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List of Narratives, Apologues, and Stories of various kinds in the Writings of Kwang-dze.


Paragraph 1. The enjoyment of the Tâo by such vast creatures as the Khwän and the Phäng.

2. The enjoyment and foolish judgments of smaller creatures. Big trees and Phäng Zû.

3. Questions put by Thang to Kî. The Tâo in different men:--Yung-dze; Lieh-dze; and an ideal Tâoist. The Perfect man, the Spirit-like man, and the Sagely-minded man.

4. Yâo wishing to resign the throne to Hsü Yû.

5. Kien Wû and Lien Shû on the ideal Tâoist.

6. A cap-seller of Sung. Yâo after visiting the four Perfect ones.

7. Hui-dze and Kwang-dze:--the great calabashes; the hand-protecting salve; and the great Ailantus tree.


Par. 1. Nan-kwo Dze-khî in a trance, and his disciple. The notes of heaven, earth, and man.

4. 'In the morning three:'--the monkeys and their acorns.

7. Yâo and Shun,--on the wish of the former to smite some small states.

9. Lî Kî before and after her marriage.

10. The penumbra and the shadow. Kwang-dze's dream that he was a butterfly.

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Par. 2. King Wän-hui and his cook;--how the latter cut up his oxen.

3. Kung-wän Hsien and the Master of the Left who had only one foot.

4. The death of Lâo-dze; and adverse judgment on his life.


Pars. 1, 2. Yen Hui and Confucius;--on the proposal of the former to go and convert the ruler of Wei.

3, 4. Dze-kâo and Confucius;--on the mission of the former from Khû to Khî.

5. Yen Ho and Kü Po-yü;--on the former's undertaking to be tutor to the wayward son of duke Ling of Wei.

6. The master-mechanic and the great tree;--so large and old through its uselessness.

7. Nan-po Dze-khî and the great tree, preserved by its uselessness. Trees of Sung cut down because of their good timber. Peculiarities exempting from death as sacrificial victims.

8. The deformed object Shû and his worth.

9. Rencontre between Confucius and the madman of Khû.


Par. 1. Confucius explains the influence of the cripple Wang Thâi over the people of Lû.

2. The fellow-students Dze-khân and the cripple Shän-thû Kiâ.

3. Confucius and Toeless of Shû-shan. judgment of Toeless and Lâo-dze on Confucius.

4. Duke Âi of Lû and Confucius;--on the ugly but most able and fascinating man, Âi-thâi Tho. Admiration for Confucius of duke Âi.

5. The deformed favourites of duke Ling of Wei and duke Hwan of Khî. Argument between Kwang-dze and Hui-dze, growing out of the former's account of them.

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Par. 8. Nan-po Dze-khwei and the long-lived Nü Yü. How Pû-liang Î learned the Tâo.

9. Four Tâoists, and the submission of Dze-yü, one of them, a poor deformed hunchback, to his lot, when he was very ill.

10. The submission of Dze-lâi, another of the four, as his life was ebbing away.

11. Three Tâoists, and the ways of two of them on the death of the third. Conversation on the subject between Confucius and Dze-kung.

12. Confucius and Yen Hui on the mourning of Mäng-sun Zhâi.

13. Î-r Dze and Hsü Yû. How the Tâo will remove the injuries of error, and regenerate the mind.

14. Confucius and Yen Hui. The growth of the latter in Tâoism.

15. Dze-yü and Dze-sang. The penury of the latter and submission to his fate.


Par. 1. Nieh Khüeh, Wang Î, and Phû-î-dze. That Shun was inferior in his Tâoistic attainments to the more ancient sovereign, Thâi.

2. Kien Wû and the recluse Khieh-yü;--on the ideal of government.

3. Thien Kan and a nameless man;--that non-action is the way to govern the world.

4. Yang Dze-kü and Lâo Tan on the nameless government of the Intelligent Kings.

5. Lieh-dze and his master Hû-dze. How the latter defeated the wizard of Käng.

6. The end of Chaos, wrought by the gods of the southern and northern seas.


Par. 4. How two shepherd slaves lose their sheep in

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different ways. The corresponding cases of the righteous Po-î and the robber Kih.


Par. 1. Murder of the ruler of Khî by Thien Khäng-dze, and his usurpation of the State.

2. How the best and ablest of men, such as Lung-fäng, Pî-kan, Khang Hung, and Dze-hsü, may come to a disastrous end, and only seem to have served the purposes of such men as the robber Kih.

3. Evils resulting from such able men as Zäng Shän, Shih Khiû, Yang Kû, Mo Tî, Shih Khwang, Khui, and Lû Kû.

4. Character of the age of Perfect Virtue, and sovereigns who flourished in it in contrast with the time of Kwang-dze.


Par. 3. Zhui Khü and Lâo-dze. The latter denounces the meddling with the mind which began with Hwang-Tî, and the spread of knowledge, as productive of all evil.

4. Hwang-Tî and Kwang Khäng-dze, his master, who discourses on the mystery of the Tâo, and how it promotes long life.

5. Yün Kiang and Hung Mung, or the Leader of the Clouds and the Great Ether;--the wish of the former to nourish all things, and how they would be transformed by his doing nothing.


Par. 4. The loss and recovery by Yâo of his dark-coloured Pearl;--the Tâo.

5. Hsü Yû's reply to Yâo on the character of Nieh Khüeh and his unfitness to take the place of Sovereign.

6. Yâo rejects the good wishes for him of the Border-warden of Hwâ.

7. Yü and Po-khang Dze-kâo. The latter vindicates his resignation of dignity and taking to farming.

9. Confucius and Lâo-dze;--on the attitude to the Tâo of a great sage and ruler.

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10. Kiang-lü Mien and Ki Khêh;--on the counsel which the former had given to the ruler of Lû.

11. Dze-kung and the old gardener;--argument of the latter in favour of the primitive simplicity, and remarks thereon by Confucius.

12. Kun Mâng and Yüan Fung;--on the government of the sage; of the virtuous and kindly man; and of the spirit-like man.

13. Män Wû-kwei and Khih-kang Man-khî;--that there had been confusion and disorder before the time of Shun; and the character of the age of Perfect Virtue.


Par. 6. Yâo and Shun;--on the former's method of government.

7. Confucius, wishing to deposit some writings in the royal Library, is repulsed by Lâo-dze. Argument between them on Benevolence and Righteousness in relation to the nature of man.

8. Shih-khäng Khî and Lâo-dze;--the strange conferences between them, and the charges brought by the one against the other.

10. Duke Hwan and the wheelwright Phien;--that the knack of an art cannot be conveyed to another, and the spirit of thought cannot be fully expressed in writing.


Par. 2. Tang, a minister of Shang, and Kwang-dze on the nature of Benevolence.

3. Pei-män Khäng and Hwang-Tî;--a description of Hwang-Tî's music, the Hsien-khih.

4. Yen Yüan and Kin, the music-master of Lû, on the course of Confucius;--the opinion of the latter that it had been unsuccessful and was verging to entire failure.

5. Confucius and Lâo-dze. The former has not yet got the Tâo, and Lâo-dze explains the reason.

6. Confucius and Lâo-dze. Confucius talks of Benevolence

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and Righteousness; and how the tables are turned on him. He is deeply impressed by the other.

7. Dze-kung, in consequence of the Master's report of his interview, goes also to see Lâo-Sze; and is nonplussed and lectured by him.

8. Confucius sees Lâo-dze again, and tells him how he has profited from his instructions. The other expresses his satisfaction with him.


Par. 2. The state of Perfect Unity, and its gradual Decay.


Pars. 1-7. The Spirit-earl of the Ho and Zo of the Northern Sea;--on various metaphysical questions growing out of the doctrine of the Tâo.

8. The khwei, the millipede, the serpent, the wind, the eye, and the mind;--how they had their several powers, but did not know how.

9. Confucius in peril in Khwang is yet serene and hopeful.

10. Kung-sun Lung and Mâu of Wei. The Frog of the dilapidated well, and the Turtle of the Eastern Sea. The greatness of Kwang-dze's teachings.

11. Kwang-dze refuses the invitation of the king of Khû to take office. The wonderful tortoise-shell of the king.

12. Hui-dze and Kwang-dze. The young phoenix and the owl.

13. Hui-dze and Kwang-dze;--how Kwang-dze understood the enjoyment of fishes.


Par. 2. Hui-dze and Kwang-dze;--vindication by the latter of his behaviour on the death of his wife.

3. Mr. Deformed and Mr. One-foot;--their submission under pain and in prospect of death.

4. Kwang-dze and the skull;--what he said to it, and its appearance to him at night in a dream.

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5. The sadness of Confucius on the departure of Yen Hui for Khî; and his defence of it to Dze-kung. The appearance of a strange bird in Lû, and his moralizings on it.

6. Lieh-dze and the skull. The transmutations of things.


Par. 2. Lieh-dze and Kwan Yin;--on the capabilities of the Perfect man.

3. Confucius and the hunchback, who was skilful at catching cicadas with his rod.

4. The boatman on the gulf of Khang-shan, and his skill.

5. Thien Khâi-kih and duke Wei of Kâu;--on the best way to nourish the higher life. How it was illustrated by Thien's master, and how enforced by Confucius.

6. The officer of sacrifice and his pigs to be sacrificed.

7. Duke Hwan gets ill from seeing a ghostly sprite, and how he was cured.

8. The training of a fighting-cock.

9. Confucius and the swimmer in the gorge of Lü.

10. Khing, the worker in rottlera wood, and the bell-frame;--how he succeeded in making it as he did.

11. Tung-yê Kî and his chariot-driving;--how his horses broke down.

12. The skill of the artisan Shui.

14. The weakling Sun Hsiû and the Master Dze-pien Khing-dze, with his disciples.


Par. 1. Kwang-dze and his disciples;--the great tree that was of no use, and the goose that could not cackle.

2. Î-liâo of Shih-nan and the marquis of Lû;--how the former presses it on the marquis to go to an Utopia of Tâoism in the south, to escape from his trouble and sorrow.

3. Pei-kung Shê and prince Khing-kî;--how the former collected taxes and made a peal of bells.

4. How the Thâi-kung Zän condoled with Confucius on his distresses, and tried to convert him to Tâoism.

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5. Confucius and Dze-sang Hû. The Tâoistic effect of their conversation on the former. The dying charge of Shun to Yü.

6. Kwang-dze in rags before the king of Wei. The apologue of the climbing monkey.

7. Confucius and Yen Hui;--on occasion of the perilous situation between Khän and Zhâi. Confucius expounds the principles that supported him.

8. Kwang-dze's experiences in the park of Tiâo-ling;--has the character of an apologue.

9. The Innkeeper's two concubines;--the beauty disliked and the ugly one honoured.


Par. 1. Thien Dze-fang and the marquis Wän of Wei.

2. Wän-po Hsüeh-dze and the scholars of the Middle States.

3. Confucius and Yen Hui;--on the incomprehensibleness to the latter of the Master's course.

4. Conversation between Confucius and Lâo-dze on the beginning of things.

5. Kwang-dze and duke Âi of Lû;--on the dress of the scholar.

6. Pâi-lî Hsî.

7. The duke of Sung and his map-drawers.

8. King Wän and the old fisherman of Zang. Confucius and Yen Hui on king Wän's dream about the fisherman.

9. The archery of Lieh-dze and Po-hwän Wû-zän.

10. Kien Wû, and Sun Shû-âo, the True man. Confucius's account of the True man. The king of Khû and the ruler of Fan.


Par. 1. Knowledge, Dumb Inaction, Head-strong Stammerer, and Hwang-Tî on the Tâo.

3. Nieh Khüeh questioning Phei-î about the Tâo.

4. Shun and his minister Khäng;--that man is not his own.

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5. Confucius and Lâo Tan;--on the Perfect Tâo.

6. Tung-kwo Dze's question to Kwang-dze about where the Tâo was to be found, and the reply.

7. Â-ho Kan, Shän Näng, Lâo-lung Kî, Yen Kang;--Grand Purity, Infinitude, Do-nothing, and No-beginning:--on what the Tâo is.

8. Star-light and Non-entity.

9. The Minister of War and his forger of swords.

10. Zin Khiû and Confucius;--how it was before heaven and earth.

11. Confucius and Yen Hui:--No demonstration to welcome, no movement to meet.


Par. 1. Käng-sang Khû and the people about Wei-lêi hill.

2. Käng-sang Khû and his disciples. He repudiates being likened by them to Yâo and Shun.

3. Käng-sang Khû and the disciple Nan-yung Khû.

4-12. Lâo-dze lessoning Nan-yung Khû on the principles of Tâoism.


Pars. 1, 2. Hsü Wû-kwei, Nü Shang, and the marquis Wû of Wei:--Hsü's discourses to the marquis.

3. Hwang-Tî, with six attending sages, in quest of the Tâo, meets with a wise boy herding horses.

5. Debate between Kwang-dze and Hui-dze, illustrating the sophistry of the latter.

6. The artisan Shih cleans the nose of a statue with the wind of his axe; but declines to try his ability on a living subject.

7. Advice of Kwan Kung on his death-bed to duke Hwan of Khî about his choice of a successor to himself.

8. The king of Wû and the crafty monkey. His lesson from its death to Yen Pû-î.

9. Nan-po Dze-khî and his attendant Yen Khäng-dze.

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The trance is the highest result of the Tâo. Practical lesson to be drawn from it.

10. Confucius at the court of Khû along with Sun Shû-âo and Î-liâo.

11. Dze-khî, and his eight sons, with the physiognomist Kiû-fang Yän.

12. Nieh Khüeh meets Hsü Yû fleeing from the court of Yâo.


Par. 1. Zeh-yang seeking an introduction to the king of Khû. Î Kieh, Wang Kwo, and the recluse Kung-yüeh Hsiû.

3. The ancient sovereign Zän-hsiang; Thang, the founder of the Shang dynasty; Confucius; and Yung-khäng Dze.

4. King Yung of Wei and his counsellors:--on his desire and schemes to be revenged on Thien Mâu of Khî. Tâi Zin-zän and his apologue about the horns of a snail.

5. Confucius and the Recluse at Ant-hill in Khû.

6. The Border-warden of Khang-wû's lessons to Dze-lâo. Kwang-dze's enforcement of them.

7. Lâo-dze and his disciple Po Kü:--that the prohibitions of Law provoke to transgression.

8. The conversion to Tâoism of Kü Po-yü.

9. Confucius and the historiographers;--about the honorary title of duke Ling of Wei.

10. Little Knowledge and the Correct Harmonizer:--on the Talk of the Hamlets and Villages.

11. On the namelessness of the Tâo; and that Tâo is but a borrowed or metaphorical name.


Par. 2. Against delaying to do good when it is in one's power to do it. The apologue of Kwang-dze meeting with a goby on the road.

3. The big fish caught by the son of the duke of Zän.

4. The Resurrectionist Students.

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5. How Lâo Lâi-dze admonished Confucius.

6. The dream of the ruler Yüan of Sung about a tortoise.

7. Hui-dze and Kwang-dze;--on the use of being useless.

11. Illustrations of the evil accruing from going to excess in action, or too suddenly taking action.


Par. 2. Kwang-dze and Hui-dze on Confucius;--did he change his views in his sixtieth year?

3. Confucius and his other disciples:--on Zäng-dze and his twice taking office with different moods of mind.

4. Yen Khing Dze-yû tells his Master Tung-kwo Dze-khî of his gradual attainments.

5. The penumbrae and the shadows.

6. Lâo-dze's lessoning of Yang Dze-khî, and its effects on him.


Par. 1. Yâo's proffers of the throne to Hsü Yû and Dze-kâu Kih-fû. Shun's proffers of it to Dze-kâu Kih-po, to Shan Küan, and to the farmer of Shih-hû. Thâi-wang Than-fû and the northern tribes. Prince Sâu of Yüeh.

2. Counsel of Dze-hwâ Dze to the marquis Kâo of Han.

3. The ruler of Lû and the Tâoist Yen Ho, who hides himself from the advances of the other.

4. Lieh-dze and his wife, on his declining a gift from the ruler of Käng.

5. The high-minded and resolute sheep-butcher Yüeh, and king Kâo of Khû.

6. The poor Yüan Hsien and the wealthy Dze-kung. Zäng-dze, in extreme poverty, maintaining his high and independent spirit. The satisfaction of Confucius in Yen Hui refusing, though poor, to take any official post.

7. Prince Mâu of Kung-shan, living in retirement, was not far from the Tâo.

8. Confucius and the disciples Yen Hui, Dze-lû, and Dze-kung, during the perilous time between Khän and Zhâi.

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9. Shun and the northerner Wû-kâi who refuses the throne. Thang, and Pien Sui and Wû Kwang, who both refused it.

10. The case of the brothers Po-î and Shû-khî, who refused the proffers of king Wû.


Par. 1. The visit of Confucius to the robber Kih, and interview between them.

2. Dze-kang and Mân Kâu-teh (Mr. Full of Gain-recklessly-got) on the pursuit of wealth.

3. Mr. Dissatisfied and Mr. Know-the-Mean;--on the pursuit and effect of riches.


How Kwang-dze dealt with the king of Kâo and his swordsmen, curing the king of his love of the sword-fight. The three Swords.


Confucius and the Old Fisherman;--including the story of the man who tried to run away from his shadow.


Par. 1. Lieh-dze and the effect of his over-manifestation of his attractive qualities. Failure of the warnings of his master.

2. The sad fate of Hwan of Käng, a Confucianist, who resented his father's taking part with his Mohist brother.

5. Kû Phing-man and his slaughtering the dragon.

8. Kwang-dze's rebuke or Zhâo Shang for pandering to the king of Sung, and thereby getting gifts from him.

9. Description to duke Âi of Lû of Confucius by Yen Ho as unfit to be entrusted with the government.

11. Khâo-fû the Correct, and his humility.

12. Kwang-dze's rebuke of the man who boasted of having received chariots from the king of Sung, and comparison of him to the boy who stole a pearl from under the chin of the Black Dragon when he was asleep.

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13. Kwang-dze declines the offer of official dignity. The apologue of the sacrificial ox.

14. Kwang-dze, about to die, opposes the wish of his disciples to give him a grand burial. His own description of what his burial should be.


Par. 1. The method of the Tâo down to the time of Confucius.

2. The method of Mo Tî and his immediate followers.

3, 4. The method of Mo's later followers.

5. The method of Kwan Yin and Lâo-dze.

6. The method of Kwang-dze.

7. The ways of Hui Shih, Kung-sun Lung, and other sophists.

Next: Appendix VII. The Stone Tablet in the Temple of Lâo-Dze. By Hsieh Tâo-Häng of the Sui Dynasty