the investment of Tsin Yang, bestowed the chief reward on Wu Jen Kao Hê. Others criticised this, alleging that the man did but little to save the situation when they were besieged in Tsin Yang. So the King explained his action by saying, "When I was besieged and my house and country were in critical danger, all my ministers were disrespectful to me in my plight: Wu, alone, preserved still the proper courtesies between prince and minister in this time of humiliaton." This act p. 172 had great influence in the whole empire by inspiring the feeling of loyalty. None there was, but showed respect to his King after this example. This, then, is an illustration of the saying, 'All were inspired by an exemplary reward.'

   Again, Wei Kung of Ch‛i prepared a cauldron of boiling oil in the central area of his court, and addressing the officer of Wu Yen, said, "The report of your fine reputation reached my ears daily, but when I came to examine the facts, I found that your district was a waste, your granaries empty and prisons full. It was by wickedness that you served me." He was, thereupon, thrust into the cauldron. After this exemplary punishment, for the next 32 years, articles dropped on the road and lost were quite safe. This is an example of the saying, "By an exemplary punishment crime is stopped."

   Once an expediticn lost a favourite horse which kicked the traces and ran away. It was captured by some rustics
Art of conciliation.
and eaten. When the Duke Mu Kung saw them, he said, "You ate my horse, but I fear it will hurt you since you did not take wine with it. Let me now invite you all to take some wine, which will save you from any ill effects." A year after this event, King Kung of Ts‛in pressed the Duke hard in the battle at Han. The soldiers of his enemies were about to capture his carriage, when 300 local people rushed to his rescue and saved him. These were the people who had eaten his horse and had been regaled with wine by him. This is an example of the saying, "Discretion in giving largesse leads to influential results."

   Further, Huan Kung of Ch‛i, purposing a military expedition, was short of equipment for his troops. So he issued a notice that great criminals should be pardoned, if they supplied him with the materials for making cuirasses: criminals should be redeemed by a gift of metal, the quantity to be determined by the gravity of the guilt. Unsuccessful litigants were to be consoled, if they gave a gift of arrows. The people thought well of the plan and worked to make p. 173 arrows from poles; metal was melted into swords. Thus, the lawless were subdued, and the unruly corrected. In this way he became the dominant lord of the empire. This illustrates the saying, "They contributed much without grumbling."

   The sage, then, will influence the people by that which commands their goodwill and restrain evil-doors by following what the people detest. So that, by the exemplary reward of one man, the King wins popular applause; by an exemplary punishment of one man, all the people are filled with fear. Thus the perfect way of rewards demands no lavish expenditure. The most perfect form of punishment does not need that many suffer. Confucius slew Shao Cheng and stopped crime in Luh. By putting Teng Hsi to death, Tzû Ch‛an closed up the ways of criminals in Chêng. Thus the distant regions are warned by an intimate act, and the big known from the little. Similarly the Sage, by a few acts, is able to reach and rule the wide stretches of empire.

   There is nothing in the world easier than goodness and nothing more difficult than depravity. By "goodness" is
Easy to be good.
meant tranquility of mind, undisturbed by cupidity. By "depravity" is meant a grasping spirit with many cravings. He who is satisfied with the simple needs of his nature, refusing the superfluous delights of the world, will not be tempted by any seductions. He who follows the law of his nature, will preserve his soul, without any inward conflicts. Hence the statement "It is easy to be good." Clambering up city walls, scaling dangerous heights, thieving the official keys, forging
Not easy to be bad.
and stealing official money, rebelling and murdering, lying and bearing false witness, are acts contrary to human nature. Hence the saying, "It is difficult to be bad."

   The reason that men commit criminal acts and endanger their lives springs from unsatiated appetites which are uncontrolled by proper restraints. How may this be proved? p. 174 The promulgated laws of the Empire state: "The removers of graves shall be decapitated; thieves and bandits shall be punished." These are under the administration of the authorities. The law commands that the police should always be on the track of criminals and catch them. Now if an ignorant man or stupid woman knows well there is no escape for criminals, transgressors of the law cannot hope to evade the penalty. Nevertheless the good-for-nothing people who cannot control their lusts, brave the penalty of death, and incur the obloquy of punishment. In spite of this terrifying result, the executioners lead an endless train of guilty persons to execution after the autumn assize, and the blood of the culprits who die deluges the streets. It is the lust for gain that brings people to this tragic end.

   Armies in battle, ready for action, one facing the other, are addressed by their respective generals in such words as, "Whoever slays an enemy shall be loaded with honours; the craven shall be decapitated." Notwithstanding this, the front line of soldiers, being incapable of advancing and of winning the promised laurels of a victor, came under the sentence of decapitation. The very act of fleeing, through fear of death, brought on them the certainty of death as a punishment. Hence the gain, on one side, becomes a loss, and vice versa. Thus the intimate connection of infelicity should not be neglected. So that in the desire of gaining a certain end, the good is missed. As an example take the instance in Tzŭ, where some passengers travelling by boat met with a big wind, which swept the waves over the boat. The passengers, in their fright, jumped into the water. They wished to live and feared death; but the attempt to escape it, in one form, brought it on them, in another form. Men governed by the appetites are just like these. A Ch‛i individual stole some money at a crowded bazaar. He was walking away with it when the police asked him why it was that he stole the money in the market. The thief replied that the sight of the money filled his p. 175 mind to the exclusion of the policeman. So his desires made him forgetful of the nature of his act.

   The Sage, therefore, watches the fluctuations of the emotions; he weighs the measures of repugnance and
The psychology of crime.
admiration; he understands the feelings of joy and anger. When the emotions are under proper control, no excesses, therefore, come to disturb life: no faults can incriminate, when the act of taking and giving are rightful. No sorrow can approach, when admiration and repugnance are regulated; when anger and joy are within proper limits, no compunctions can molest. Thus, then, the man who is under the rule of reason does not hanker after money nor does
Be ruled by reason.
he decline good luck when it comes. What he has he will not throw away and he makes no demand for that which he does not possess. He is always satisfied. The drops caught from the eaves can fill a bowl; a broken cup can never ladle out all the waters of a Yellow river or a Yangtse.

   Men's hearts are very similar to the things just instanced. They should be governed as to their needs, by the due measure of their wants. Just enough food to satisfy one's hunger and enough clothes to protect the body against the cold should suffice for a form of six feet. Where there is no rule or measure to govern one's thrift, it would be found that the highest position in the land would be insufficient to give satisfaction, and the wealth of the empire inadequate to give enjoyment to such a person. Sun Hsü Ao thrice declined the premiership without any regrets. The seductive attractions of position and emoluments could not entangle him. Chung Tzû Fei stood unmoved when the two dragons clutched his boat, the monsters failed to frighten him. When the heart of the sage is at ease and his mind firm, and when his spirit rules within, nothing can raise doubts and fears.

   A drunken man stoops in entering a city gate as though it were a small door in his house; he enters the p. 176 deep waters of rivers as though they were but the little streams in the valley, because his spirit is besotted by wine. The timid, seeing a pillar in the night, thinks it a ghost; he imagines a stone lying prone to be a tiger. Fear has robbed him of his spirit. There are no such things as ghosts and goblins.

   When male and female are mated and the Yin and Yang crossed, the feathered tribes appear as fowls and such like; and the hairy tribe as foals and colts. The soft element became skin and flesh, the hard element teeth and horns. But as they are common sights, they are not objects of strange curiosity. The water breeds dragons and sea serpents, mountains grow metal and jade, and these no one looks on as objects of wonder.

   An old cypress takes fire by spontaneous combustion; old corpses become phosphorescent; yet people do not think these things strange. The Hsiao Yang30 stalks the mountains. The undines (Yin Hsiang) are begotten by the waters. The trees give birth to the Pi Fang, fabulous bird, (Hamadryad) (Satyr). The well begets the Fen Yang Rain naiad. That people should think these strange comes from their rarity and the mind's superficial acquaintance with things. The sage, alone, knows these fantastic things; people of understanding, alone, comprehend the use of them. The strange and unnatural create doubt in the minds of the generality of men. Those things which are not understood, and on which the people are not informed, are taken as spiritual manifestations and are used as means to warn and restrain the people. All these appearances are used as parabolic teaching. Popular
Use of myths
superstitions became educative. The following are examples. The people say that pork is the best offering to the spirits of ancestors. In the burial obsequies of the dead, furs must not be used. The ancestral spirit will strike the arms of those playing with sharp swords. To make a pillow of the door step, and sleep there, is unlucky, since ghosts pass in and out that p. 177 way and step on the sleeper's head. And so on. Now all such sayings as these are not found written in any code, and the Sage does not speak of any such popular superstition. There is an explanation of them all. Take the superstition that pork is the best offering to a dead ancestor. A pig is really no better than any other wild beast or deer, but it is used in the service of the spirits simply because it is the animal most commonly fed in every home, and is an article easily got. It is held in esteem for this purpose because of its accessibility. It is not meant that the dead should not be buried in furs because they are not equally serviceable as silks and linen for warmth to the body, but because people regard it difficult to obtain them and so look upon them as articles of great value. And they could not be handed down from father to son, if they were buried; whilst, at the same time, they are useless to the dead but of great utility to the living. Hence they are loth to use furs for this purpose. The saying that the spirit of the dead will strike those playing with swords, arises from accidents that may happen. From an accidental wound, strife and enmity often come, eventuating in punishment and death. The ignorant do not appreciate these results, so the saying is used to restrain them. The folklore that ghosts will step on those who sleep in doorways may equally be attributable to social utility. If ghosts are immaterial beings, they have no need of doors and windows for access; if they depend on holes for ingress and egress, there would be no occasion for them to step on anyone. The fact is, doorways and windows are the passages for wind and air. These elements are the result of the clashing forces, Yin and Yang; so that it is just here they strike anyone with a cold, and illness will be the result. Hence the idea of ghosts and spirits is used to make people desist from the practice and save them from harm.

   It is impossible to record all similar folk-lore found in books and script, and store them up in the archives for public instruction; therefore, the ignorant are instructed by p. 178 means of these mythological sayings, and are being instructed in those things of whose harm they are ignorant, by such inculcation, and by the dread of demons of which use is made. This folklore is of great antiquity. The uninitiated, therefore, look upon ghosts and demons as being inauspicious, or auspicious, as the case may be, and fear them accordingly. The bold do not believe in them, and those of understanding know the real significance of these superstitions.

   It must not be thought that the spirits can eat the sacrifices offered by the people to the well, kitchen, door, window, basket, brook, mortar, pestle, and so on; but the sacrifices offered to them are a display of the gratitude of people to the spirits for their boundless kindness and trouble. Hence, whenever there is an act of worship for kindness, it is an occasion for remembering their meritorious service.

   T‛ai Shan is the only mountain that can give rise to the stone round which the flock of clouds collect which, uniting into one whole cumulus, will disperse in rain, in a short time. The streams and rivers are the only channels that run unceasingly, even when the land is parched by a three years drought, fertilizing the land and enriching every
Why sacrifice?
plant. These are the reasons why the King seasonably offers them sacrifices. So the horse, which has eased the labours of man, is buried when it dies. The ox, when it dies, is stretched out on a carriage. Ox and horse should not be forgotten for their services. How much more so should this be the case in respect of man! The Sage, therefore, pays great attention to humanity and multiplies the ceremonials of gratitude and thanksgiving. For such reasons, Yen Ti,31 reigning under the symbolic essence of fire, was created to be the Kitchen God. Yü spent a laborious life in the service of the empire and was deified as the lares of the home. Hou Chi,32 on his death, was made the god of agriculture for his great services to men in the art of p. 179
Why demon worship?
tilling the ground. I eliminated the pests from the empire and was deified as the rustic divinity of the farmer. These instances supply the reasons for the creation of the cult of demon worship.

   Once upon a time there was a man in North Ts‛u, who had the reputation of being a pugilist and helping the oppressed with his fists. His children often exhorted him not to do so and to give up his gymnastic cult, but without avail. A local thief broke into his dwelling one night and, in this way, his gymnastic exercises came to be known to the officials. The pugilist was frightened and fled. He was pursued and captured; but those people whom he had helped, in the past, came to his rescue and fought for him. Thus escaping, he returned and spoke to his children, saying "You have often advised me to desist from my exercises, but I have saved the family this evening by my arts. So that such advice as you gave was useless." This man knew how to deliver himself from trouble, but not how to keep himself from trouble. His wisdom may truly be doubted.

   A man of Sung, about to give his daughter in marriage, said to her: "I fear this marriage cannot be consummated, unless you can make a little money yourself. It would be easy to marry you, could you get a little wealth." The girl understood what her father hinted at and purloined the private goods of her grandfather. When the grandfather knew of the theft, he drove the girl from home. The father did not blame himself for this, but rather prided himself on the success of his scheme. He knew how to get some stolen money, but failed to apprehend that this stolen money would lead to making the girl an out-cast. Such reasoning as the father's arouses our ire.

   A man who overloaded a hired conveyance so that no ox could draw it, fearing lest the axle would break, thought it well to strengthen the shafts, without realizing that the added bit of material would more swiftly cause the axle to break.

p. 180

   The King of Ts‛u, when he went to hunt the hare, provided himself with two jade ornaments on his girdle, in case one should break in the chase; but the very fact of two being in juxtaposition, one knocking against the other, made it all the more easy for them both to be broken.

   The government of a disturbed nation is very similar to the experiences recorded in these examples.

   The eyes of the owl are big, but not of such keen vision as those of rats. A centipede has many feet, but is not so quick as a snake, in its motion. Thus we may see that the big is unequal to the little and the many unequal to the few. Even the strong may be weak and the weak strong; the man of the weak constitution is he who suddenly dies. Who but the sage can discern the true merits of the great and little, the lordly and the lowly? These cannot be decided by appearances. Wherever the Tao exists, there will be honour. An illustration will make this plain. When the emperor abides in the Chiao pavilion, the officers of state hasten with him, the ministers walk alongside, those who sit bend their heads, those who stand do so reverently. At this very time in the Ming T‛ang and the T‛ai Miao,33 hats are hung, swords are unstrapped, girdles are unloosed and sleepers lie about. And this not because the Chiao pavilion is big and the others small, but the presence of the emperor makes the difference and gives the dignity. Now the honour conferred by the Heavenly Doctrine is even greater than that conferred by the presence of the King. Wherever it is, all creation looks up to it with reverence. Hibernating insects, the jays in their nests, all turn their faces towards this one divine unity, the centre of perfect creative harmony. If the King could verily maintain the endowments of the Tao, in perfect harmony, then birds and beasts, plants and trees would all, without exception, share in the divine enrichment. How much more would man so share!